(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Creative Computing Magazine (September 1978) Volume 04 Number 05"

creative 

computing 

the #1 magazine of computer applications and software 



iquipment Profiles: 
TRS-80 Level II Basic 
Exidy Sorcerer 
Bally Arcade Basic 
Tl Speak & Spell 
Merlin Video Display 
Computalker 
Polymorphic 8813 

accounts Receivable 
Systems 



teal World Games 



me Clock 
Build 

ttes 

vare for you: 
rs Game 
me 






'- 



4- 



lucation Features 



In nuuui PASCAL 






Sneak Preview— Nine New Personal Computers 




94,435.00 






V' 



S 







1 


II 



40K Bytes RAM Memory 

1,200,000 Bytes Disk Storage 

Desk with laminated plastic surface 

DOS and BASIC with random and sequential files 

TERMINAL-Upper-Lower case and full control character decoding 



I 



SOUTHWEST TECHNICAL PRODUCTS CORPORATION 

219 W. RHAPSODY 

SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS 78216 circle 122 01. .... 



Give creative coiwpafciRg to a f x-iend for 

«wift- i oniY pennies a day £/ 

r Want filter service - call ioll free 
[800-631-8112 InNJ 201-540-0445] 

BOOKS AND MERCHANDISE 



TYPE OF SUBSCRIPTION 



D Gift □ Send to me 

Gifts cannot be gift wrapped but a 
card with your name will be sent 
with each order 



Qusn 



Cat 



Descriptions 



Price 



Books sh.pp.ng charge SI 00 USA 52 00 Foreign 
NJ Residents add 5°o sales tan 
TOTAL (magazines and books) 



Term 
1 2 issues 
24 issues 
36 issues 
Lifetime 



USA 
D $ 15 
D 28 
D 40 
D 300 



Foreign 
Surface 
□ S 23 
D 44 
D 64 
D 400 



D 
D 
D 
D 



Foreign 
Air 

S 39 

76 

112 

600 



YOUR NAME AND ADDRESS i 

Name 

Address 

Citu State 

NAME TO APPEAR ON GIFT CARD = 



Zip- 



SEND SIFT SUBSCRIPTION TO = 

Name 

Address 

Cirq 



State. 



.Zip. 



PAYMENT INFORMATION 

DCash , check or "MO. enclosed 

□ Visa/BankAmericard") Card no 

a Master Charge J Hxp 

oPiease bill me (#100 billing fee will be added) 
Book orders from individuals must be prepaid. 



creative computing 

Books, Merchandise & Subscriptions 



Quan 



Cat« 



Description 



Price 



$1 USA. $2 Foreign Shipping Charge 
NJ residents add 5°/o sales tax 
Total 



Name _ 
Address 

City 

State 



Zip 



O Cash. Check or MO Enclosed 

D Visa/BankAmencard □ Master Charge 

Card No __ Exp 

a Please bill me ($1 billing fee will be added) 

Books & foreign orders must be prepaid 
Allow 8 weeks for delivery 






For faster service call toll-free 

800-631-8112 

(In NJ call 201-540-0445) 



creative coiupatiRg 

Subscriptions 

D New D Renewal D Address Change 



Term 
12 issues 
24 issues 
36 issues 
Lifetime 



USA 
D $ 15 
D 28 
D 40 
D 300 



Foreign 
Surface 

□ $ 23 

44 

□ 64 
Q 400 



Foreign 
Air 
□ S 39 
a 76 
D 112 
D 600 



Name _ 
Address 
City 
State 



Zip 



For a change of address, please attach old label | 
here. Without it. we cannot assure uninterrupted ■ 



I 



I 



D Cash, check, or MO Enclosed 

D Visa/BankAmencard D Master Charge 

Card No -— Exp 

D Please bill me ($1 billing fee will be added) 

Foreign orders must be prepaid 
Allow 8 Weeks for delivery 




Place 

Stamp 

Here 



creative computing 

Box 789-M 
Morristown, N.J. 07960 









r- 








* ? 0) 

o E 2: 




* ? e 
u E »- 






ra id D 






id id 0) 






0. £ I 






Q- «5 X 






- o 








•2 s CD 









AS |\ 




"2 s co 
£ o) 




2 o 




AS |\ 




B ^Z 




s. ° 

a ■ z 




eo). i 






«D0£ 

w 




©0)^. 






U CD C 
m I s > 

> x£ 

•- 0(() 




s on 

2 oo 






SCLI j 




toll 














/ 



\ 



Z-2D 



Model Z-2 
Up to S12K of RAM/ROM 



Modal Z-2D 

Ona or two disks 

Up to S12K of RAM/ROM 

Up to 184K of disk 




Systam Two 

Dual disk 

Up to S12K of RAM/ROM 

Up to 1S4K of disk 



Fill your computer needs 

with the industry's 

most professional microcomputers 



#1 IN RELIABILITY 

When you choose Cromemco you 
get not only the industry's finest 
microcomputers but also the indus- 
try's widest microcomputer selec- 
tion. 

What's more, you get a computer 
from the manufacturer that compu- 
ter dealers rate #1 in product re- 
liability.* 

Your range of choice includes 
our advanced System Three with 
up to four 8" disk drives. Or choose 
from the System Two and Z-2D with 
5" drives. Then for ROM-based work 
there's the Z2. Each of these com- 
puters further offers up to V2 mega- 
byte of RAM (or ROM). 

We say these are the industry's 
most professional microcomputers 
because they have outstanding fea- 
tures like these: 

• Z-80A microprocessor — oper- 
ates at 250 nanosecond cycle 
time — nearly twice the speed of 
most others. 



Up to 512 kilobytes of RAM and 
1 megabyte of disk storage 



mTITITI 



ta_ 



* Rated in The 1977 Computer Store 
Survey by Image Resources, Westlake 
Village, CA. 



Two to tour disks 
Up to 512K of RAM/ROM 
Up to 1 megabyte of disk 

30-amp power supply — more 
than adequate for your most 
demanding application. 

21 card slots to allow for un- 
paralleled system expansion us- 
ing industry-standard S-100 
cards. 

S-100 bus — don't overlook how 
important this is. It has the in- 
dustry's widest support and Cro- 
memco has professionally imple- 
mented it in a fully-shielded 
design. 



• Cromemco card support of more 
than a dozen circuit cards for 
process control, business sys- 
tems, and data acquisition in- 
cluding cards for A-D and D-A 
conversion, for interfacing daisy- 
wheel or dot-matrix printers, even 
a card for programming PROMs. 

• The industry's most professional 
software support, including 
COBOL, FORTRAN IV, 16K Disk- 
Extended BASIC, Z-80 Macro 
Assembler, Cromemco Multi- 
User Operating System — and 
more coming. 

• Rugged, professional all-metal 
construction for rack (or bench 
or floor cabinet) mounting. Cab- 
inets available. 

FOR TODAY AND TOMORROW 

Cromemco computers will meet 
your needs now and in the future 
because of their unquestioned tech- 
nical leadership, professionalism 
and enormous expandability. 

See them today at your dealer. 

There's no substitute for getting 
the best. 



r3 Cromemco 



incorporated 
Specialists in computers and peripherals 

280 BERNARDO AVE., MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94040 a (415) 964-7400 
CIRCLE 115 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



s your TRASH FLOW higher 

than your CASH FLOW? 



SOFTWARE LIBRARY 
Five diskettes are included to give you 
immediate operating and programming 
capabilities. 

DISK 1 is a master diskette with BASIC, 
MDOS, Text Editor, Assembler and 
more! 

DISK 2 has many games including LUNAR, 
CRAPS, and SPLAT. There's room left 
for you to add your own. 

DISK 3 contains a Small Business Account- 
ing package which includes Accounts 
Payable and Receivable, Inventory, a 
General Ledger, and more. 

DISKS 4 & 5 are blank so you may add 



Clean it up with 

a VERSATILE 3B 




If you're a businessman, we know how 
difficult it is to keep neat and efficient ac- 
counting records. Let our VERSATILE 
systems do it for you. You'll have a com- 
plete system built into a single cabinet, and 
a free software library on diskette to get 
your computer working for you the first 
day. $3295 Assembled and tested. 

WHAT ELSE DOES A COMPLETE 
SYSTEM NEED? 

Contact Our Distributors for 
Regional Sales and Service 

Alexander & Co., Inc. 

5518 Florin Road 

Sacramento, CA 95823 

(916)422-9070 

The Computer Store 

3801 Kirby Dr., Suite 432 

Houston, Texas 77098 

(713)522-7845 

Southeast Representative 
Scientific Sales Co. 

1 75 W.Wieuca, Suite 210 

Atlanta, GA 30342 

(404) 252-6808 

DealerApplications Available. 



5460 Fairmont Drive •Wilmington, Delaware 19808 •302-738-0933 



CIRCLE 116 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



in this issue .. . 

articles 



SIMULATION AND GAMING 

69 Computer Simulations and Problem- 
Solving 
in Probability Camp 

78 Real World Games Chadbourne 

Future managers try marketing via com- 
puter. 

104 Building a Linear Model Travers 

121 Evaluating Stock Options Hagelberg 

How to lose it slower. 



30 Origin of the Times Sign Rogers 

41 NCC, 1978 Borchers 

66 The Future is Here Today Hastings 

100 Intelligent Videodiscs Bork 

108 Freedom and the Computer Walton 

Do we still have any? 

112 Distributed Processing- 
Dynamite Mechan 

144 The Systems Approach Lees 

How to dindle a framistan. 



84 

90 

96 

102 



EDUCATION FEATURES 

Personal Computers at 

The University of Michigan Zinn 

Computers and Early Learning Banet 

A Drop-In Center Zinn 

Buying a Personal 

Computer? Zinn & North 

Some things to consider. 



ROM section 



149 PASCAL: BEGINning to END Merritt 

157 PROM Puzzle Alber 

158 Real Time Control Felsenstein 

166 Xanadu Hypertext Network Nelson 

168 Transposition Ciphers Chesson 

171 Al: Theorem Proving Karshmer 



departments 



8 Notices 
10 Input/Output 



18 Catalogue 

34 Random Ramblings 



Creative Computing magazine is published bi-monthly by Creative Computing. P O 
Box 789-M, Mornstown, NJ 07960 (Editorial office 51 Dumont Place. Mornstown NJ 
07960 Phone (201) 540-0445 ) 

Domestic Subscriptions 12 issues. $15. 24 issues $28. 36 issues S40 Send subscription 
orders or change of address (PO Form 3575) to Creative Computing. P.O. Box 789-M. 
Mornstown. N J 07960 Call 800-631-81 12 toll-free (in New Jersey call 201-540-0445) to 
order a subscription (to be charged only to a bank card) 

Second class postage paid at Mornstown, New Jersey and at additional mailing offices 

Copyright' 1978 by Creative Computing All rights reserved Reproduction prohibited 
Printed in USA 



evaluations & profiles 

33 Exidy Sorcerer Critchfield 

Newest entry in S-100 land. 

44 Poly Morphic 8813 North 

A system for the professional. 

48 Radio Shack TRS-80 Gray 

Level II Basic from Run to End. 

52 Merlin Video Interface Baker 

The wizard uncovered. 

56 Bally Arcade Zinn 

Plug-in Basic for a home video game. 

60 Speak & Spell and Spelling B Zinn 

Electronic learning aids from Tl. 

62 Computalker Speech Synthesizer North 

WAHZN, TUWZ. THRIYZ and more. 

68 Peninsula PET Cassettes North 

72 Books on Games and Simulation 
Techniques. 

82 Simulation and Gaming References 

118 SMAL/80 — A new language 



things to do-games 

64 Puzzles & Problems 

74 Jury Selection: 

A Simulation Greenberg 

88 Plotting With Gumowski Lansdown 

1 06 Short Programs 

Single vs. double subscripts, doubling. 

124 The Population Problem Ahl 

134 star Wars Game Ronayne 

140 Hex Game Murphy 

146 40 Programming Ideas Cletheroe 



business computing 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE SYSTEMS 

1 25 Scientific Research 
1 28 Altair Software 
1 30 Arkansas Systems 
1 33 Computer Data Systems 

fiction & foolishness 

114 You Can't Think in Two Places 

at Once Crowe 

116 Computer Myths Explained (#5).. Wolverton 

1 45 Marsport — 

Concluding Transmission Sonntag 

THE COVER 

The cover is an original computer graphic by Kerry Jones 
of Eufaula, Alabama. 

Foreign Subscriptions 

Great Britain: 12 issues £13. 36 issues £36 (surface postage). 12 Issues £22. 36 issues 
£63 (airmail) Orders and payment to Hazel Gordon. Plot 23. Andrew Close. Stoke 
Goldmg. Nuneaton CV13 6EL. England 

Australia R J Hoess. Electronic Concepts Ply Ltd 52-58 Clarence St SydneyNSW 
2000. Australia 

Other Countries 12 issues S23. 24 issues $44. 36 issues $64 (surface postage. US 
dollars). 12 issues $39. 24 issues $76. 36 issues $112 (airmail postage. US dollars) 
Orders to Creative Computing. P O Box 789-M. Mornstown. NJ 07960. U S A 



Publisher 


David H. Ahl 


Editor 


John Craig 


Managing Editor 


Burchenal Green 


Associate Editor 


Steve North 


Contributing Editors 


Frederick Chesson 

Margot Critchfield 

Thomas W. Dwyer 

Bill Etra 

Louise Etra 

Lee Felsenstein 

Stephen B. Gray 

Ed Hershberger 

Arthur 1. Karshmer 

Theodor Nelson 

Eben Ostby 

Trish Todd 

Stanley Viet 

Karl Zinn 


JL 


w 


Art Director £^^r 


Patrick J. Gallagher 


Advertising Manager 


Philip Ellenberg 


Administrative Manager 


Betsy Staples 


Bookkeeper 


Jeanne Tick 


Systems Analyst 


Diana Walters 


Software Development 


Stephen Neitz 

Bruce Schaefler 

Jeffrey Yuan 


Retail Marketing 


C. J. Whitaker 
Michelle Fisher 


Customer Service 


Ethel Fisher 

Nancy Hammond 

Cathy Tick 


Subscriptions 


Maryann Petrone 
Carol Cassata 
Sheryl Scalley 


Book Service 


Barbara Shupe 

Robert Fisher 

Joe Ortiz 


New England Rep. 


Jane Fletcher 


Eastern Penna. Rep 


Pat Holl 


So. Calif. Rep 


Valmere Kranak 


United Kingdom Rep. 


Hazel Gordon 



MEMBER 



Advertising Sales 

Western Stales. Texas 
lules E. Thompson 
Hearst Building. Suite Mil 
5 Third Street 
San Francisco, CA 94103 
(415) 362-8547 

Southern California 
Bert Charlton 
Mary Jo Burger 

2560 Via Tejon 

Palos Verdes Estates. CA 90274 

(213) 378-8361 

Mid-Atlantic. Northeast 
Charles Lynch 
36 Sohier Street 
Cohasset. MA 02025 
(617) 383-6136 

Elsewhere 
Philip Ellenberg 
(201) 540-0445 



This 
Publication. . . 




is Available in 
MICROFORM 

For Complete Information 

WRITE : 

University 

Microfilms 

International 



Depl. FA. 

300 Nonh Zeeb Road 

Ann Arbor. Ml 48106 

U.S.A. 



Depl. FA 
18 Bedford Row 
London, WC1R4E J 
( nglancl 



OK To Reprint 



Material in Creative Computing may be reprinted without 

permission by school and college publications, personal com- 
puting club newsletters, company house organs, and non-profit 
publications. Only original material may be reprinted; that is. you 
may not reprint a reprint Also, each reprint must carry the 
following notice on the first page of the reprint in 7-point or larger 
type (you may cut out and use this notice if you wish): 

Copyright « 1978 by Creative Computing. 

51 Dumont Place. Morristown. NJ 07960. 

Sample issue $2.00; one-year subscription $15.00 

Please send us two copies of any publication that carries 
reprinted material. Send to attention: David Ahl. 



See Sol 
qt all these 

fine 
computer 

centers 

AL: Birmingham: ICP Computerland, 
(205) 979-0707 CA: Berkeley: Byte Shop. 
(415) 845-6366 Citrus Heights: Byte 
Shop. (916) 961-2983 Costa Mesa: Orange 
County Computer Center. (714) 646-0221 
Hayward: Computerland of Hayward, (415) 
538-8080 Modesto: Computer Magic. 
(209) 527-5156 Mountain View: Digital Deli. 
(415)961-2670 San Francisco: Computer 
Center. Inc , (415) 387-2513 San Rafael: Byte 
Shop. (415) 457-9311 Walnut Creek: Byte 
Shop. (415) 933-6252 CO: Boulder: Byte 
Shop. (303) 444-6550 Denver: Byte Shop. 
(303) 399-8995 CT: Bethel: Technology 
Systems. (203) 748-6856 FL: Miami. Byte 
Shopof Miami. (305) 264-2983. GA: Atlanta: 
Atlanta Computer Mart. (404) 455-0647 
IL Lombard: Midwest Microcomputer. (312) 
495-9887 IA: Davenport: The Computer 
Store of Davenport. (319) 386-3330 MD: 
Towson: Computers. Etc. . (301) 296-0520 
Ml: East Lansing: General Computer. 
(517) 351-3260 Troy: General Computer. 
(313) 689-8321 MN: Minneapolis: 
Computer Depot. (612) 927-5601 MO: 
Florissant: Computer Country, (314) 
921-4434 NH: Nashua: Computerland/ 
Nashua. (603) 889-5238 NJ: Cherry 
Hill: Computer Emporium. (609) 667-7555. 
Iselin: The Computer Mart of New Jersey. 
(201)283-0600 NY: Endwell: The Computer 
Tree. (607)748-1223 New York: The 
Computer Mart of New York. (212) 686-7923 
White Rains: The Computer Corner. (914) 
949-3282 NC: Raleigh: ROMs N RAMs. 
(919) 781-0003 OH: Akron: Basic 
Computer Shop, (216) 867-0808 Columbus: 
The Byte Shop. (614) 486-7761. OR: 
Beaverton: Byte Shop Computer Store, (503) 
644-2486 Portland: Byte Shop Computer 
Store. (503) 223-3496 Salem: Computer 
Pathways. (503) 399-0534 PA: King 
of Prussia: Computer Mart. (215) 265-2580 
Rl: Warwick: Computer Fbwer. Inc . 
(401 ) 738-4477 SC: Columbia: The Byte 
Shop. (803) 771-7824 TN: Kingsport: 
Microproducts & Systems. (615) 245-8081 
TX: Arlington: Computer Port. (817)469-1502. 
Arlington: Micro Store. (817) 461-6081. 
Houston: Interactive Computers. (713) 
486-0291 Houston: Interactive Computers. 
(713) 772-5257 Richardson: Micro 
Store. (214) 231-1096 UT: Salt Lake City: 
Home Computer. (801 ) 484-6502. VA: 
McLean: The Computer Systems Store. (703) 
821-8333 WA: Bellevue: Byte Shop 
Computer Store. (206) 746-0651 Seattle: 
Byte Shop of Seattle. (206) 622-7196 
Wl: Madison: The Madison Computer Store. 
(608) 255-5552. Milwaukee: The Milwaukee 
Computer Store. (414) 259-9140 
CANADA: London, Ontario: The Computer 
Circuit Ltd . (519)672-9370 Vancouver. B.C.: 
Basic Computer Group Ltd . (604) 736-7474 
AUSTRALIA: Victoria: Sontron Instruments. 
(03) 569 7867 PHILIPPINES: San Juan, 
Metro Manila: Integrated Computer Systems. 
Inc . 784-071 JAPAN: Tokyo: Moon 
base Shinjuku. (03) 375-5078 GREECE: 
Athens: NKA Attikos. Inc . 360-7542. 
UNITED KINGDOM: Huntingdon. England: 
Comart. Ltd. (0480)215005 MEXICO Mexico 
City: Industrias Digitales. 905-524-5132. 
VENEZUELA: Caracas: Componentes Y 
Circuitos Electronicos. 355-591 SWEDEN: 
Stockholm: Wernor Elektronik. (0)8-717-6288 

Processor technology 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 







Soli The small computer that won't 
fence you in. 



A lot of semantic nonsense is 
being tossed around by some of the 
makers of so-called "personal" 
computers. To hear them tell it, an 
investment of a few hundred 
dollars will give you a computer 
to run your small business, do 
financial planning, analyze data in 
the engineering or scientific 
lab — and when day is done play 
games by the hour. 

Well, the game part is true. 
The rest of the claims should be 
taken with a grain of salt. Only 
a few personal computers have the 
capacity to grow and handle 
meaningful work in a very real 
sense. And they don't come 
for peanuts. 

Remember, there's no 
free lunch. 

So before you buy any personal 
computer, consider Sol? It 
costs more at the start but less in 
the end. It can grow with your 
ability to use it. Sol is not cheap. 
But it's not a delusion either. 

Sol small computers are at the 
very top of the microcomputer 



spectrum. They stand up to the 
capabilities of mini systems 
costing four times as much. 

No wonder we call it the 
serious solution to the small 
computer question. 

Sol is the small computer 
system to do the general ledger and 
the payroll. Solve engineering 
and scientific problems. Use it for 
word processing. Program it 
for computer aided instruction. 
Use it anywhere you want 
versatile computer power! 

Build computer power 
with our software. 

At Processor Technology we've 
tailored a group of high-level 
languages, an assembler and other 
packages to suit the wide 
capabilities of our hardware. 

Our exclusive Extended BASIC 
is a fine example. This BASIC 
features complete matrix functions. 
It comes on cassette or in a 
disk version which has random as 
well as sequential files. 

Processor Technology FORTRAN 
is similar to FORTRAN IV and 

CIRCLE 12S ON READER SERVICE CARD 



has a full set of extensions designed 
for the "stand alone" computer 
environment. 

Our PILOT is an excellent text 
oriented language for teachers. 

Sold and serviced only by the 
best dealers. 

Sol Systems are sold and serviced 
by an outstanding group of 
conveniently located computer 
stores throughout the U.S. 
and Canada. 

For more information contact 
your nearest dealer in the 
adjacent list. Or write Department 
B, Processor Technology, 
7100 Johnson Industrial Drive, 
Pleasanton, CA 94566. Phone 
(415) 829-2600. 

In sum, all small computers 
are not created equal 
and Sol users know it to their 
everlasting satisfaction. 



ProcessorTechnology 



DYN ABYTE COMPUTERS 

ARE ALL BUSINESS 

INSIDE AND OUT. 



When we designed our new small 
business computers, we meant busi- 
ness. 

As basic as that seems, it is unique. 
Just about every other microcomputer 
being sold as a small business system 
today was originally designed as a kit 
for hobbyists. 

Every design decision was made 
with quality and reliability in mind. The 
result is dependable performance and a 
solid appearance for business, profes- 
sional and scientific applications. 

FIRST SMALL SYSTEM WITH 
BIG SYSTEM STORAGE 

Many applications handle large 
quantities of information, so the DB8/2 
uses two quad density 5-inch disk 
drives with our exclusive Dual Density 
Disk Controller for up to 1 .2 megabytes 
of formatted storage. That's more 
capacity than two single density 8-inch 
drives. 

If you need more storage, our 
DB8/4 has two 8-inch drives with up to 
2 megabytes capacity, more than any 
other dual floppy disk system on the 
market. 

OUR SOFTWARE IS 
BIG ON BUSINESS 

Dynabyte helps you get down to 
business immediately. The DB8/2 is the 
first microcomputer to offer enough 
storage capacity on 5-inch drives to 
fully utilize CP/M,* the most widely 
accepted disk operating system. We 
also supply and support BASIC, FOR- 

• t'P M in a milrnwfc of Digital Rerfaivh 



TRAN and COBOL programming lan- 
guages. Our applications packages in- 
clude general ledger, accounts receiv- 
able, word processing and many other 
CP/M compatible programs. 

Reliability is a big consideration in 
buying a business computer, so we built 
it in. Our edge connectors meet military 
specifications, the toughest electronics 
manufacturing standard. Our regulated 
power supply is designed to meet U.L. 
standards, which means the entire sys- 
tem runs cool and dependable. And our 
cast aluminum enclosures are rugged as 
well as attractive. 

AND THE BIGGEST 
THING OF ALL 

Customer support. Our support 
starts at the factory with testing and 
burn-in programs that assure the entire 
integrated system is reliable prior to 
shipment. Our completely modular de- 
sign allows continuing support in the 
field. We maintain a bonded inventory 
of all sub-system modules which means 
we can deliver replacement sub- 
assemblies overnight nearly anywhere 
in the continental U.S. 

Dynabyte built in little things, too. 
Like a fully-populated 12-slot 
backplane, switched AC outlets for ac- 
cessories, an option for European 
power, quiet whisper fans with long-life 
metal construction, lighted indicator 
switches for Power On and Halt, a 
shielded enclosure to protect disk drives 
from electro-mechanical interference, 
and a fully enclosed power supply for 



operator safety. 

Since we didn't cut corners in de- 
sign, the price/performance ratios of 
our systems make good business sense. 

THE INSIDE FACTS 

The DB8/2 Computer System in- 
cludes two 5-inch disk drives either 
single or double sided for up to 1.2 
megabytes of mass storage; a 4MHz 
Z-80 processing module with one 
parallel and two serial ports, an 
EPROM programmer and up to 4k 
ROM; 32k of RAM, a 12-slot fully- 
populated backplane; our exclusive 
Dual Density Disk Controller, and 
CP/M. 

The DB8/1 Computer includes a 
4MHz Z-80 processor with one parallel 
and two serial I/O ports, an EPROM 
programmer and up to 4k of ROM; 32k 
RAM, and a 12-slot fully-populated 
backplane. 

The DB8/4 Disk System, designed 
to be the mass storage companion to the 
DB8/1 , includes two 8-inch floppy disk 
drives in either single or double sided 
configuration for up to 2 megabytes of 
mass storage, our Dual Density Disk 
Controller, and CP/M. 

All three units will be available in 
rack mount models. 

For a descriptive brochure and 
price list, call or write Dynabyte, 1005 
Elwell Court, Palo Alto. CA 94303. 
Phone (415) 965-1010. 

Or better yet, see your local dealer. 



YOU CAN DEPEND ON IT. 



CIRCLE 168 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



...notices... 



National Student 
Programming 

Championship 

The Second Annual National ACM/UPE 
Student Programming Championship was 
held Wednesday, Feb. 22. 1978 in connec- 
tion with the Computer Science Conference 
at the Plaza Hotel in Detroit, Michigan. This 
championship contest consisted of 24 
teams of four student programmers com- 
peting to program the solution of four 
problems in the minimal time and using the 
fewest number of computer runs. The 
national championship team is 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
whose team members are Abe Lederman, 
Larry Demar. Curt Sanford and Dan De- 
Ramo. The second place went to New York 
University, with Michigan State as the third 
place winner and Purdue University taking 
fourth place. 

The teams were given four problems to 
solve using ANSI. FORTRAN. These 
problems included integer addition of up to 
forty digits, the simulation of a virtual brick 
wall to determine the number of bricks of 
various types that would be needed in its 
construction, the determination of a securi- 
ty code algorithm with check digits, and the 
simulation of a knight's tour on a 
chessboard. The winners were determined 
by penalty points for the number of runs and 
the elapsed time taken for the completion of 
each problem. 

The Third National Student Programming 
Championship will take place in Dayton, 
Ohio in connection with the 1979 Computer 
Science Conference. The 1979 Program- 
ming Championship will be coordinated by 
John Metzner, Computer Science Depart- 
ment, The University of Missouri at Rolla, 
Rolla, Missouri 65401. Regional qualifying 
contests are again planned for the Fall '78 in 
which all interested students are en- 
couraged to participate. These contests will 
be coordinated through the regional 
representatives who should be contacted 
concerning respective plans for each 
region. 

Publication Frequency 

You may have noticed on some recent 
Creative Computing subscription notices 
the price of $15 for 12 issues. This reflects 
the fact that early in 1979, Creative Com- 
puting will move to a monthly frequency. 

Current subscribers will receive the 
appropriate number of total issues for the 
balance of their subscriptions. For example, 
a 3-year subscription at the old $21 rate will 
receive 18 total issues (bi-monthly through 
1978 and monthly thereafter). 
The new subscription rates are as follows: 
Foreign Foreign 
USA Surface Air 
1-Year $ 15 $ 23 $ 39 

2-Year $ 28 $ 44 $ 52 

3-Year $ 40 $ 56 $ 64 

Lifetime $300 $400 $600 



Computer Literacy 

A two-year study of Computer Literacy is 
being conducted by the Minnesota 
Educational Computing Consortium 
(MECC) under a grant from the education 
division of the National Science Founda- 
tion. It is intended that the study results will 
provide valuable information regarding the 
ways elementary and secondary teachers 
are using computers, or teaching about 
computers, in their classrooms. The effects 
of these various ways upon student 
knowledge of. attitudes toward, and ability 
to use computers are of particular interest. 
As a result of the study, computer literacy 
instructional materials and measurement 
instruments will be developed. 

To aid in the development of computer 
literacy materials and tests, it would be 
helpful if persons who are doing work in the 
computer literacy area would send sample 
course/unit descriptions, objectives, 
curriculum materials and measurement 
instruments to the Computer Literacy 
Project, MECC, 2520 Broadway Drive, St. 
Paul. MN 55113 (1-612-376-1145). For 
further information contact Dan Klassen or 
Tom Hansen at the above address. 

tr tf %C^C^f"^C ^C <af %T %T <aC 

APL79 Conference 

A conference devoted to all aspects of the 
programming language APL will be held in 
Rochester, N.Y., May 30-June 1, 1979. 

APL79 is seeking papers in the traditional 
areas, such as APL applications, language 
features, implementations, and system 
issues. In addition, papers that put various 
aspects of APL in a broader perspective are 
welcome. Examples would be papers that 
deal with the interfaces between APL and 
other hardware or software systems, or with 
the relations to LISP and other computer 
languages. 

Authors should submit abstracts and 
papers to the Chairman of the Program 
Committee, Paul Penfield, Jr., Room 38- 
401, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139. 
Abstracts are due by September 1, 1978, 
and full papers by November 15, 1978. 
Authors may also submit abstracts using 
major APL time-sharing services. Each 
service that is participating in this submis- 
sion procedure has a workspace named 1 
APL79 in the public library with details. 



Our Face is Red Dept. 

The poems, Them ADP in the Jul/Aug 
1978 issue were written by William J. 
Wilson, not Mr. Wilton as noted in the 
article. 



TSC's address was not included in the 
article on Technical Systems Consultants' 
word-processing software (Jul/Aug 1978, p 
123). TSC is at P.O. Box 2574. West 
Lafayette, IN 47906.(317) 423-4565. 



Call For Software 



Creative Computing is seeking 
recreational, educational and personal 
computing software to be marketed by 
Creative Computing Software. 

Specifically, we are seeking software for 
the following computers: 

• Apple II 

• Radio Shack TRS-80 

• Commodore PET 

We are seeking games and other 
programs which take advantage of the 
graphics and other capabilities of the 
system. Programs may be written in BASIC 
or machine language. 

We expect to put between five and fifteen 
games or educational programs on each 
tape cassette and sell the cassette for a retail 
price of $7.95. Authors will be paid a royalty 
between 10% and 15% of the retail price. (A 
number of other companies have been 
offering higher royalty percentages — up to 
50% — and plan to charge more for tapes. 
Why then, work with Creative Computing? 
Simply because we expect that by offering 
the customer much more value per dollar 
than the competition, we will sell 
significantly more tapes and. therefore, 
both we and the author will make out better 
overall.) 

We do not want programs that will require 
any hand-holding or support to the user (no 
payroll or general-ledger programs please), 
but we would like things like mailing lists. 
cataloging, text editing, statistical 
calculations, etc. On programs of this sort 
and on very large games, we would expect 
to market perhaps only one or two programs 
per tape, possibly at a higher price than 
$7.95. 

Programs should obviously be as bug- 
free as possible, should be self- 
documenting and have user aids imbedded 
in them. We are aiming at a mass market of 
users where "if anything can go wrong, it 
will." 

Please submit your tape cassette along 
with any running instructions and 3 first- 
class (15C) stamps for return of the cassette 
to: 

Creative Computing Software 
P.O. Box 789-M 
Morristown, NJ 07960 

Please allow 12to 16 weeks for evaluation 
and response. 

If you don't have a PET, TRS-80, or Apple 
II, Creative Computing is still interested in 
your BASIC software, for possible publica- 
tion in Creative Computing Magazine, 
BASIC Games Volume 2, or conversion by 
our in-house programming staff for one of 
the above-mentioned machines. (We are 
also looking into publication of a "super 
games book "of very large BASIC programs, 
such as a very sophisticated Star Trek, 
Kingdom, etc. Please get in touch with us if 
you have something! It does not have to run 
on a micro.) Remember, we're looking for 
original games and applications. Please 
send a complete listing, a sample run or two, 
program description, papertape, and an 
SASE, to Creative Computing. PO Box 789- 
M, Morristown. NJ 07960. 



The creative mind is seldom bored. 
— Gordon A. MacLeod 



8 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



MaaWiVairai 



CSC's multi-family Logic Probe 1 with memory. 
Already the industry standard for performance and value. 



This compact, enormously versatile test and trouble- 
shooting aid is like a pencil-sized scope at your fingertips 
Simply connect its clip leads to the circuit's power supply, 
set a switch to the proper logic family.and touch the probe 
tip to the node under test. 

LP- 1 s unique circuitry does the work of a level detector, 
pulse detector, pulse stretcher and memory. HI LED 
indicates logic " 1 ," LO LED, logic "0," and all pulse 
transitions— positive and negative, as nar- 
row as 50 nanoseconds — are stretched to 
1 /3 second and displayed on the PULSE 
LED. One-shot, low-rep-rate narrow pulses 
— nearly impossible to see even with a fast 
scope, are easily detectable and visible And 
you can indefinitely store single-shot as 
well as low-rep-rate events. 

At frequencies above 1 MHz, there is 
an additional indication with unsymmetncal 
pulses: duty cycles of less than 30%, light the 
LO LED; over 70%, the HI LED In all modes 
and circuit states, LP-1's high input 
impedance virtually eliminates loading 
problems. The unit also features overvoltage 
and reverse-polarity protection, inter- 
changeable probe tips, cables and 
other optional accessories. 

Order today. Call 
203-624-3103 (East Coast) 
or415-421-8872(West 
Coast) : 9 a.m. -5 p.m. local 
time Major credit cards 
accepted Or see your CSC 
dealer. Prices slightly higher 
outside USA. 









Logic Family Switch 

TTL/DTL or CMOS matches 
Logic "1" and 0' levels CMOS 
position also compatible with 
HTL HiNIL and MOS logic 

PULSE/MEMORY Switch & 

LED- PULSE position detects 
and stretches pulses as nar- 
row as 50 nanoseconds to 1 3 
sec . MEMORY stores single- 
shot and low-rep-rate events 
indefinitely. HI/LO LED s remain active 
HI/LO LED't -Display level (Hl-logic i 
LO-logic "0 ") of signal activity 
Interchangeable probe tips — Straight tip — 
supplied, optional alligator clip and insulated 
quick-connecting clip available Optional input 
ground lead 

Plug-In leads — 36 supplied, with alligator 
clips Virtually any length leads 
may be connected via phono jack -^ 

•Mfr.'s tec. resale. Slightly higher yS 
outside U.S. 

• 1978 Continental 
Specialties Corporation 




Specifications 
Input impedance: 100.00051 
Thresholds (switch selectable) DTL/TTL HTL/CMOS 

logic 1 thresholds (HI-LED) 2 25V- 15V 70% Vcc • 10" 
logic thresholds (LO-LED) 080V • 10V 30% Vcc t 10° 
Mm detectable pulse width 50nsec guaranteed 
Pulse detector (PULSE LED) in PULSE position of PULSE/ 

MEMORY switch, 'i-sec pulse stretcher makes high- 
speed pulse train or single events ( + or - transitions) 
visible in MEMORY position, first transition lights and 

latches LED 

Operating temperature 50*C 
Physical size (I x w x d) 
58x10x0 7(147x25 4x 17 8mm) 

Weight 3oz ( 085Kg) 

Power leads removable 36 (914mm) with color- 
coded insulated clips others available 
Input protection overload. • 500V continuous. 
1 1 7 VAC for less than 1 5 sec . reverse polarity. 50V. 
power leads reverse-voltage protected 



111 111 



COMT»«NTAL SPtCIALTfS CORPORATION 




70 Fulton Terrace. Box 1492, New Haven, Ct 06509 

203-624-3103 TWX 710-465-1227 

WEST COAST 351 California Sf , San Francisco. CA 94104. 

415-421-8872 TWX 910-372-7992 

GREAT BRITAIN CSC UK LTD 

Spur Road. North Feltham Trading Estate. 

Feltham Middlesex, England 

01-890-0782 Int'l Telex 851-881-3669 

See us at WESC0N Booth Numbers 

504-510 for free samples and live 

demonstrations 

CIRCLE 106 




n 



put... input/output... i 







Does Anyone know? 

Dear Editor: 

This summer I finished 6th grade, and in math I was in a 
special computer group. Then my father and I made a computer. 
He showed me mainly how to use it, also he showed me the 
PDP-IO and how to use that. But I have some questions to ask 
you about making games. Like, if I rewrote someone elses 
program, could I call it mine? Or does a program have to be 
written totally by one person? And if I converted from one kind 
of basic to another would it be my program? Thanks very much. 

Mark Vriesenga 
106 Wellington Rd. 
DeWitt, NY 13214 

Mark — We don't know the answers ourselves. The legal status 
of computer software is ambiguous. However, our opinion is 
thai the original inventor and programmer of a game deserves 
credit for his work. If you rewrite the program, then it's your 
program, hut still not your idea. Obviously converting a 
program from one BASIC to another does not constitute much 
of a change so it would be rather farfetched to call the program 
your own. 



An Odd Event 

Dear Editor: 

In regard to the illustration which appeared on page 143 of the 
July- August 1978 issue of your fine magazine, you may assure 
your readers that 2 M is indeed an even number. 
2 M - 18.446.744.073.709.551.616 

Of course, the number actually printed is 2 M -I, the largest 
integer which can be represented on a 64 bit machine using one 
word. I suppose the habit of subtracting I from powers of 2 is 
one of the effects of working with computers every day, not 
unlike going out for a byte to eat or standing on a corner waiting 
for an S-IOO bus to arrive. 

Stephen Goodney 

Mathematics Department 

Marymount College 

Tarrytown, NY 10591 



Comment on Idols 

Dear Editor: 

Robert Mueller's article. Idols of Computer Art, (May June 
1978) is a timely catalog of the dead ends that were bound to 
surface, what with graphic developments as rapid as they are in 
the computer field. There is hardly a professional or academic 
meeting of computer societies that does not have a computer art 
competition or exhibit. At these showcases one looks in vain for 
relief from those cliches Mueller has described and illustrated. 
Everything has been done (and done to death) already; in less 
than ten years. 

However, a neglected point should be mentioned to lend 
further credence to Mueller's thesis that: "Whatever the 
technical route, we are on the verge of realizing an entirely new 
artistic mode." 

For example, I am using a computer graphic system which 
can plot any one of the illustrations that Mueller selected for his 
article, in less time than a second. Probably in less than a minute 
any of those drawings can be executed not once but sixty or a 
hundred times; each one with some small change of one or many 
parameters that define the image. In only a short time I can 
produce tens of thousands of drawings on motion picture film- 
each one with its minute stepping variation. Plainly, in fact, the 
computer is a superb kinetic art tool for film or video. 
Spatiotemporal figuration is its domain: aural or visual. Much 
action can be generated in real-time today. 

If Mueller is bored to death with lissajous figures (as well he 
might be) let him play any one chord, say in CtfMinor, and note 
to himself what a bore a sustained chord (without past or future) 
can be. Then let him hear what any of a dozen Baroque 
composers were able to do with that same chord as one step of a 
sequence of melodic or harmonic motion. Composers of that era 
were just beginning to explore a vast new world of musical 
resources and refined instrumentation. It is such an era —once 
again to compare with the Baroque flowering of music - that 
we are on the verge of realizing. Or so I believe. "Idols of 
computer art" notwithstanding. 

Art in America, where the article originally appeared, carried 
still another comment on the article from Harold Cohen in their 
Jul Aug 1972 issue. 

John Whitney 

17298 Avenida de la Herradura 

Pacific Palisades, CA 90272 



Publish or Perish 

Dear Editor: 

You and your readers might be interested to note a peculiar 
phenomenon in the "publish or perish" world of university 
professorial authorship. It seems that an author who publishes 
with Creative Computing is guaranteed something like a 100-to- 
I edge in his her subject's acceptance, popularity, coverage, etc. 
My article "A Comparison of Sorts" (Nov-Dec 1976. pp. 76- 
80), has prompted correspondence from five countries in 
Europe, Israel, and Australia, not to mention over a dozen US 
readers. It has been cited in other journals, and most important, 
its message, use the Shell-Mctzner sort, has been enthusias- 
tically heeded by many readers. 

A note on Hart'ssort coding (Jan-Fcb 1978, pp. 96-101) with 
reference to Pat Fitzgerald's letter (Did you get that address? 
New Zealand, no less!) p. 10, Jul-Aug 1978: Hart's sort is a 
modified binary tree sort in the same family as the Quicksort, 
Heapsort. Shcll-Metzner, and Tournament varieties. But it 
suffers two overwhelming disadvantages over these: ( I ) It is 
slower, and (2) it uses more memory array space(2N + log2 N vs 
N + log 2 N for Quick, Heap, and Tournament, or just N for 
Shell-Metzner). Dennis Church, who compared the Bubble sort 

10 CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Two Bytes Are Better Than One 







SUPER 
STARTER 



lltilll! < || »*• 

immi '*• • 

i>mi:i' i' 

mi <• 



TMS 9900 
16BIT 

MICROCOMPUTER 

SS-16 




SERIES 



FLOPPY 
DISK 




DRIVES 




COLOR 
VIDEO 

M*fti*i*l! 

BOARD 



"^800 BAUCT 
.DIGITAL 




^CASSETTE 



IE FULL POWER OF THE 1 6-BIT TMS 9900 MICROPROCESSOR IS NOW AVAILABLE WITH THE UNIQUE COMBINA- 
)N OF RELIABLE HARDWARD AND FAST, EASY TO USE SOFTWARE IN THE TECHNICO SS-1 6. WITH MINICOMPUTER 
: RFORMANCE THE TECHNICO 1 6-BIT MICROCOMPUTERS ARE AVAILABLE FROM THE SINGLE BOARD SUPER 
rARTER SYSTEM AT UNDER $400 TO THE FULL SS-1 6 WITH UP TO 65K BYTES OF MEMORY, MINI-FLOPPY OR 
ILL FLOPPY DISKS, A 4800 BAUD DIGITAL CASSETTE, 64 COLOR VIDEO BOARD OPTION, RS232 AND 20 
i CURRENT LOOP ALL COMBINED WITH ONE OF THE INDUSTRYS FASTEST BASICS AND A FULL ASSEMBLER, EDITOR, 
JKING LOADER PACKAGE. SYSTEMS ARE AVAILABLE COMPLETELY ASSEMBLED AND TESTED OR IN UNASSEMBLED 
EC-KIT™ FORM. EXPLICIT MANUAL INCLUDED OR AVAILABLE SEPARATELY AT $35. TO LEARN MORE.. JUST TEAR OFF A 
ECE OF THIS AD AND RETURN TO TECHNICO OR CALL OUR HOTLINE 1 -8CXMB38-2893 OR YOUR LOCAL DEALER 
EUROPEAN MODELS AVAILABLE THROUGH TECHNICO INTERNATIONAL 




TECHNICO 

INCORPORATED 



9130 RED BRANCH RD 

COLUMBIA. MD 21045 

PHONE 301-596-4100 




TECHNICO 

INTERNATIONAL 



2442 N LEXINGTON ST 

ARLINGTON. VA 22207 

PHONE 703-538 4000 

TELEX 64100 SOLIDSTA 



DOMESTIC SALES SALES OUTSIDE CONTINENTAL U.S. 

HILADELPHIA PER COMP 78 SHOW - BOOTHS 639 & 641' 

CIRCLE 109 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



put... input/output... in 

and the Hart-Butterfly sort (Jul- Aug 1978, p. 12) might do well 
to try the Shell-Metzner. 

A variant of Hart's coding could produce the very well known 
Binary Sequence Search Tree, or BSST, structure. What makes 
this last one so great is that at the cost of a little more memory 
(3N vs 2N + log2 N), sorting speed is much greater, and the 
structure can be adapted to files very easily, including insertion 
and deletion of data. Interested readers may see D. E. Knuth, 
The Art of Computer Programming, Vol. 1, pp. 305-406 for the 
general algorithms, or Grillo and Robertson, Microcomputer 
Systems (WC Brown, Publishers, to be in print late 1978) for 
both the algorithms and working BASIC code. 

Finally, please let Thaddeus L. Kowalski (Jul-Aug 1978, p. 
10), President of the Polish American Congress, know that the 
Poles have the last word on all sorting debates. Wlodzimierz 
Dobosiewicz of Warsaw University published an article in 
Information Processing Letters 7, No. I (Jan 1978, pp. 1-6) in 
which he describes his Distributive Partitioning Sort. This is the 
first significant breakthrough in sorting algorithms since the 
Quicksort and Heapsort were described IS years ago. You could 
say (be sure to duck) that he stands so tall among his 
countrymen that he is known as the 10-foot Pole. 

John P. Grillo 

Computing Sciences 

College of Business, 

Western Illinois University 

Macomb, IL 61455 



What does B 
4.001 by 306. 
answer. 


My Friend, Big Foot 

g Foot wear? On your calculator, multiply 
Subtract 209. Multiply by 3. Turn over for 

Lou Elkins 
St. Louis, Missouri 



Accumulator 

Dear Editor: 

While cleaning up my room in preparation to leave for school 

next fall, I came up with some impressive figures. In the twoand 
two-thirds year that 1 have been personally involved in 
programming, the following items have come into my posses- 
sion: 

Flowcharting templates (17) 
Magnetic tape (I = 2000 ft.) 
Calculator (TI SR-5IA) 
Magnetic card envelopes (7) 
Cardiac computer ( I ) 
Teletype-paper metal "end caps" (50) 
TI PC- 1 00 listing (I) 

Total: 5 lb 

Paper tape 4 lb 

Empty Teletype paper tubes (42) 4 lb 

Coding forms 15 1b 

Advertising 19 lb 

Math & puzzle books (12) 20 1b 

Computer-related magazines 40 lb 

Teletype paper 40 lb 

Manuals (43) 56 lb 

Computer-related books & texts (53) 60 lb 

80-colume punched cards (approx. 19,000) 95 lb 

132-column printer paper (4 boxes) 310 lb 

Total: 668 lb 

= 1/3 ton 



Having no outside references, I cannot say whether this 
amount of material is above or below the norm. My final 
thought, though, is: I have acted as an accumulator long enough 
... it's time now for the big dump. 

Ellery Chan 

1512 Frederic St. 

Eau Claire, Wl 54701 



TARBELL 

CASSETTE BASIC 

only $36.00 

Includes most features of ALTAI R* Extended 

BASIC. 

PLUS these added features: 

• Assignment of I/O 

• Alphanumeric line labels 

• Unlimited length of strings 

• Unlimited length of variable names 

• Number system 10 digits BCD integer or floating point 

• Procedures with independent variables 
Tarbell BASIC occupies 18K of RAM. Source 
available on cassette, CP/M**disk and printout, 
reasonably priced. Comes with manual. 

•ALTAIR is a Trademark/Tradename of MITS, Inc. 
••CP/M is a Trademark/Tradename of Digital Research 



950 DOVLEN PLACE. SUITE B 

CARSON, CA 90746 

(213) 538-4251 »(213) 538-2254 




Kudos and Poem 

Dear Editor: 

I am a student at Stephen A. Ilalsey JUS 157 in Forest 
Hills. \.Y. Last year, as the first pri/e winner in the school's 
annual Computer Programming Contest. I was awarded a one- 
year subscription to "Creative Computing") Mv program was a 
computerized basketball game.) 

Your maga/ine has been a valuable aid to me when I write 
programs (especially BASIC), and is a humorous counterpart to 
Computer class. 

I am enclosing a poem that I have written lor the Computer 
Page ol our Class Yearbook. 

Mark Movsesian 

69-09 108th St. 

Forest Mills. NY 11375 

The Programmer's Prayer 

(With apologies to Alfred Noyes lor this parody on his 
"Journey by Night") 

Thou who never makes ERRORS, lor I lion art the screen. 
I hou whose unending language knows every machine. 
Thou whose endless programs are LOAD-cd with power. 
Look down on us gently who program this hour. 

Thou whose cards are neatly punched - and all verified. 
I lion alone who can tell why the printout hath lied. 
Thou whose mcm'ry knows not ol the word DEBUGGING 
To Thee, Lord, we beseech. "Keep the plug in!" 

Thou whose automatic "SAVE" must never he tested. 
Thou whose well-written I OOPS have alwayx been MS III). 
Though due to our I RRORS. our rival* ma) glower. 
Look down on us gently who program this hour. 



CIRCLE 107 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



12 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Radio Shack's personal computer s ystem? 
This ad just might make you a believer. 



You can't beat 
the 4K system at 

$599 



. . or the step-up 
16K system at 

$899 



... or the fast 
4K/printer system at 

$1198 



...or the Level- 1 1 

16K/printer/disk 

system at 

$2385 




TRS-80 "Breakthru" 

• TRS-80 microcomputer 

• 12" video display 

• Professional keyboard 

• Power supply 

• Cassette tape recorder 

• 4K RAM, Level-I BASIC 

• 232-page manual 

• 2 game cassettes 




TRS-80 "Sweet 16" 

• Above, except 
includes 16K RAM 




TRS-80 "Educator" 

• Above, except 
includes 4K RAM and 
screen printer 




TRS-80 "Professional" 

• Above, except 
includes 16K RAM, 
disk drive, expansion 
interface, and 
Level-ll BASIC 



So how are you gonna beat the system that 
does this much for this little? No way! 



...The amazing new 

32K/Level-M/2-disk/ 

line printer system at 

$3874 




TRS-80 "Business" 

• Above, except 
includes 32K RAM, 
line printer, 
and two disk drives 



Get details and order now at Radio Shack stores and dealers in the USA. Canada. UK. Australia. Belgium. Holland. France. Japan. 
Write Radio Shack. Division ot Tandy Corporation. Dept. C-041 . 1400 One Tandy Center. Fort Worth. Texas 76102. Ask for Catalog TRS-80. 



Prices May Vary at Individual Stores and Dealers 



Radio /haek 

The biggest name in little computers " 



put. . . input/output ... in 

International Society for the 
Preservation of Wumpii 

To: Editor. Datama/ing Maga/ine. 

The Wrong Side of The River. York. APL. 

Dear Dastardly Sir: 

I wish to bring to your attention the advertisement that you 
carried in your April I. 1978 issue of Datamazing promising 
"High-pay Careers in Wumpus Control." 

Though the advertisement indicates that Wumpus Control is 
a glamorous job. actually it is a brutal menial task, where 
THOUSANDS of poor, "defenseless baby Wumpii are killed 
each evening by brutal Hackers wielding Crooked Arrows!! The 
sole purpose of this murderous activity is the pleasure and 
enjoyment of the bit-pushing addict taking a byte of KILLER 
LUST FRENZY!! 

After the carnage is complete, the remains of the slaughter is 
converted into recycled random core bits, and the Nasty 
Wumpus Hunters revert, like Werewolves, to ordinary harmless 
Programmers. 

I beg of you. plead with you. and humbly request that you No 
Longer Advertise for the promoters of this cruel and lowly 
business. In fact, if you would like some of our free literature 
describing the delicate ecologies of imaginary dodecahedrons, 
and the critical role of the lovable Wumpus in maintaining the 
population balance of SupcrBats. we will be happy to send you 
some with a souviner Bottomless Pit. 

Thank you for your attention to this important matter. May I 
suggest to you our Guide and Motto: 

"If you enjoy it. it must be wrong." 

Boy Yrogerg, President 

Cray-1 Chips 

Dear Editor: 

Your Datama/ing parody in the Mar-Apr 1978 issue was 
priceless, not to mention the rest of the issue. Unfortunately 
unless your readers are familiar to some degree with the big- 
business world they might not be able to appreciate it all. 

1 personally would be interested in some Cray- 1 chips. At the 
low price of S.05 I could use them for the CPU-bound task of 
determining whether it's dark enough outside to require turning 
on a light. 

I spoke to our system-support expert re the 370-to-8(K)8 
conversion kit. explaining the power of the 8008. He wasn't 
interested because it can't handle the instructions on the yellow 
card, and so we'll have to suffer with our 370. He was interested 
in the 370 to S-100 bus adapter so we could add on more 
memory at reasonable prices though, when it becomes available. 

Keep up the great work. 

Ross Cooling 

299 Forman Ave. Apt. 14 

Toronto. Ontario 

Canada M4S 2S6 

Ed. Note: We are taking nominations now for the victim of 
our next April fools parody issues. Suggestions received so far 
include Vogue. The National Enquirer, Ms. and Humpty 
Dumpty. — DHA 



"The mind has a great wide door, through 
which gossip and rumors can rush in with 
ease; but a new idea can hardly get in without 
a set of burglar tools." 

Anon. 



Another Reply to "IBM Hater" 

Dear Editor: 

Reading "IBM Hater's" letter in Jan-Feb brought back 
memories of "an amazing computer system*' that I was 
acquainted with. Even before reaching the identification of the 
machine in the article. I knew that it was referring to the IBM 
1 130 computer system. 

At the time it was first placed on the market the 1 1 30 was truly 
an ama/ing system for the price. Ask any newspaper which used 
an 1 130 for their first automated typesetting system, for many 
of them it was also their first system for business applications. 

"Mr. IBM Hater" is comparing computer technology of ten 
years ago. with today's. Which is like comparing a Model A 
Ford with today's automobiles. He probabl) never saw a 
computer without all the modern-da) bells and whistles. I don't 
think I would qualify as an "IBM lover", as I no longer have 
access to anything produced bv "Big Blue" except an occasional 
use ol a Select ric typewriter, but I think that the constant sniping 
at IBM by people gets to be a little ridiculous. I he) must have 
had something good and done something right to be the world- 
wide leader in the computer industry. 

By the way. if anyone is in a position to want to junk an 1 130. 
and would like a tax-writeoff at the same time. I'm treasurer of a 
non-profit homeowner's association in Art7.ona.and would love 
to have one of the old pieces of iron donated to do our various 
bookkeeping functions. 

Jim Redpath. Treasurer 

Hillcrest Bay Homeowners Assn. 

Lot 84 Hillcrest Ba\ 

Parker. AZ 85344 



Bio-Space-Time Music Synthesizer 

Dear Creative Computing. Peace and Harmony. 

Since the time of Pythagoras and probably before, the world 
has been waiting for a "tune in with Nature biomusic-" 
synthesizer. My bio-space-time music synthesizer (the \S: 
Sanskrit nadam sltanti lor vibrational peace: i.e., harmony) 
simulates environmental energies and natural resonances with a 
plausible relation to good health and the mystical. 

The NS helps the human mind "tunc in" the cosmos extract- 
ing energy and information by sympathetic resonance. Some 
natural harmonies are constant (e.g.. the Schumann resonance- 
related to the earth's electric field, telepathy, etc.): and others are 
affected by the earth's relative motion through space-time. Thus 
an astronomical clock is interlaced to computer-controlled 
electronic oscillators. By entering earth and space coordinates, 
local time and base frequency, the system computes and 
continuously tunes the oscillators to the correct doppler-shifted 
frequency. Also interfaced are frequenc) counters, keyboard 
functions, manual tuning, tonal shapers-amplifier-speakers. 
and optional LEG. magnetometer, radio telescope, etc.. for 
psychotronic and SI 1 1 research (Search for Extraterrestrial 
Intelligence). The NS can simulate harmonic, geometric- 
patterns of a DNA molecule or any biomolecule. organ 
resonance, or environmental fluctuations, space music, biofeed- 
back music, gravitational music. NMR. or atomic music, etc. 
I've prepared several charts and explanations lor tuning the NS. 

Biomusic research is still young, but I believe my adaptable 
NS system should enhance Harmony and allow users to explore 
the beyond. The results of such research will likely include music- 
conducive to relaxation, alertness, mental and physical effi- 
ciency . 

Next month I hope to publish a pamphlet on the topic, with 
many charts, etc. Due to my embarrassing financial condition. I 
have not yet made a working prototype and am seeking help in 
that regard. Perhaps you could print a short blurb on computers 
and biomusic allowing me to advertise my pamphlet which I 
wish to sell for a live-dollar donation: as well as seeking 
intelligent feedback from your readers. 

David Biharv 

PO Box 1013 

Fairport. OH 44077 

Ed. Note: Intelligent feedback may he transmitted directlv via 
telepathy or indirectly via U.S. Mail. —DHA 



14 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



LOOKING FOR THE NEW KENTUCKY 
FRIED CHICKEN OR MCDONALD'S? 
JUST OPEN YOUR I 



Back in the litties. il someone had 
suggested you invest in a hamburger stand 
called McDonald's or a chicken store run 
by Colonel Sanders, you probably would 
have laughed Most ot us did The few who 
didn t. and invested in KFC or Big Mac are 
millionaires today They enioy finger 
hckm good' profits and have it all done 
for them 

The whole trick to investing in your own 
business is to keep your eyet open lor 
something like a KFC or McDonalds A 
business that ( 1 ) requires a small invest- 
ment that can be recouped quickly. (2) has 
an enormous profit margin, and (3) has 
great growing consumer acceptance. 

There Is such a business. 

The business is computer portaits. and 
it's one of the hottest, most profitable new 
ideas around International Entrepeneur s 
Magazine stated that there are locations 
that are currently grossing from $2,000 to 
$4,000 a week Imagine, grossing up to 
$4,000 a week trom a small investment 



that gives you your own high volume, all 
cash business. No franchise fees or 
royalty payments all the money is yours 

Computer Amusement Systems. Inc . 
(CASI) of 1 1 West 20th Street in New York 
City, has taken today s hot trends— T V . 
computers, and instant pictures and 
combined them to produce a computer 
portrait system that is high in quality, low in 
price, portable and requires absolutely 
no photo or technical experience. 

Easy to operate and easy to move the 
portable CASI system can be set up 
anywhere: malls, flea markets, shopping 
centers, conventions, rock concerts, 
anywhere with high pedestrian traffic and 
lust a little floor space This instant traffic 
stopper will make a computer portrait in 
lust fifty -five seconds 1 The picture is first 
seen on a TV screen, then dramatically 
printed before your eyes 

And there's more. You can transfer the 
portraits instantly to many high mark-up, 
big profit items— tote bags T-shirts. 



calendars, puzzles, dari games— whatever 
the latest trend might be CASI supplies the 
wholesale sources for everything you need 
to be in on the profits 

And there's more. Like special options 
that allow personalized messages to be 
printed right on the computer portrait Or 
programs that will print out personal bio 
rhythm charts in seconds All big 
moneymakers 

So open your eyesto the most 
dynamic, profit making opportunity of the 
year Perfect tor part time, full time, 
family operation or absentee 
management CASI is your ticket to 
success Start putting money in your 
pocket today with CASI computer portrait 
systems Don't send money |ust write tor 
details We II send them right away 

Before you make an important 
decision in this exciting new business, 
know who you're buying from. We 
suggest you ask your banker about us. 




YES! I WANT TO BE THE FIRST IN TOWN TO CASH IN ON COMPUTER PORTRAITS. 
PLEASE RUSH DETAILS 



Name _ 

Address 

City 



M3J 



State 



Zip 



Home Phone 



Business Phone 



COMPUTER AMUSEMENT STSTEMS INC. 

11 West 20 Street New ttrk. N.Y. 10011. Dept. 10 1 
(212) 929-8355 



CIRCLE 143 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




put... input/output... in 

SAM76 

Dear Editor: 

In the recently published article on SAM76(Mav-June 1978. 
p 30), having read the original. I cannot but help to" notice a few 
small errors in the printing. 

On page 31. the "Beginners section on procedures" is 
supposed to be in the right-hand column, and the top few 
paragraphs through the nota bene should be in the left column. 
Also the last two pages were omitted [Ed. note: they were 
omitted from the printout we received], 

A 200-page manual on SAM 76 sells for $12: a paper tape or 
TDL cassette of the object code will be sold for $6 in several 
versions; information on I/O vectors and other useful things 
sells for $2. from SAM76. R.R.I Box 257. Pennington. NJ 
08534,(609)466-1130. 

Karl Nicholas 

To all those readers wonder- 
ing about the abrupt ending to 
the SAM76 description, the 
missing last section is reproduc- 
ed to the right. 



Origin of Word "Debugging"? 

Dear Editor: 

Enclosed is an article describing the possible origin of the 
phrase ••debugging." I thought it proper to pass along this 
article, seeing that much of your magazine deals with solving 
them. Hope you can make some use of it. 

Ron Jennings 

C'OMSAI Room 4035 

940 L'Enfant Plaza 

Washington. DC 20024 

Ed. note: The following is excerpted from the Jan. 10. 1978. 

issue of the Fredericksburg. Virginia. Free l^ance-Star. in an 

article by Elissa Vanaver titled. "40's wonder machine gave base 

new life." about the Harvard Mark II Relax Calculator at the 

Suva/ Surface Weapons Center in Dahlgren. Virginia. 

for all its wonder, the Mark IPs birth was not without snags 
One night in 1946. Burke and the other technicians found 
something gumming up the works of the adolescent computer. 
It turned out to be a wayward moth, which was extracted and 
memorialized in the phrase, "debugging the computer." a term 
since applied to working out problems in any computer 
program. 

Niemann and Burke had the computer "bug" then, and the) 
still have it. Burke has the moth pasted in a logbook in the 
Warfare Analysis Department, where he is computer operations 
branch head. 



Palindromes 

Dear Editor: 

I have been intrigued by an article that had appeared in your 
"Best of Creative Computing. Volume I" book. The article had 
to do with palindromes and whether the number 1675 would 
ever become a palindrome after successive reversals and 
additions. 

Just for the record. I recently ran a BASIC palindrome 
program for 8 hours. 20 minutes producing a number containing 
nearly 15.000 digits, still not palindromic. The program was ru.i 
on a Burrough's B6700 computer. 

I am a student of Iowa Lakes Community College in 
Estherville, Iowa, enrolled in their 2-year Data Processing 
program. 

Steve Williams 

102 North 17th Street Place 

Estherville. I A 51334 

Ed. Note: And if it had become palindromic, what then? — 
DHA 



The following is an exanple of a simple character manipulation procedure: 



XV 
O 

<) 
<> 
<) 
<) 
(> 
<) 



»dt.O. !»ca. 

/los, 

WHAT IS TOUR NAME?- /tdt.N. »ls//tpt,N. , 

/tos.MAY I CALL YOU »fe.N/?- /»mt],N/»os. 

WELL HELLO /»il,»lc/.Y. Itfo.N/V.lttl. /// 

/toy//- 



This procedure asks for your full name, and then asks whether or not it may 
call you by your first name. If you enter "I" it will print "WELL HELLO" 
followed by your first name: if anything else is typed it will print "WELL 
HELLO and your full name, then it will fetch itself again. 



tr 

<> 

<> 

o 

o 

<> 

<> 

o 

<> 

o 

o 

() 

o 



«Q/- 

WHAT IS TOUR NAME?- BOB EVAN3 

MAY I CALL YOU BOB? N 

WELL HELLO BOB EVANS 

WHAT IS TOUR NAME?- GNAT KUHN 

MAY I CALL YOU CHAT? Y 

WELL HELLO GNAT 

WHAT IS YOUR NAME?- PETER EICNENBESGER 

MAY I CALL YOU RIBI? Y 

WELL HELLO PETER 

WHAT IS YOUR NAME?- 



At first this procedure changes the "activator" to be the "new line" code 
and asks for your full name, then it will define "N" as a string input from 
the keyboard and partition the spaces out of "N". 



,n "N" up to the 
originally) it 



Next it will display "MAY I CALL YOU" and the characters 
first partition; if there is no partition (no spaces in "N" 
will be the full value of "N" which will get displayed. 

Then the text divider is reset back to the beginning of "N" (it was set at 
the first partition by the fetch element function). Next there is an output 
string function with an identity function nested within it. The SAM?6 
processor will now compare the single character Input from the keyboard as a 
result of evaluating the "lc" function with *r"| if it is a "Y". then the 
value of the identity expression will be the first name, if not then the 
value will be the full value of "N" with the partitions filled beck again 
with spaces. 

The value of the identity will then be displayed preceded by "WELL HELLO". 
Lastly the procedure letches "0" again thus looping. 

The following is an example of a translation procedure; it will read in e 
first name and display a full name- The first and full names are kept in 
separate texts with the Items of the lists separated by i 



()- 
() 
<> 

() 
<) 
() 
<) 



%dt.L. «ca. /tos 

TYPE FIRST NAME TOLLOWEO BY A SPACE 
/»dt,N. »is//«pt ,N«N1//»U , W/, , !%os. 
HELLO «W1// 1NW2////. !%os. 
SAME M7T KNOWN///1L///- 



The two lists of names. "Nl" for first names, and "N2" for last names are 
defined as follows: 



O' 

<> 

(> 

() 

() 

<> 



Idt.Nl, (, BOB. GNAT. PETER. JOHN. 

. CAVE. LEN. JORDAN. BARRY ) / 

«dt.N2. ( .EVANS. KUHN. EICHENBBtGER. LEVI NE, 

.THERIAULT. BOSACK. YOUNG. KLE DO /- 



This procedure, with its associated two lists will first chinge the 
activator to a space, request the entry of a first name, and define "N" as 
the string received from the keyboard. 

Then the text "N" will be partitioned using the list "Nl". and if there is a 
match, then text "N" will become a partition of value equal to the position 
of the name in list "Nl". A test is made to see If "N" contains only a 
partition (the identity test will be "null" if found) and if so the message 
"HELLO' followed by the first name reconstituted by fetching P N" with list 
"Nl" to refill the partition, and a second fetch of "N" using list "N2" to 
replace the partition with the corresponding appropriate last name. 

If there is no match to the first name then the message "NAME NOT KNOWN" is 
displayed before the procedure loops back by fetching "L" again. 

We will leave the example that illustrates the use of this procedure to the 
beginner to try out. 

A procedure of this sort can be used for many types of translations; an 
elaboration might be to hsve the lists grow instead of delivering a cold 
"NAME NOT KKJWN" message; instead an inquiry as to the required name might 
be made, and then both the new first name, and the matching last name are 
added to each of the two lists. 



The editor wishes to acknowledge the derivation of this II 
description from an early writing by Petor Eichen'jerger. 



■Iom 
II Bene 



16 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The New MSI System 1 2 



The MSI System 1 2 computer system 
combines the populor MSI 6800 
processor. ..complete with 32K of 
memory...rhe MSI FD-8 QUAD floppy disk 
system, ond the new MSI HD-8/R 10 
megabyte fixed/ 
removable hord 
disk system in one 
compact desk unit. 

Ideal for business 
applications, the 
MSI System 12 
gives you a 




Personol Computet Place 
1640 W Southern 
Meso Arizona 85202 

Coltfotnto 

A VWd Electronics 

2210 0ellflower Drvd 

Long Oeoch California 90815 

Computerlond of Son Moreo 

42 W 42nd Ave 

Son Mateo Colifornio 94403 



Microcomputer Systems 
144 S Dole Mobry Highwoy 
Tompo Florida 00609 



Americon Microprocessors 
Equipment 6 Supply Corporation 

20 N Milwoukie 

Half Day Illinois 60069 

Compureriond of Arlington Heights 
SOE Rand Rood 
Arlington Heights minors 

4C Corporotion 
PO Box 530 

Mundelein Illinois 60060 

Lillipure Computer Mart Inc 

4446 Ookton St 

Skokie Illinois 60076 

Midlond Stondard 

PO Box 08 

600 E Chicago St 

Elgin Illinois 

Wysocki Electric 

6563 11rhSt 

Rockfotd Illinois 61 109 



Kansas 

Domey G Associates 
Electronics Division 
425 N Oroodwoy 
Pittsburg Konsos 66762 

CMPTRC 

704Toylot 

Topeko Kansas 66604 

Loutstono 

Freeman Electronics 

1100 Ridge Ave 

West Monroe Louisiono 71291 

Gollion Doto Systems 

0100 Molvern 

Oossier City Louisiana 71111 



Computer Workshop 
1 776 E Jefferson 
Rockville Maryland 20852 

Missouri 

Gollion Dora Systems 

201 N 11thSr 

Dlue Springs Missouri 6401 5 

HOKSysrems 

15E 01st St 

Konsos City Mssoun 64106 



Compoct Computers 

110 Hamilton 

Dune Montano 59701 



Computer Mort of New York 
1 16 Modison Avenue 
New York New York 10006 



large capacity hard disk for mass 
storage, and a floppy disk system for 
program loading, back-up, software 
updates and exchanges. The new SDOS 
operating system is employed to 
integrate the two disk systems together. 

_ _ Complete with CRT, 

*?7 high speed printer, 

and convenient 
desk unit, the MSI 
System 12 is one 
of the most 
powerful micro- 
computer systems 
available today. 



Oklahoma 

High Technology 
1OV0W WikhireOrvd 
Oklahoma Oty Oklohomo 70116 

Pennsylvania 

The Electronics Place 

7250 McKmghr Rd 

Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 15207 

Gollion Dora Systems 

908 Knepper Drive 

Mechonicsburg Pennsylvania 17055 



The Compurer Shop 

6612 Son Pedro 

Son Antonio Texas 78216 

Washington 

Digifek 

5950 Sixth Avenue South 

Suite 101 

Seonte Washingron 98108 

Midwest Scientific International 
Chouse* 0* Chorieroi. 60 
1060 Drusseis. Deigkim 
Telex 2602S 

Canada 

First Conodion Computer Store 
44 Eglmton Avenue West 
Toronto Ontario M4R, 1A1 
Conodo 



Sifumech Engineering 
Electronics Division 
Porrlond House 
Coppice Side Drownhills 
Wolsoll Staffordshire 
England 



Computer Workshop 

1 74 ifieid M 

London England SW109AG 

Germany ond Austria 

COI Systeme Munchen 
EDV Verrriebsgesellschofi mbH 
ArobellostroDe 5 
6000 Munchen 61 
Germany 

Belgium 

Computer Resources 
Chousee De Chorieroi 60 
1060 Drusseis Belgium 

Switzerland 

Agence De Dismbutton et Vente 

Case Postole 601 

1211 Geneve 1 

Switzerland 

taMh 

Sontton Instruments 

Byte Shope 

1 7orowotto Sr Comegie 

VKtorio Australia 0160 

The Netherlands 

MRL Ecttonics 

Postbus 88Detfi Foulkesloon 100 

The Netherlands 

South Afnco 

Rodiokom 

Cnr George St Hendrik Verwoerd Dr 

Rondburg Tronsvool 

South Afnco 

Venezuelo 

Tromboco (Sistemo Pek 2000) 
Cenno Peru PtSO 2 Ofic 20 
Corocas Venezuelo 



Electronic Doto 

1200 Locust 

Des Moines Iowa 50001 



THidneat Scientific / JK4tn4imeKU 

220 W. Cedar Olarhe, Kansas 66061 (913) 764-3273 
TWX 910 749 6403 (MSI OLAT) TELEX 42525 (MSI A OLAT) 



CIRCLE 161 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CDIYIPLEFIT 
COMPUTER 
CflTflLDGLIE 




We welcome entries from readers for the 
"Compleat Computer Catalogue" on any 
item related, even distantly, to computers. 
Please include the name of the item, a brief 
evaluative description, price, and complete 
source data. If it is an item you obtained 
over one year ago, please check with the 
source to make sure it is still available at the 
quoted price. 

Send contributions to "The Compleat 
Computer Catalogue," Creative Com- 
puting, P.O. Box 789-M. Morristown. NJ 
07960. 



MAGAZINES, 
JOURNALS 

THE SOFTWARE EXCHANGE 

The Software Exchange is a new 
publication devoted to the exchange of 
ready-to-use software for business and the 
home. The Software Exchange provides 
classified advertising for computer 
software. You will be able to match your 
application and computer to those listed. 
Each program will have a description of its 
operation, hardware requirements, and 
where the provided materials can be 
obtained. If you have a special program 
you need, you can place a "Wanted" ad in 
The Software Exchange. In addition to 
advertising, each issue has editorials and 
reviews about micro and minicomputer 
software. The Software Exchange is a bi- 
monthly publication available at computer 
stores for $ 1 .50 per issue, and by subscrip- 
tion for $8 per year (six issues). 

The Software Exchange. Box 55056. 
Valencia. CA 91355. 

CIRCLE 201 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



©Steffi ?§50rf3fe£o 




VENDOR 
LITERATURE 

COMPUTER-FACTS 
BROCHURE 

Are 16-bits really better than 8-bits? 
Heath Company, manufacturer of the H8 
and II 1 1 Computer Kits (and numerous 
other electronic kits), announces the 
availability of a free computer-facts 
brochure entitled "Why You Should 
Consider a Sixteen Bit Microcomputer." 
The new 8-page brochure has information 
that shouild be useful for those personal 
computerjsts who are undecided over the 
choice of an 8-bit or a 1 6-bit computer. The 
advantages of the 1 6-bit computer are 
discussed at length as are the limitations of 
the 8-bit computer. Also covered are 
important topics like computing power, 
software, service, support, reputation, 
quality and reliability. Included also in the 
brochure is an introduction to the HI I 
Computer, Heath's 16-bit machine that 
utilizes the Digital Equipment Corpora- 
tion LSI-ll CPU. The HI I is available 
both in kit form and as a completely wired 
and tested unit that is fully compatible with 
most DEC accessories and peripherals. 

Heath Company, Dept. 350-650, Benton 
Harbor. Michigan 49022. 

CIRCLE 202 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ORGANIZATIONS 

SMALL COMPUTER USERS' 
GROUP FORMED 

Reacting to "a bewildering array of new 
computing alternatives," a users' group has 
been formed to provide a source of 
"unbiased, user-oriented information" on 
mini and micro computers for business 
applications. The new Association of 
Small Computer Users (ASCU) plans to 
provide members with selected 
publications at reduced cost, a bi-monthly 



18 



newsletter and information exchange, and 
benchmark comparisons of competing 
small computer systems. Membership fees 
will be $25 per year for individual current 
or prospective users of small computers, 
and will include a number of periodicals 
and reports. 

Association of Small Computer Users, 
75 Manhattan Drive, Boulder. CO 80303. 

CIRCLE 203 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

SOL USERS' SOCIETY 

The Sol Users Society is an organization 
for owners of Processor Technology Sol 
Computers and of other computers con- 
figured like the Sol. Specifically, owners of 
any 8080 or Z-80 microcomputer that has 
SOLOS, CUTER, or a functionally 
equivalent operating system and a 
Sol/ CUTS cassette interface, may join. 
The goals of SOLUS are: (I) to facilitate 
communication among SOLUS members, 
(2) to provide a mechanism for exchange of 
Sol-compatible software, (3) to give feed- 
back from SOLUS members to Processor 
Technology, and (4) to encourage the 
development and testing of Sol-compatible 
hardware and software produced by 
independent sources. 

SOLUS provides the following services 
at this time: (I) SOLUS NEWS, a 
newsletter printed approximately bi- 
monthly, keeps members informed on 
hardware, software, new products, bugs, 
local chapter meetings, and other items of 
interest; (2) the SOLUS Software Library 
collects and distributes programs in public 
domain and proprietary categories for 
nominal charges; (3) the SOLUS Music 
Library collects and distributes musical 
scores for the Processor 
Technology/ Software Technology Music 
System; (4) SOLUS Local Chapters 
provide meetings where SOLUS members 
can exchange software and ideas; (5) 
SOLUS headquarters, being close to the 
Processor Technology offices, keeps a 
communication link with a Processor 
Technology Corporate officer; (6) 
qualified SOLUS volunteers test products 
for Sol compatibility and report their 
experiences in SOLUS NEWS. $10 a year. 

Sol Users' Society, Box 2347 1 , San Jose, 
C A 95153. 

CIRCLE 204 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



COMPUTERS 




VECTOR 2 COMPUTER 

Vector Graphic's VECTOR 2 desk-top 
computer is designed around the 1 58- 
instruction Z-80 MPU. and features a 
rugged low-profile cabinet with built-in 
keyboard. Completely assembled and 
tested, the standard system includes: 10- 
slot motherboard (S-l(X)compatible); Z-80 
CPU board, I2K 2708 PROM RAM 
board. 32K bytes of RAM memory 
(expandable to 64K); Vector Graphic 
Flashwriter video board; a 72-key 
keyboard containing standard typewriter 
keys, a numeric keypad, and several user- 
definable keys. Priced at under $2,000. 

Yvonne Beck. Vector Graphic Inc., 790 
Hampshire Rd.. Wcstlake Village. CA 
91361.(805)497-6853. 

CIRCLE 205 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







IMSAI VDP-40 COMPUTER 

Imsai's VDP-40 is a fully integrated 
system featuring an 8085 microprocessor, 
32K or 64K RAM memory, twin S'/i-inch 
floppies, 9-inch intelligent CRT. heavy- 
duty power supply programmable 
keyboard, motherboard, and serial and 
parallel I () ports in a flip-top cabinet. 
Supporting software includes a disk 
operating svstcm text editor. Extended and 
Commercial BASIC. relocatable 
assembler, linkage editor and ANSI Level 
2 FORTRAN IV. Up to two miniature 
floppy drives and four floppy drives can be 
supported. Since the VDP-40 can support 
two optional disk controllers, total disk 
expansion capacity approaches 5 
megabytes. Priced under $4,500. 

Imsai Manufacturing Corp., 14860 
Wicks Blvd.. San Lcandro, CA 94577. 
(415)895-9363. 

CIRCLE 206 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SMARTS II COMPUTER 

The Smarts II microcomputer starts with 
32K of RAM (read/ write) memory and can 
expand economically to a maximum of 
630K of RAM. The mini-floppy disk drive 
can be increased to three drives or replaced 
with two standard-size floppy-disk drives. 
Up to four more can be added to the one 
RS-232 interface port. Other accessories 
such as a CRT terminal, printer and many 
other such peripheral devices may be 
added. The Smarts II provides a full 16 
lines of 64 characters per line on a standard 
ASCII keyboard. Color displays (7 by 9 
characters) can be created on your color 
TV screen accompanied by action sounds 
from the TV speakers. A Smarts II system 
includes Smarts II games, income tax. 
bookkeeping, inventory, educational 
programs and more. 

Fire Bird Sales Co., Box 1 1 6-03 Oak St., 
Woodland, IL 60974. (815) 473-4213. 

CIRCLE 207 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




COMPUTER IN A DESK 

Noval recently announced an updated 
version of its 760 series computer system. 
The user can edit, assemble and debug 
applications programs without the need to 
externally save or reload source or object 
code. The 760 incorporates a Z-80 
microprocessor, 32K of RAM user 
memory plus an additional I K scratchpad 
and I K video refresh memory. The unit 
features a fully programmable character 
generator (2K) and 3K of system utility 
routines on PROM. Also included arc a 12- 
inch TV monitor, digital-cassette tape 
recorder (software controlled). 32-column 



matrix printer, and a full keyboard. Three 
eight-bit parallel I O ports are available 
for general purpose use and a program- 
mable audio-tone generator and speaker 
are within the enclosure. The system design 
incorporates a full graphics system (256 x 
224 pixels). The system is enclosed within a 
rosewood desk, the top of which raises 
automatically when a hidden trigger is 
depressed. The keyboard is contained 
within the center drawer. Optional 
accessories include the lull operating 
system and development software on 
PROM or mag tape. BASIC on PROM or 
magtape, a PROM burner card, additional 
I O ports, a second independent video 
display card (allows program listings on 
one monitor and simultaneous color 
graphics on the other), color monitor, and 
RS232 interface. $3385. 

Jerry Hansen. Noval. Inc.. 8404 Aero 
Dr., San Diego, CA 92123.(714)277-8700. 

CIRCLE 208 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




TANDY 10 BUSINESS 
COMPUTER SYSTEM 

Tandy Computers has introduced the 
Tandy 10, a complete business computer 
system priced under $10,000 and said to 
have been engineered for ease of operation 
so existing clerical personnel can learn to 
operate it with minimum effort. The Tandy 
10 System consists of a workstation with 
diskette drives integrated into a compact 
metal desk, and separate matrix printer 
that prints 60 characters second. Faster 
printers are available as options. The 
workstation includes a video display, 
professional standard typewriter 
keyboard. 10-key calculator pad for 
numeric entry and 1 5 special-function keys 
lor data editing. With optional peripherals, 
it can be used as an intelligent terminal to 
access larger data systems. 

Each diskette can hold up to 256.000 
characters, providing a total of more than 
!/:-million characters on-line. Internal 
memory capacity is 50.960 characters. 
Screen formatting language allows user 
prompting for data input. The Tandy 10 
comes with extended BASIC. Fortran IV 
and Assembly Level program languages 
are also available as options for the system. 
The Tandy 10 Business Computer System 
with workstation, diskette drives and 
matrix printer is priced at $9,950. 

Tandy Computers, Department R22, 
P.O. Box 2932. Fort Worth. Texas 76101. 
Toll-free telephone (800) 433-1679. 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



19 




TERMINALS 




OSI COMPUTER WITH 
WINCHESTER DISK 

Ohio Scientific announces the C3-B, said 
to be the world's first fully packaged 
Winchester disk based microcomputer 
system. The C3-B is a package microcom- 
puter system in a 42 equipment rack. The 
system includes, in its minimal configura- 
tion. 48K of static RAM. OSI's triple 
processor CPU board which has 6502A, 
6800 and Z-80 microprocessors, dual 
floppy-disk drives for program and data 
mobility and a 74 million byte Winchester 
technology fixed disk. The Winchester disk 
communicates with the CPU via a 
dedicated high-speed memory channel 
which services a dual port memory. The 
C3-B features a 16-slot case in which only 7 
slots are used in the basic machine, 
allowing expansion including memory up 
to 768K, three additional Winchester disks 
for 300 megabytes on line storage and 16 
communications ports. Because of the 
disks intelligent controller, the CPU is 
completely available for communication 
such that it can always service terminal 
interrupts, important for high throughput 
operation in multi-terminal con- 
figurations. The C3-B system comes 
complete with OS-65U disk operating 
system with extended BASIC. This 
operating system features virtual data files 
and directly supports hij>h performance file 
structures such as multi-key ISAM. $11,- 
090. 

Ohio Scientific. 1333 S. Chillicothe Rd.. 
Aurora, OH 44202. (216) 562-3101. 

CIRCLE 210 ON READER 8ERVICE CARD 

$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 

WOULD YOU LIKE 

TO MAKE MONEY 

WITH YOUR 

COMPUTER? 

LET ME SHOW YOU 

A POSSIBLE WAY. 

FOR DETAILS 

SEND 50C (REFUNDABLE) TO: 

REAL WORLD SIMULATIONS 

P.O. BOX 4107 

TORRANCE, CA. 90510 



SORCERER COMPUTER 

Exidy. the third largest producer of 
video arcade games, has entered the 
consumer electronics market with its new 
user-programmable personal computer, 
the self-contained Sorcerer, which needs 
only to be plugged into a video display and 
a cassette tape recorder to be a fully- 
functioning computer system. Exidy in- 
troduces a new concept in user- 
programmable personal computers with 
the Sorcerer's exclusive plug-in Rom Pac 
cartridges. The unique Rom Pacs contain 
high-level programming languages, 
operating systems or special proprietary 
software. Each Sorcerer comes with a Rom 
Pac cartridge containing Standard BASIC. 
Additional Rom Pacs available or now in 
development include a user-programmable 
EPROM Rom Pac, an assembler editor, a 
disc operating system and a word process- 
ing package. Applications programs can be 
loaded from one or two tape recorders 
through the Sorcerer's dual cassette inter- 
face at data rates of either 300 or 1200 
baud. The Sorcerer can be used as a smart 
terminal for communications and time 
sharing applications. Its RS232 serial 
interface accepts a modem to transmit data 
through phone lines at 300 or 1200 baud. 
The Sorcerer's molded case contains 
ASCII keyboard with 79 keys providing 
full upper and lower case alphanumeric 
characters and graphic symbols. A 16-key 
numeric pad speeds information entry 
and inquiry. 

The Sorcerer offers a total of 256 graphic 
expressions. In addition to its 128 ASCII 
set, it has 64 characters designated on the 
keyboard and a second set of 64 characters 
available for user definition. Alternatively, 
the two sets of 64 may be identified by the 
user through program control for full 
custom applications. Extremely fine 
graphic resolution of 122,880 points on the 
video screen is produced in a 512 x 240 
format for detailed illustration. The 
Sorcerer displays a total of 1 920 characters 
on the screen at one time in 30 lines by 64 
characters in an 8x8 format. The Sorcerer 
uses the Z-80 MPU and the S-100 bus. The 
I2K of ROM memory includes a power-on 
monitor program and Standard BASIC. 
The 8K of RAM for user program space is 
expandable internally to 32K. $895 with a 
Standard BASIC Rom Pac cartridge. 

Exidy Inc., 2599 Garcia Ave., Mountain 
View, CA 94043. 

CIRCLE 211 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



20 



CRT TERMINAL FOR 
132-COLUMN DATA 

The ECD SMART ASCII is said to be 
the first CRT-based intelligent terminal 
that can display full line-printer format: up 
to 1 32 characters per line. It can display up 
to 40 lines on its 1 5" CRT with up to 4096 
characters. The standard font is the full 
upper- and lower-case ASCI I character set, 
but by using the supplied font-editor 
program the user can design his own 
special characters. The keyboard is 
rclegendable so the user can easily modify 
it to match a new character set. Foreign 
language fonts can be implemented. The 
interface for the SMART ASCII does not 
require any special protocol from the host. 
It communicates via a RS-232 line and 
looks like a simple printer/ keyboard 
combination to the host. This allows for 
cither direct hookup, or remote use via 
dial-up lines with keyboard-selectable 
baud rates from 1 10 to 9600. The SMART 
ASCII comes with a sophisticated text- 
editing program that allows complete off- 
line editing and supports transmitting data 
at a character, line, or block at a time to the 
host. The SMART ASCI I will also execute 
user-written BASIC programs. The system 
consists of a control unit with 37K of 
memory, a 78-key keyboard, a 1 5" CRT 
and two mini-cassette drives at $7900. 

Richard Eckhardt, ECD Corp., I96 
Broadway. Cambridge. MA 02I39. (617) 
66 1 -4400. 

CIRCLE 212 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




OE 1000 TERMINAL 

The OE 1 000 terminal is designed to 
interface to any microcomputer that has a 
300-baud serial data output port. It 
operates in the full duplex mode with either 
20 mA current loop or an RS232 voltage 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



swing. The OE 1000 outputs composite 
video for use with a modified TV or video 
monitor. The screen format is 16 lines by 64 
characters. It has an upper and lower case 
mode or TTY mode keyboard and will 
display 96 ASCII characters and 32 special 
characters. The OE 1000 has full cursor 
control, automatic scroll, erase to end of 
line, erase to end of screen, and clear 
screen. $275 kit, $350 assembled. 

Otto Electronics, P.O. Box 3066, 
Princeton, NJ. 08540. (609) 448-9165. 

CIRCLE 213 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PERIPHERALS 




PET PERIPHERALS 

Commodore has two new peripherals for 
the PET personal computer. The first is the 
external cassette drive for expanded file 
keeping. It connects to the special IO Port 
and is available now at under $ 100 directly 
from Commodore or from PET authorized 
dealers. The cassette drive is capable of 
read write up to 170 kilobytes. It is 
accessed directly from the PET through the 
basic command. 

The second peripheral, the printer, 
features up to 80 characters per line on a 
8!4 inch wide roll or fanfolded paper. It 
prints at 120 cps. All Commodore upper 
and lower case and graphic characters can 
be reproduced on the printer on a 7 x 8 dot 
matrix. In addition, the PET can be 
programmed to develop a special, unique 
graphic character, such as a company logo, 
which can then be reproduced any number 
of times. 

Commodore Business Machines, Inc., 
901 California Ave., Palo Alto. CA 94304. 
(415)326-4000. 

CIRCLE 214 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





TheQuality Static RAM from 
TrareEledfonics . . . 

\Aforks and Works and Works 



It works with IMSAI, Sol(Helios), 
Poly, Cromemco, Xitan, Vector, 
Horizon, Altair, North Star, Digital 
Systems, Alpha Micro Systems, 
and more. 



I. Capacity: 



12. Special 

N< ^extend 1 ^ 

■ 






2. Addressing: 



3. Wail states: 

4. Speed I 

5. FOLLY STATIC: 

6. Memory c hips 

■ 

7. Fully socketed: 

■ 
B. Fully assembled, le 

9. Lower po*< 

10. DMA Compatible 

I I . fully Buffered: 

■ 



I 4. Power required 
1600 at 



es work too 

■ 






TRACE 



CIRCLE 121 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



APPLE DISK 

Apple Computer, Inc. has announced 
Disk II. the newest intelligent peripheral 
for its Apple II personal computer. The 
new device is "the easiest to use, lowest 
priced, and the fastest minifloppy disk 
drive yet offered by any personal computer 
manufacturer." Disk 11 provides rapid 
access to programs and data which makes 
home applications like address files, social 
appointment calendars, and recipe files 
taster and more useful. Disk IPs advanced 
Disk Operating System (DOS) software, 
provides dynamic disk space allocation, so 
a system user need not be concerned with 
the si/e or physical location of a file on the 
disk. The DOS performs this housekeeping 
function; the user simply indicates the 
name of the file being stored or retrieved. 



True random or sequential data access can 
be enjoyed without regard to the physical 
location of data on the disk. Moreover the 
DOS provides compatibility with existing 
languages through the use of standard 
BASIC commands. 

The Disk II subsystem consists of an 
intelligent interface card and either one or 
two mini-floppy drives. The computer will 
handle up to seven controller cards and 
fourteen drives for instant access to more 
than 1.6 milion bytes of data. The com- 
bination of a bootstrap loader in ROM 
(read only memory) and an operating 
system in RAM provides powerful disk- 
handling capability. $495, including con- 
troller card and Disk II drive. 

Apple Computer Inc., 10260 Bandley 
Dr.. Cupertino. C A 95014. (408)996-1010. 

CIRCLE 21 S ON READER SERVICE CARD 




POLYMORPHIC MASS 
STORAGE 

PolyMorphic Systems has greatly in- 
creased the storage capabilities of its 
System 88 microcomputers through the 
introduction of a new option, the 88 MS. 
which consists of two drives for 8-inch 
magnetic storage disks in a walnut cabinet 
with brushed aluminum front panel that 
matches other products in PolyMorphic's 
System 88 line. The 88/ MS makes possible 
mass storage through the use of disks that 
are not only larger than mini-floppy disks 
but will store twice as much information 
per square inch and store it on both sides. 
One disk can hold 1.2 Mb, more than 500 
pages of text. A System 88 microcomputer 
with one or two 88/ MS units will handle all 
the files and processing needs of most small 
businesses and professional offices. Pre- 
sent owners of any System 88 microcom- 
puter can add the 88/ MS mass storage unit 
with no changes in their equipment's 
operating system. Ready-to-use packages 
for doing such tasks as accounts receivable 
are available. 

PolyMorphic Systems, Inc., 460 Ward 
Drive, Santa Barbara, CA. 931 1 1. 



BI-DIRECTIONAL PRINTER 

The MarComm SP-IOO is a 5x7 dot- 
matrix bi-directional impact printer. Print 
rate is 120 cps. throughput is 75 
lines minute. Line capacity is 80 characters 
at 10 characters per inch. The SP-100 uses 
standard S'/Hncn roll paper and standard 
ribbon cartridge. Baud rate and parity arc 
selectable. Paper advance is motor drive, 
with both pressure roller and pin feed. Line 
feed is 150 milliseconds; 400 lines minute 
slew rate. The SP-100 is designed for 
high mechanical reliability, utilizing the 
smallest number of moving parts of any 
comparable printer sold today. The printer 
also features the latest electronic 
technology, including micro-processor 
control and opto-isolators for BOL, EOL 
and character position sensing, with 
RS232C input. The SP-100 line printer 
combines speed, quality, durability and 
economy. $1,250. 

MarComm Inc., 124 10 St., Ramona. 
CA 92065. (714) 789-3833. 

CIRCLE 218 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MISC. 
HARDWARE 




NEW BIT PAD 

Summagraphics announces a new ver- 
sion of its popular low-cost Bit Pad, the 
digitizer for small computer systems. The 
new Bit Pad configuration is Intel Mul- 
tibus compatible. The Bit Pad can now be 
plugged into the Multibus along with 
Single Board Computers (SBC), memory 
and I/O boards, peripherals and con- 
trollers. 

All electronics are located on one SBC 
card. Operational control and status 
indication is provided from a small, hand- 
held console. The system also includes an 
1 1" x 1 1" Bit Pad tablet and a date-input 
stylus. $625. 

Summagraphics Corp., 35 Brentwood 
Avenue, Fairfield. CT 06430, (203) 384- 
I344. 

CIRCLE 217 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Z-80 CPU BOARD FROM 
VECTOR GRAPHIC 

A Z-80 CPU board, offered assembled 
or in kit form, is now available from Vector 
Graphic. Inc. The new board offers fully 
blocked design with on-board wait-state 
select, is jumper-selectable for operation at 
2 mhz or 4 mhz, and will operate standard 
8080 software without modification. All Z- 
80 lines are fully buffered. Available from 
Vector Graphic computer store dealers for 
$175 kit. $215 assembled. 

Vector Graphic Inc., 790 Hampshire 
Road. Westlake Village, CA 91361. 
(805) 497-6853. 

CIRCLE 219 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




PRINTER INTERFACES 

Two new printer interfaces for the Sol 
Computer have been announced by 
Processor Technology Corporation. Both 
increase the hard-copy capability of the Sol 
Computer. Sol Hytype I mounts inside any 
Diablo Series 1 200 Printer, connecting it 
directly to the back of the Sol. Similarly, 
the Sol Hytype II Printer Interface works 
with the Diablo Series 1300 Printer. The 
installation package includes the assem- 
bled, printed-circuit board, software, all 
cables and mounting hardware. No modifi- 
cation to the Sol is necessary. No holes 
need be drilled in the printer. The printer 
can be restored to its original condition if 
required. Hytype driver software is includ- 
ed on CUTS cassette along with a source 
listing. The user may modify the driver 
software to suit a particular application. 
Suggested retail price for both the Hytype I 
and Hytype II is $150. 

Processor Technology Corp., 7100 
Johnson Industrial Drive. Pleasanton. CA 
94566.(415)829-2600. 

CIRCLE 220 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




16K RAM STATIC MEMORY 

Electronic Control Technology's I6K 
RAM memory board is a fully static I6K S- 
I00 bus memory board which utilizes a 4K 
fully static memory IC(TMS-4044) like the 
2IL02 except that it has four times the 
capacity per IC package and less power per 
bit. Being fully static eliminates the 
incompatibility with DMA devices or 
other devices which sometimes occurs with 
dynamic or clocked static memory. All 
signals to MOS devices arc buffered by 
low-power TTL to prevent damage by 
static electricity and to minimize capacitive 
loading on the bus. Low-profile IC sockets 
are provided for all ICs. 2MHz operation is 
standard and 4M Hz is optional at a slightlv 
higher price. $350 kit. 

Electronic Control Technology, 763 
Ramsey Ave., Hillside, NJ 07205. 
(201)686-8080. 

CIRCLE 221 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



22 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 







11 


wtr 


i.^ 


lr ' 1 • 

u t ; 


""" '\=^ BT— ^ 




* 


« 



CASSETTE INTERFACE 

The TC-3 cassette interface board 
announced by JPC Products Company 
provides high-performance program 
storage for SWTPC computer systems. 
The interface board plugs into one 1/ O slot 
of the SWTPC motherboard, eliminating 
the inconvenience of a separate cabinet. 
Connection is made to a standard cassette 
recorder through two audio cables. The 
interface operates at 4800 baud and loads a 
4k file in 8 seconds. Data is recorded in a 
modified FM format similar to disk 
systems. 

Applications include use as the primary 
mass-storage device for SWTPC com- 
puters that are presently using much slower 
papertape or "Kansas City" cassette 
recording, and as high-speed back-up 
storage on disk based systems. The TC-3 
also provides a fully buffered 8-bit output 
port capable of directly sinking 40 ma at 30 
volts. The port has full handshake and 
interrupt capability for use as a parallel 
data port, or as discrete output lines to 
control the cassette recorder. $49.95 kit. 

JPC Products Company. P.O. Box 
5615. Albuquerque. NM 87185. 

CIRCLE 222 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





1 

1 *l IW . 



niminimiiii 



S-100 ADAPTER FOR PET 

HUH Electronics has announced the S- 
100 MPA, an S-I00 bus adapter for the 
Commodore PET computer. This S-100 
si/ed card plugs into the user's mainframe 
and a cable connects to the PET, allowing 
the use of the wide range of peripheral and 
memory cards available fortheS-lOO Bus. 
The S- 1 00 MPA (Memory and Peripherals 
Adapter) is said to be unique in that it 
emulates the true S-I00 Bus including full 
DMA, true PSYNC generation. I O 
address mirroring, read wait states and 
much more. An important feature of this 
versatile board is that it can also act as a 
stand-alone 6502 CPU board for the S-I00 
Bus. It is the "only 6502-based processor 
board to be truly S-I00 Bus compatible. A 
simple option kit is all that is required." 
Kit. SI99.95; assembled, $279.95. 

HUH Electronics, 1 429 Maple St., San 
Mateo. CA 94402. (4 1 5) 573-7359. 

CIRCLE 223 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

SEPT/OCT 1978 




DIGITAL VIDEO SYSTEM 

The Micro Works has introduced a new 
device that allows a 6800 computer system 
to see! The Digisector ( DS-68) functions in 
conjunction with an inexpensive television 
camera to present the computer with a 
high-resolution digitized picture of the 
scene in view of the camera lens. The 
Digiscctor requires one I/O slot in the 
SWTPC 6800 computer (or equivalent) 
and accepts either interlaced (NTSC) or 
non-interlaced (industrial) sync pulses 
from the video source. It features 256-by- 
256 picture-clement resolution, with up to 
64 levels of grey scale. Data-conversion 
times vary with resolution requirements 
but can be as low as three microseconds per 
picture element. The computer portrait 



shown in the picture was taken by a Micro 
Works DS-68 and printed on the Malibu 
Design Group's Model 160 printer. 

Operation is simple; the computer sends 
the Digisector two 8 bit addresses! X and Y 
coordinates), and the Digisector returns 
the digitized brightness of the image at the 
specified location. For set-up and monitor- 
ing purposes the Digisector also produces 
an output, comprised of the camera's video 
signal plus a superimposed intensified 
cursor, showing exactly where the Digisec- 
tor is looking. Applications include preci- 
sion security systems, moving-target in- 
dicators, computer portraiture, 
fast-to-slow-scan conversion for ham radio 
operators, and salvation for a DROID in 
dire need of a wall socket. With clever 
software, the Digisector can read paper 
tape, punched cards, strip charts, bar 
codes, and musical scores. Software for 
computer portraiture and slow-scan televi- 
sion is included. $169.95. 

The Micro Works, Box 1 1 10, Del Mar, 
CA 92014. (714)756-2687. 

CIRCLE 224 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



AOIXTS WAHTMD. 



Bashlin Telephone 
Dlslnfector 



One of the greatest unitary tn- 

▼entl.iiin of the ace. KBdorssd 

by fnrty Health Boards through. 

out the United State*. 

DiiHt. Moisture and Germ Proof 

Price AO cents. Postpaid. 

Tatcm Manufacturing Company' 

BufUla. H. Y, U.S. A. 



ilf«H 

fa tartar*) 
■ •MUM 
CUCtMMCS 



astaatl 
UW1H 



<• assart huts. 
— I Ilsjt bul 



HOBBYISTS! ENGINEERS! TECHNICIANS! STUDENTS! 



Write and run machine language programs at home, display video 
graphics on your TV set and design microprocessor circuits — the 
very first night — even if you've never used a computer before! 

II RCACOSMAC 

t: COMPUTER s99 95 

Slop reading about computers, induct yout hands on one' With a SW. 4 *** I I I 

II and our short Cowsr hyTom Pitt man, you master computers in mi time at 

.ill* I I I 1 1 demonstrates all SH commands an RCA 1802 can execute and the 

Short Count quick!) teaches > on to use each of the lK02's capabilities El I II 

i also diapsayi graphics on an> I V set. including an exciting new target missile 

gun game' Add-ons are among the most advanced available anywhere You gel 

m.tssi\e computing potential No wonder IEEE chapters, universities and major 

corporations all use IT I II to train engineers and students' Kit iscasilv assembled 

a single evening and vou m.iv still have time to run vour first programs before going 

<lf»L _ SEND TODAY! _ — — 

■' Deluxe mcl.tl cshinet li>i \S( I 
. Keyboard. $H.»S plus S3. 50 p&h 



ft 



v u> 



U 



NOW AVAILABLE FOB ELF II— 

lorn Mittman's Short Court* Om Mi- 
croprocessor 4 Computer Programm- 
ing teaches vou just about everything 
there is to know about ELF II or any 
k( A IK02 computer. Written in non- 
technical language, it's ■ learning 
breakthrough for engineers and laymen 
alike. $5.00 postpaid' 

Deluxe metal cabinet with plexiglas 
dust cover for HI II. $29.95 plus 
S: MipAh. 

I I I II connects lo the video input 
qI yout I \ tel II \im prefer to use 
voui antenna terminals, order RK 
Modulator. $».95 postpaid 

GIANT BO\RI> kit with cassette 
I o. Ks 232 < IIV I <). k b.t p l o. 

decoders for 14 separate I/O instruc- 
tions and a system monitor editor. 
$39.95 plus $2 p&h. 

Klugr I Prototype) Board accepts up 
toV.lt s $17.00 plus St p&h 

4k Stalk RAM kit. Addressable lo 
any 4k page to iS4k $89.95 plus $3 p&h. 

Gold plated HA- pin connectors (one 
required for each plug-in board-. $5.70 
postpaid. 

Professional ASCII Keyboard kit 
with I2K ASCII upper lower case set, 
9n printable characters, onboard regu- 
lator, parity, logic selection and choice 
of 4 handshaking signals to male with 
almost any computer $44.95 plus $2 



111 II Tiny BASK' on cassette 
tape. Commands include SAVE. 
LOAD, y . .1 1. 2ft variable* A-Z, 

III. II-" ■THEN. IN PIT". PRINT. 
GO ro.GOSI H. Kl II KV I ND, 

Kl Mill \k. I IS I Kl N, PLOT. 
PEEK, POKE. Comes fait) dow 
mented and includes alphanumeric 
generator required to displav al- 
phanumeric characters dncctl> on voui 
I \ screen without additional hard 
ware Also plays tick-lack-loe plus | 
drawing game that uses II I ll\ hex 
hev board as a joystick, ^ memory re- 
quired. $14.95 postpaid 

Ibfll Pittman's Short Course on Tiny 
BASIC tot El I II. $5 postpaid 

Kxpartsion Power Supplv (required 
when : Jding 4k RAM) $34.95 plus $2 
p&h. 

! Kl r HI (. Deluxe System Monitor 
on cassette tape. Allows displav ing t he- 
contents ot all registers on voui l\ ,il 
any point in your program. Also dis- 
plays 24 bytes of memory with full ad- 
dresses, blinking cursor and auto scroll- 
ing. A must for the serious program- 
mer! $14.95 postpaid. 
Coming Soon: AD. DA ( onvcrlcr. 
I ight Pea, Controller Board. Coloi 
Graphic I A: Music System. . and 
Maori 



L almost any computer >•*.■»> puis ».: e t , t . 

p & h Call or writ* for wirodprico*! bU,e 



N. minus R&D I id.. Dept CC9 

"'I itchtield Koad. p honc ■ 

New Miltord.CT Oft776 (209)3344379 I 



r included lor |ustS149 95 



Vet! I *am to run programs at home and I 

have enclosed D $99.95 j;us S3 postage ■ 

& nandlmg lor RCA COSMAC ELF II kit. I 

$4 95 lor power supply (required). ? 

S5 tor RCA 1802 User s Manual. ;. $5 I 

tor Short Course on Microprocessor & ■ 

Computer Programming 
; I want mine wired and tested with I 
power supply. RCA 1S02 User's Manual 
aadSAartCoev 
plas $3 p4h- 
D 1 0M also enclosing payment (including j 

postage & handling) (or the items checked | 

at the left 

Total Enclosed (Conn res add tax) | 

$ □ Check here if j 

you are enclosing Money Order or Cashier s | 
Check to expedite shipment 
USE YOUR VISA Master Charge I 
(Interbank # ) 

Account # J 

Signature Exp. Date 

PHONE ORDERS ACCEPTED (203) 3549375 , 

Print 

Name ■ 

Address j 

Crty 

State 



-Z-P 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. 



23 



CIRCLE 160 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




PERSCI DOUBLE-DENSITY 
DISKETTE CONTROLLER 

PerSci's new Z-80-based double-density 
diskette drive controller is said to be among 
the first designed for full IBM diskette 2D, 
IBM 3740 and S-100 bus compatibility. 
This stand-alone intelligent controller, the 
PerSci 1 170, can manage either single- or 
double-density recording on as many as 32 
diskette sides for a total system formatted 
data capacity of 1 6 megabytes. The 1 1 70 is, 
in effect, a compact computer for use in 
diskette subsystem management and 
microcomputer applications. It uses 
microprocessor intelligence to com- 
municate by file name and assume 
housekeeping functions usually performed 
by the CPU, thus minimizing the software 
burden. File management functions in- 
clude initialization; allocation and 
deallocation of diskette space: error detec- 
tion and retry; creating, deleting, renam- 
ing, copying of Tiles; and even diagnostic 
testing. Designed to operate PerSci's 
recently introduced 299 drive, "the in- 
dustry's first double density dual headed 
diskette drive," the 1 170 will support up to 
eight of the 299 four-headed units at one 
time. 

PerSci. Inc.. 12210 Nebraska Ave., West 
Los Angeles. CA 90025. (213)820-3764. 

CIRCLE 225 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




6800 CPU CARD FOR S-100 
BUS 

DATATRONICS. a division of Great 
Plains Communications & Electronics. 
Inc.. has announced a new 6800-CPU 
Microprocessor card for the S-I00 Bus, 
"bringing all the advantages of the 6800's 
sophisticated bus-oriented architecture 
and its comprehensive, PDP-11 like 
instruction set to the S-100 user. The 
extensive software support for the 6800 is 
available at last to the S-100 Bus user." 
This microprocessor card provides fully 
turn-key operation and maximum system 
compatibility as well as an RS-232 20ma 
interface (baud rate selectable with a DIP 



switch), papertape reader control, Mikbug 
ROM Operating System (other operating 
systems also available), power on reset, on- 
board dynamic memory refresh, slow 
memory interfacing (up to 5 usee access 
time), and tri-state data, address, and 
control lines all on one card. SI 79.00 kit. 
$269.00 assembled. 

Datatronics. 208 E. Olive. Lamar. CO 
81052. (303) 336-7956. 

CIRCLE 226 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




GLITCH GRABBER 

Extensys Corp. has announced a board 
interconnection device that significantly 
reduces noise, glitches and jitter on the S- 
100 microcomputer bus. Called the Exten- 
sys "Glitch Grabber." the printed circuit 
edge-connective device maintains clean 
signals on the notoriously noisy S-100 bus. 
safeguarding the low tolerance voltage 
differential of bus signals that arc asserted 
"high." The oscilloscope signals show the 
before (top) and after reduction in noise 
made possible by the Glitch Grabber. The 
Extensys device provides glitch-free signals 
(no spikes interference, cross-talk) by 
bringing some well-documented analog 
techniques from transmission-line analysis 
to the digital world of S-100 computers. 
$79.50. 

Ed Hartnett at Extensys. 380 Bernardo 
Ave.. Mountain View, CA 94040. (415) 
969-6100. 

CIRCLE 227 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




SOFTWARE 



EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 

A variety of educational programs on 
cassette, for the Radio Shack TRS-80 
Level I and Level II, Commodore PET, 
and Apple II. is available from Program 
Design, Inc. Step-by-Step is a three- 
cassette course that teaches how to 
program a microcomputer in BASIC, for 
$29.95. Preschool IQ Builder, at $9.50, is 
one of a series of "IQ Builder" tapes for tots 
(another series is for high school, college 
and adult ages) that develop skills. 

Program Design, Inc., 1 1 Idar Ct., 
Greenwich, CT 06830. 

CIRCLE 228 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



BASIC FOR FAIRCHILD F8 

Micro Business Systems has a full 
BASIC interpreter for use with Fairchild's 
F8 microprocessor. Called MBS-BASIC, 
the new product features 9-digit precision 
and floating point arithmetic. Including all 
standard arithmetic operations and 
relations, MBS-BASIC is competitive in 
speed and efficiency with the 8080 and Z-80 
BASIC interpreters, and has 9-digit 
floating-point precision. MBS-BASIC 
version 1.0 has a license fee of $179.95, is 
distributed on ASR33-compatible paper 
tape and is provided with documentation. 

Micro Business Systems, Box 8255, JFK 
Station, Boston, MA 02114. (617) 682- 
1854. 

CIRCLE 229 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PET WORD PROCESSOR 

Connecticut Microcomputer has a word 
processor program for the Commodore 
PET. This program permits composing 
and printing letters, flyers, advertisements, 
manuscripts, articles, etc., using the Com- 
modore PET and an RS-232 printer. Script 
directives include line length, left margin, 
centering, and skip. Edit commands allow 
the user to insert lines, delete lines, move 
lines, change strings, save onto cassette. 
load from cassette, move up, move down, 
print and type. The Word Processor Pro- 
gram addresses an RS-232 printer through 
a CmC printer adapter. $29.50. 

Connecticut Microcomputer, 150 
Pocono Road, Brookfield, CT 06804. 

CIRCLE 230 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



STAR WARS SIMULATION 

The Star Wars demonstration program 
used by Objective Design as a display of the 
graphics capabilities of the Programmable 
Character Generator is now available for 
distribution. The game, an adaptation of 
the end of the movie battle against the 
Death Star, is a true, real-time simulation. 
Under player control, ships move in three 
dimensions to create a realistic simulation 
of actual space flight. Objects increase in 
size as the ships approach and diminish as 
they pass. Weapons, deflector screens, and 
a directional control Joystick are im- 
plemented in each ship. True to the original 
storyline, ships of the Rebel forces must 
pass through Imperial defenses and Tie- 
fighters to enter a channel on the Death 
Star. If they can avoid a crash into the 
channel wall and avoid the gunsights of 
pursuing ships, they have a chance to 
destroy the Death Star. The game requires 
the high-density graphics display provided 
only by the Programmable Character Gen- 
erator. Written in 14K of 8080 assembly 
language, the program code is being 
offered on Tarbell and CUTS tape. Game 
rules and instructions for assembling the 
required ship-control boxes arc included in 
the price of $7.50. 

Objective Design. Inc.. P.O. Box 20325. 
Tallahassee. FL 32304. (904) 224-5545. 

CIRCLE 216 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



24 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



THE COMPLETE COMPUTER 





LookToThe North Star HORIZON Computer. 



HORIZON™— a complete, high-performance microprocessor 
system with integrated floppy disk memory. HORIZON is 
attractive, professionally engineered, and ideal for business, 
educational and personal applications. 

To begin programming in extended BASIC, merely add a CRT 
or hard-copy terminal. HORIZON-1 includes a Z80A processor, 
16K RAM, minifloppy™ disk and 12-slot S-100 motherboard 
with serial terminal interface — all standard equipment. 

WHAT ABOUT PERFORMANCE? 

The Z80A processor operates at 4MHZ — double the power of 
the 8080. And our 16K RAM board lets the Z80A execute at 
full speed. HORIZON can load or save a 10K byte disk program 
in less than 2 seconds. Each diskette can store 90K bytes. 

AND SOFTWARE, TOO 

HORIZON includes the North Star Disk Operating System and 
full extended BASIC on diskette ready at power-on. Our BASIC, 
now in widespread use, has everything desired in a BASIC, in- 
cluding sequential and random disk files, formatted output, a 
powerful line editor, strings, machine language CALL and more. 



EXPAND YOUR HORIZON 

Also available — Hardware floating point board (FPB); addi- 
tional 16K memory boards with parity option. Add a second 
disk drive and you have HORIZON-2. Economical serial and 
parallel I/O ports may be installed on the motherboard. Many 
widely available S-100 bus peripheral boards can be added to 
HORIZON. 

QUALITY AT THE RIGHT PRICE 

HORIZON processor board, RAM, FPB and MICRO DISK SYS- 
TEM can be bought separately for either Z80 or 8080 S-100 bus 
systems. 

HORIZON-1 $1599 kit; $1899 assembled. 

HORIZON-2 $1999 kit; $2349 assembled. 

16K RAM-$399 kit; $459 assembled; Parity option $39 kit; $59 
assembled. FPB $259 kit; $359 assembled. Z80 board $199 kit; 
$259 assembled. Prices subject to change. HORIZON ottered 
in choice of wood or blue metal cover at no extra charge 

Write for free color catalogue or visit your local computer store. 



North Star * Computers 

2547 Ninth Street • Berkeley. California 94710 • [415] 549-0858. 



CIRCLE 165 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CASSETTE MAGAZINE FOR 
PET COMPUTERS 

CURSOR is a monthly cassette 
magazine of programs written just for the 
Commodore PET computer. Each issue 
contains a featured game, as well as a 
variety of other professionally written and 
tested programs for the 8K PET. CUR- 
SOR also provides practical programs for 
business, for statistical data analysis and 
for use in the home. There are educational 
programs children will enjoy, and some 
computer lore for dedicated "hackers." 
This magazine is distributed each month by 
First Class mail on a C-30 cassette, at $24 
for 12 issues. 

CURSOR, Box 550, Goleta. CA 93017. 

CIRCLE 231 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




TRS-80 MICROCHESS 

Micro-Ware Limited's MICROCHESS 
1. 5 for the Radio Shack TRS-80 
microcomputer is a 4K Z-80 machine- 
language program utilizing every available 
byte of user RAM in the TRS-80. Standard 
algebraic notation is used to describe the 
moves to the computer. Every move is 
verified for legality to prevent user error. A 
simple command allows temporary 
numbering of the squares to assist in move 
entry. The chess board is displayed using 
the graphics mode available on the TRS- 
80. The moving pieces even flash before 
they move to simulate the gradual narrow- 
ing of attention on the moving piece as 
found in human chess play. The program 
has three separate levels of play. $19.95. 

Micro-Ware Ltd., 27 Firstbrooke Rd., 
Toronto. Ontario, Canada. M4E 2L2. 
(416)424-1413. 

CIRCLE 232 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



650X ASSEMBLER/TEXT 
EDITOR 

The comprehensive resident 
assembler text editor announced by 
ARESCO is a complete system for enter- 
ing, storing, editing, and assembling 
programs for 650X-based processing 
systems. Although designed primarily for 
use with the KIM system, the 
editor assembler can be used on any 650X 
system such as TIM. Apple. OSI. Baby!, 



etc. and is supplied with a complete source 
listing. The text editor, for creating, 
editing, and saving line-numbered text files 
stored in RAM, supports such functionsas 
entering new text, deleting text, finding a 
designated string in text, resequencing line 
numbers, listing a specified block of text, 
loading text from paper tape or audio 
cassette, returning to the monitor, dump- 
ing the text file to paper tape or audio 
cassette, clearing the text area, and 
transferring control to the assembler. The 
editor features line-number orientation for 
ease of use. Users can extend the editor to 
fit their needs since any command preceded 
with an "X" is passed to a user-specifiable 
routine. Text files are completely 
relocatable in memory, and multiple text 
files may be in memory simultaneously. 
The length of text files is limited only by 
available memory. The resident assembler 
is a single-pass assembler which accepts the 
entire 650X instruction set, using the 
standard MOS Technology notation. 
Source code may be paper tape or memory 
resident, and object code is always written 
to memory. The complete system occupies 
6K of memory (from E000 to F7FF) and 
object code is available on KIM cassette or 
paper tape (KIM /TIM format) for $70. 

ARESCO, 450 Forest Ave./Q-203, 
Norristown, PA 19401. 

CIRCLE 233 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




UNIVERSAL DATABASE AND 
EDITOR FOR APPLE II 

This Universal Database is said to be 
unique in that the fields used are "predeter- 
mined neither in number or length of each 
field although there is a maximum of how 
many and how long each may be. It's 
universal because you define the number of 
fields, their lengths, and title of each field." 

The APPL-E-DITOR is used mainly in 
developing letters, documentation, and 
other forms that will be changed again and 
again. The functions permit adding lines, 
changing text, deleting, inserting, listing. 
modifying a line at a time, renumbering, 
etc. 

Both programs are written for an Apple 
II with 20K+ memory; the database 
cassette is $60, the editor cassette $50. 

Darrell's Appleware House, 17638 157th 
Ave.. S.E. Rcnton, WA 98055. 

CIRCLE 234 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



8080 TEXT-PROCESSING 
SYSTEM 

The Technical Systems Consultants 
8080 text processing system allows the use 
of over 50 commands for special text- 
formatting applications, the commands 
included will support multiple spacing, 
left-margin control, indenting, the ability 
to save continguous text, paging, left-hand 
justification, right-hand-only justification, 
left and right justification, centering, no-fill 
modes, page numbering, the printing of 
left, right, or centered titles, and line length 
control. Also included are capabilities for 
macro definition to define and build special 
formatting commands, number registers 
which can be used like variables in a 
program, conditional command execution, 
sctable macro execution points (to execute 
a macro at a predefined line number), the 
ability to prompt a terminal for text during 
the formatting process, and a feature which 
allows sending informative strings to the 
terminal. The system also outputs numbers 
in either Arabic, capital Roman numerals, 
or small Roman numerals. Tab columns 
may be defined as well as the tab character 
and tab-fill character. Environment 
switching is permitted for easy parameter 
changing and a loop command is available 
for repeated formatting jobs such as form 
letters. An external editor is required as no 
editing functions are included. The TSC 
Text Processor resides in just over 8K 
beginning at 1000 hex plus filespacc. $32.00 
buys the full manual including an "In- 
troduction to Text Processing," user's 
guide, and fully commented assembled 
source listing. An Intel ASCII-format 
paper tape is available for an additional 
$9.00. 

Technical Systems Consultants. Inc.. 
Box 2574. West Lafayette, IN 47906. 

CIRCLE 235 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



APL/Z80 

APL/Z80 is an API. system fortheZSO 
microprocessor. Version 1 has nearly all of 
the functions, operators, and features of 
APL on a large system. Functions not 
implemented in Version 1 are transpose, 
monadic format, matrix inverse, matrix 
divide and inner product. These are easily 
implemented with user-defined functions, 
however. APL/Z80 consists of two 
modules known as the supervisor and the 
interpreter which is romable. The super- 
visor handles all interfaces with the Z80 
computing environment. The Version I 
supervisor is designed for the Digital 
Group Z80 system and features a cursor- 
driven editor which is active at all times 
when input may be received from the 
keyboard. In addition the last line input 
may be recalled for editing and re-entry to 
the APL systems. An APL character-set 
ROM using the Motorola MCM6770 
character generator will be available as an 
option. 

Vanguard Systems Corp., 6812 San 
Pedro. San Antonio. TX 78216.(51 2) 828- 
0553. 

CIRCLE 236 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



E» 



■ Ml EJU'MANVK 
H»KB»CH 4 CO., 80S Filbert St.. Ph.la.. Pi. 



26 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




ii 



$249 jgets the entire family into 
creating video games, graphics 
and control ^ 
functions. f 

For starters. ^ fE£l 



COSMAC VIP, the completely 
assembled, ready-to-operate RCA 
Video Interface Processor, opens up a 
whole new world of computer excitement. New 
challenges in graphics, games and control 
functions. Yet it's just $249.00. 

Easy to buy. And easy to program, thanks to 
its unique, easy-to-use interpretive language. 
You get a complete how-to book including 
programs for 20 games: fun, challenging, and 
ready to load and record on your cassette. 

Simple but powerful. 

Built around an RCA COSMAC micropro- 
cessor, the VIP is a complete computer system 
that can grow with you. It has 2K of RAM, ex- 
pandable on-board to 4K. Plus a ROM monitor, 
audio tone output to a built-in speaker, power 
supply, and 8-bit input and output ports for 
control of relays, sensors, or other peripherals. 



Soon RCA will offer 
options for color graphics 
'find 256 tone sound generation. 
An optional auxiliary keyboard 
will dpi Tp an exciting world of two-player 
games. 

Take the first step now. 
Check your local computer store or elec- 
tronics distributor for the VIP. Or contact RCA 
VIP Marketing, New Holland Avenue, Lancaster, 
PA 17604. Phone (717) 291-5848. 

'Suggested retail price Does not include video monitor or cassette recorder 



The fun way 
into computers. 



RC/1 






CIRCLE 104 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MISCELLANEOUS 



MPU VIDEO GAME 

Magnavox has introduced its first 
microprocessor home videogame unit. The 
Odyssey 3 Computer Video Game System 
(Model 7600). The new game features a 49- 
position alphanumeric keyboard which 
will enable the user to engage in beginning 
computer programming as well as play a 
wide variety of electronic sports, combat, 
and logic games on their television screen. 
Nine pre-programmed cartridges will be 
available initially for the Odyssey 2 with one 
cartridge included with the game unit at 
time of sale. Seven of the optional 
cartridges will have a suggested retail price 
of $ 19.95. The eighth cartridge. Computer 
Introduction, will carry a suggested list 
price of $24.95. The Odyssey- is 5179.95. 

Magnavox, 1790 Magnavox Way, Fort 
Wayne, IN 46804. 

CIRCLE 237 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




COMPUTER COURSE FOR 
FIRST-TIME USERS 

A self-instructional course providing 
information needed by first-time users of 
computers has been announced by INFO 3, 
publishers of audio-cassette EDP courses. 
Computer Concepts for Small Business 
covers basic computer concepts, including 
types of data and how they are processed, 
how systems are developed, the operation 
of implemented systems and how to select a 
computer. A chart showing Goals. Objec- 
tives and Tasks for this course, called a 
GOT Chart, is available free. It shows in 
detail the learning sequence and the 
measurable skills derived from the course. 
The course is designed to aid business 
people to prepare for their first computer, 
by presenting the prerequisites of sound 
business computer applications, showing 
how systems are developed and operated, 
and covering critical management 
decisions like security and personnel 
staffing. Also, specific steps are described 
for evaluating and acquiring computer 
equipment and software. The course 
contains over two hours of instructional 
audio-cassette tapes, plus a workbook of 
over 200 pages. The regular price is $145, 
but an introductory price of $95 will be in 
effect through September 15. 1978. 

INFO 3. 21241 Ventura Blvd. Suite 193. 
Woodland Hills. CA 91364. Toll-free 
number is (800) 423-5205: in California 
(213)999-5753. 

CIRCLE 238 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



APPLE USERS GET ACCESS 
TO STOCK-MARKET QUOTES 

Apple Computer has a new service which 
will provide owners of its computers with 
stock portfolio information and other 
financial services. Using a telephone link 
up. users of Apple II Computers will be 
able to dial the Dow Jones Stock Quote 
Reporter Service for fifteen-minutc- 
delayed stock and bond quotations. This 
information along with software provided 
by Apple will enable the user to determine 
current portfolio value, short and long 
term gains, and rate of return, among other 
things. At a later date. Apple II users will 
be able to call up current news on 
companies in their user's portfolio. The 
cost of the stock quote service will include a 
one-time fee of $25 plus a usage charge of 
53 for the first three minutes plus 50c a 
minute thereafter for each usage session. 

Apple Computer Inc.. 10260 Handles 
Dr., Cupertino, CA 95014. (408) 996-1010. 

CIRCLE 239 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CALCULATORS 




"MATH CARD" CALCULATOR 

The FX-48 scientific "Math Card" is one 
of three in the "card" series from Casio. It 
has 32 essential scientific functions in 
addition to the basic math functions. The 
essential scientific functions include 
trigonometries, parenthesis, logarithms, 
factorials, square root, powers, power 
extraction and so much more. The eight- 
digit "Math Card" is only '/»" thick, weighs 
1 .6 ounces and operates for 1 ,000 hours on 
two batteries. Suggested retail price is 
539.95. 

Casio. Inc.. 15 Gardner Rd., Fairfield, 
N.I 07006. 

CIRCLE 240 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CANON SI- 
STATISTICAL CALCULATOR 

The Canon F-62 is an advanced hand- 
held scientific and statistical calculator. It 
has 10 digits, l-memory, 8 digit mantissa 
and 2-digit exponent. Versatile scientific 
functions contain: hyperbolics and their 
inverse, polar and rectangular conversion 
and more. Advanced statistical functions 
contain: factorial, permutation, combina- 
tion and probability, areas under normal 
distribution curve, and more. Long battery 
life provides about 1 ,200 hours continuous 
use. list price. $59.95. 

Canon USA Inc.. 10 Nevada Dr.. Lake 
Success. NY 1 1040. 

CIRCLE 241 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Tl SLIMLINE LCD SCIENTIFIC 
CALCULATOR 

The Slimline TI-25. which combines 
state-of-the-art features and attractive 
slimline styling, is announced by Texas 
Instruments. The new electronic scientific 
calculator, designed for professionals and 
students, provides versatile, built-in 
capabilities for handling algebraic, 
trigonometric and statistical problems. 

The TI-25. with an easy-to-read Liquid 
Crystal Display (LCD), will automatically 
handle a broad range of mathematical 
problems, including such slide-rule func- 
tions as roots, powers, common and 
natural logarithms, reciprocals, and 
trigonometry in degrees, radians and 
grads. Functions such as pi and factorial 
provide rapid calculations for use in 
complex problem-solving, while a scien- 
tific notation key enables a user to work 
with small or large numbers with ease. 

Powerful built-in statistical capability 
quickly computes mean, variance, and 
standard deviation giving immediate 
access to numbers needed to analyze data 
and draw conclusions. 

Another built-in feature in the TI-25 is 
the algebraic hierarchy with three levels of 
parentheses. This allows users to enter 
problems as they're usually written, left to 
right. It eliminates the need for re- 
arranging formulas or equations and 
scratch-paper calculations. $30 suggested 
list. 

Iexas Instruments Inc.. Consumer 
Relations TI-25. P.O. Box 53. Lubbock. 
TX 79408. 

CIRCLE 242 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



OPIUM 



ami Liquor Habit cured in 
lO to SO dtw No pay till 
cured. Dr. J. I*. Stephens, 
DepUM, Lebanon, Ohio. 



28 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




The Computer for the Professional 



The 8813 was built with you, the professional, in mind. 

It quickly and easily processes cost estimates, payrolls, 

accounts, inventory, patient/ client records and much 

more. You can write reports, briefs, and proposals on 

the 88I3's typewriter keyboard, see them on the video 

screen, and instantly correct, revise, or print them. 

Using the 8813, one person can process what would 

normally require many secretaries, several bookkeepers, 

and a great deal of lime. And data storage takes a small 

fraction of the space used by previous methods. 



You don't need to learn complicated computer lan- 
guages. The 8813 understands commands in English. If 
you want to write your own programs, the 8813 includes a 
simple computer language, BASIC, that you can master in 
a few days. The 8813 slashes the professional's overhead. 
It's a powerful time and money-saving ally. Prices for 
complete systems including printer start at less than $8,000. 

See the 8813 at your local dealer or contact PolyMorphic 
Systems, 460 Ward Drive, Santa Barbara, California, 931 1 1 , 
(805) 967-0468, for the name of the dealer nearest you. 



PolyMorphic 
Systems 



Micro Business Software 

• Complete interactive, double entry account- 
ing system 

• 51 programs with 120 pages of documen- 
tation 

• Written in Northstar BASIC (other variations 
available) 

• General ledger, accounts receivable, 
accounts payable, inventory and payroll 

• Only 24K of memory 

• Single diskette can hold 400 customer 
listings, 50 vendors, 400 line items of 
inventory, 25 employees, 60 general ledger 
accounts. 

• Only $200.00 

To order GBIS business software, send check, 
money order or purchase order (Calif, residents 
add 6% sales tax — prepaid orders shipped 
at no charge) to: 

Computer Products Of America 

A Division of The Computer Man: 
633 West Katella Avenue 
Orange, CA 92667 
(714) 633-1222 

Dealer and OEM prices upon request 



CIRCLE 112 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





RELIABLE APPLE SOFTWARE 




NOW AVAILABLE ON CASSETTE 




1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 


Rambows's Pot-of-Gold, Vol. 1 - 49 BASIC programs 

Devils Dungeon 

Black Jack - graphics, 1-2 players 

Apple Checkbook 

Applevision - Hi-resolution graphic/music demo 

Hi-Resolution Life 

Appleodian - Irish Jig Composing algorithm 

Microchess 

Income Tax - 1040, Schedules A & B 

Apple Startrek/Starwars 

Microproducts Apple Assembler 

Circuit Logic Development Aid - 255 gates maximum 

Inventory — allows for user field definitions 

Apartment Building Cost Analysis — needs Applesoft 

Memory Verify 

Morse Code Trainer 


S49 
10 
10 
20 
15 
10 
10 
15 
25 
10 
20 
10 
35 
15 
5 
10 




Send Check or Money Order, sorry no stamps or C.O.D. 


to: 




RAINBOW 






COMPUTING INC. 






10723 White Oak Ave., Dept. CC 

Granada Hills, CA 91344 

(213) 360-2171 




California Residents add 6% sales tax 
Allow 3-4 weeks (or delivery 





THE ORIGIN 

OF 

THE TIMES SIGN? 



John F. Rogers 



The earliest use of the word algebra in English occurs in 
PATHWAY OF KNOWLEDGE (1551) by Robert Recorde 
(1510?-1558), of England's Oxford University But of 
particular interest are the devices Recorde proposed for 
the painless use of Arabic numerals, then coming into 
vogue. 

For example, one need learn multiplication facts only as 
far as 5 times 9 if one chooses to multiply by Recorde's 
method. Using 8 times 7 as a guide: 



8 



L 




? [ 



(10 - 8 = 2) 



(10 - 7 - 3) 



(7-2=5) •> 6 (2 times 3-6) 

or 

(8 - 3 - 5) 

Therefore, 8 times 7 = 56. 

Could Recorde's little diagram be the origin of X as a 
symbol for multiplication? 



The algebraic justification for Recorde's method is: 
x C J10 - x) 




7 [ (10 - y) 



10[.x - (10 - 7)] «• (10 - x)(10 - y) - 
10[x - 10 ♦ y] + (10 - x)(10 - y) = 

lOx _ 100 + lOy + 100 - lOx - lOy * xy ■ xy 

John F. Rogers. Morgan City High School. Morgan City. LA 70380 ■ 



TRS-80 
COMPATIBLE PERIPHERALS 

Centronics 779 Line Printer (some as Rodio Shack uses) $999.00 
779 with Tractor Feed Option (highly recommended) $1,179.00 
PI Microprinter (a low-cost alternative to the impocts) $399.00 
Shugart SA400 disks complete with p<-.wer supply & case $399 00 
The printers come complete with cable that plugs directly into your 

Expansion Interface unit. 
TRS-80 & PET Software also available .... send for Free Catalog. 

APPARAT INC. 

Box 10324, Denver, Co. 80210 303- 758-7275 



CIRCLE 166 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



30 



CIRCLE 170 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 




YOUR COPY 
OF THE NEW 
HEATHKir 
CATALOG 



featuring the world's leading line of kit and fully assembled 

personal computer systems* 

from the world leader in top 

quality electronic products 

in easy to build kit form 

nearly 400 kits in all, 

something for 

every interest! 




You can also redeem this coupon at any of the Heathkit Elec- 
tronic Centers! coast-to-coast where Heathkit products are 
sold, displayed and serviced. Check the white pages of your 
phone book for the store near you. 

(Units of Schlumberger Products Corporation. 



Send 
for your 
copy today 



Schlumberger 



Heath Company, Oept. 355-450 
Benton Harbor, Michigan 49022 



City_ 



# Computer products include 8-bit and 16-bit computers, CRT 
video terminal, paper tape reader/punch, cassette or floppy disk 
storage, LA36 DEC Writer II Printer Terminal, Serial and parallel 
interfaces, software programs, a self-instruction microprocessor 
program with trainer, complete computer library and lots more! 

Heath Company, Dept. 355-450 Benton Harbor, Michigan 49022 ■■ ■■ H WM ■■ ■ 

CIRCLE 102 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Please send me my FREE Heathkit Catalog. 
I am not on your mailing list. 



Name 



Address- 



-State_ 



CP-153 



Zip- 



sensational 
software 



Why should you select 

Creative Computing 

Software? 

1. Highest quality programs— outstand- 
ing applications for education, recrea- 
tion, business, and household manage- 
ment. 

2. Best value— up to fen different pro- 
grams per tape. 

3. Reliability— programs thoroughly test- 
ed and de-bugged. 

4. Redundant recording— fwo copies of 
every program on each tape. 

5. Professional quality tape— high density 
oxide. 100% calendered, flat frequency 
response, low noise, high output. 

6. Anti-jam cassette— teflon lubricated 
six-rib gasket, hard welded windows, 
double locking self lubricating hub. 
double flanged rollers on stainless steel 
pins, heavy metal shield 

7. Hard plastic box— best protection, easy 
to file. 

8. Widely available— carried by most retail 
computer stores. 

9. Made in U.S.A. 

10. Inexpensive— best value per dollar of 
any software. 

A Word About 
Tape Quality 

All video tape, most computer tape, and 
some good cassette tape is calendered. 
Calendering is what gives tape the smooth, 
glossy appearance on the oxide side. 
(Compare a Maxell UD tape to a poly pack 
tape and you'll see the difference.) 

As you know, if your tape heads are dirty, 
you lose frequency response. A rough tape 
surface causes virtually the same effect as 
dirty heads. It prevents intimate tape head 
contact with the main body of the tape. 
When tape is coated, it has millions of 
microscopic peaks and valleys. Calender- 
ing eliminates the peaks and valleys, causing 
a very smooth surface. In addition, since 
there are no rough peaks, there is less oxide 
ruboff and less head wear. 

Calendering is just one of the many high 
quality features you'll find in Creative 
Computing Software cassettes. We could 
have purchased cassettes for half the price 
that would have worked, but we wanted to 
be sure that our cassettes would last for 
years and would give you an error-free 
program load every time. 

Rather than rush our software to market, 
we've paid attention to tape quality, the 
cassette mechanism (it wont jam), redun- 
dant recording, and packaging (hard plastic 
box) as well as the programs themselves. 
With Creative Computing Software, you can 
be sure you're getting the absolute best that 
money can buy. 



PET (8K) Software 

CS-1001. Logic Games-1. Six favorites from 
BASIC Computer Games with super 
graphics. Awari. the African logic game with 
12 pits and 36 beans. Bagels, which 
challenges you to guess a secret 3-digit 
number. Martin Gardner's Chomp in which 
you chomp on a cookie with a poison 
corner. Flip-Flop— change a row of X's to 
0's. Hexapawn played with three chess 
pawns. Hi-Q, a solitaire peg-removal game. 
$7.95. 

CS-1002. Number Games-1. Six number 
logic games including Guess in which you 
guess a secret number. 23-Matches try not 
to take the last match. Letter in which you 
guess a secret letter. Number, a random 
jackpot game. Trap in which you trap a 
mystery number between two trap numbers. 
Stars gives you stars as clues to the secret 
number. $7.95. 

CS-1201. Education Simulations-1. Five 
super simulations including the popular 
Animal in which the computer learns 
animals from you. Fur Trader lets you trade 
furs in old Canada. Hammurabi in which 
you manage the city-state of Sumeria. Or try 
making your fortune in the Stock Market. A 
logic game. Word, has you guess secret 
words. $7.95. 

CS-1003. Logic Games-2. Six challenging 
puzzles including Rotate, in which you 
order a matrix of random letters. Strike-9. 
try to remove all nine digits without striking 
out. The classic number game, NIM. In 
Even-Wins try to take an even number of 
chips. Hi-Lo, a number guessing game with 
a jackpot. Batnum, the super "battle of 
numbers!" $7.95. 

CS-1004. Graphics Games-1. Five amazing 
realtime graphics games designed especial- 
ly for your PET. In Chase, one player 
pursues the other through a maze of 
obstacles and "zap doors." Escape- 
attempt to escape from a prison patrolled by 
robot guards. Dart provides arithmetic drill 
and indicates how close your response is to 
the correct answer on a dart board. In 
Snoopy you compute distances on a 
number-line while trying to shoot down the 
Red Baron. In Sweep you must try to hit nine 
targets in order by controlling the path of a 
cannonball. $7.95. 



GPeative 

Gompuhinfi 

software 



CS-1005. Graphics Games-2. Six favorite 
games. LEM, lunar lander with a graphic 
display and optional auto-pilot. Nuclear 
Reaction, a game of skill for two players. 
Artillery, in which two players shoot it out 
over computer-generated terrain. Bounce 
traces the path of a ball bouncing around 
the screen. Checkers, with graphic display, 
from our BASIC Games book. Dodgem, try 
to outmaneuver another player or the 
computer to get your pieces across the 
board first. $7.95. 

CS-1006. Conversational Games-1. Talk to 
ELIZA, the computerized psychoanalysis 
program. Compose poetry with Haiku. 
Challenge your vocabulary and word- 
guessing skills with Hangman. Hurkle, try to 
find the hurkle on the 10 by 10 grid in five 
moves. In Hexletter, you compete to capture 
more letters on a hexagon than your oppo- 
nent. $7.95. 

CP/M Software 

CS-9001. Games-1. An 8" floppy disc 
containing most of the first fifty games from 
Basic Computer Games in Microsoft Basic. 
All the games from Acey Ducey to Hi-Q 
including such favorites as Animal, 
Bullfight, Craps, and Hangman. (To run this. 
you need CP/M and Microsoft Basic.) 
$17.95. 

CS-9002. Games-2. The second half of 
Basic Computer Games including Life, 
LEM. Mugwump, Stars, 23 Matches, Word, 
and forty more! 8" floppy disc. $17.95. 

Radio Shack 
TRS-80 Software 

Write for latest releases. 

Apple II Software 

Write for latest releases. 

SOL-20 Software 

Write for latest releases. 



To Order... 

Creative Computing Software should be 
stocked by your local retail computer store. 
If your favorite outlet doesn't yet offer it. 
have him call C.J. at 800-631-8112. (In NJ. 
201-540-0445). 

Or you can order directly from Creative 
Computing. Send your check for tapes plus 
$1.00 shipping and handling per order to 
Creative Computing Software, P.O. Box 
789-M, Morristown, NJ 07960. NJ residents 
add 5% sales tax. Visa or Master Charge are 
acceptable also. For faster service, call in 
your bank card order toll free to 800-631- 
8112. (In NJ, 201-540-0445). 



A new low-cost computer with the 
promise of future magic 



Exidy Sorcere 



Margot Critchfield 




To say that the personal-computer 
field is a changing one is a record 
understatement. The variety in new 
components can be bewildering. 
However, the novice buyer can keep 
pretty well abreast of things by concen- 
trating on complete systems. In par- 
ticular, it's worth keeping an eye on 
three things, the features of systems 
that continue to prove themselves as 
solid citizens of the micro world; the 
reasons why some old friends have 
bitten the dust; and the promise offered 
by new faces on the scene. Of special 
interest are new systems with a design 
philosophy that makes one take notice 
because there is a capability for growth 
in several directions. 

One entry in this last category that 
attracted much attention at the 1978 
NCC Personal Computing Exhibit at 
Anaheim was the Sorcerer computer. 
It's a relatively low-cost (about $895) 
computer being built by Exidy, a 
company that has been active in the 
"arcade game" field prior to this. The 
thing that distinguishes Exidy's entry 
into the personal-computing market is 
that they elected not to introduce a 
home game center that could ultimate- 
ly be converted into a programmable 
computer. Instead, they have designed 
a full-fledged microcomputer system 
that can be expanded in a number of 
directions (including— for those who 
wish— games utilizing good resolution 
graphics, both black-and-white and 
color). 

The initial Sorcerer configuration is a 
unit that measures 19x13x4 inches, 
and weighs 13 pourrds. As shown in the 
photograph, it looks like an expanded 
keyboard enclosure (somewhat larger 
than the Radio Shack TRS-80). 
Protruding from the right side is a 
removable cartridge that has the 
appearance of an eight-track tape 
cartridge, but which is actually a 
removable "chunk" of memory. It can 
hold up to 16K of ROM, and it's used to 



store any kind of "permanent" software 
that might be desirable now or in the 
future. The Exidy trademark for the 
cartridge is ROM-PAC. The main use of 
this facility will be to provide systems 
software (such as a BASIC interpreter, 
a Z-80 assembler, APL, DOS, and a 
word processor). The obvious advan- 
tage to this approach is that users don't 
have to argue about which language or 
facility is best— they just plug in the 
software of their choice. They can also 
create their own, since an EPROM- 
PAC will also be available. 

The CPU uses the Z-80 chip. The 
standard unit comes with an 8K 
Microsoft BASIC in a ROM-PAC, and 
an additional user 8K of RAM memory 
which can be extended to 32K within 
the basic unit. The standard interfaces 
included are an RS232 serial I/O port, a 
parallel 8-bit latched and buffered I/O 
port with handshaking, a dual cassette 
interface, and an edge connector that 
permits adding an expansion box. The 
power of the expansion box is that it 
uses the S-100 bus, so all the goodies 
now available for this standard can 
theoretically be added to the Sorcerer. 
This means that voice synthesizers, 
A/D and D/A converters, graphics, 
additional I/O, and additional memory 
can be part of a full-fledged system. In 
particular, Exidy is developing a set of 
two S-100 boards that will provide 



high-resolution 8-color graphics (256 
by 256 addressable points with colors 
individually selectable for each point). 

The standard output display is 
capable of providing both 
alphanumeric and graphic informa- 
tion. The alphanumeric display comes 
out the back as composite video ready 
to go to a black-and-white TV monitor, 
or into a high-resolution unit Exidy 
sells (for about $250). Up to 30 lines of 
64 characters each can be displayed on 
the screen, including the full ASCII 
upper- and lower-case set, 64 special 
graphics characters, and (get this) an 
additional 64 special characters that 
users can define with software (music 
buffs take note). In graphics mode, this 
same display allows black-and-white 
graphics with a resolution of 512 
(horizontal) by 240 (vertical). The 
standard unit also provides for two 
user-supplied tape-cassette units (with 
motor control). Disk drives can be 
added through the expansion box, and 
Exidy will be selling a companion disk 
unit that uses Shugart drives. 

These are impressive specs, and they 
show an above-average amount of 
planning, particularly with regard to 
both hardware and software growth. A 
report on how these specs stack up in 
practice will be in the works as soon as 
the first evaluation units become 
available. ■ 



Margot Critchfield. University 

of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh. PA 15260 




SEPT/OCT 1978 



33 



Random Ramblings 

Random Ramblings 

Random Ramblings 

Random Ramblings 



David H. Ahl 



These last few months have been 
nothing short of incredible in the 
consumer electronics industry and at 
Creative Computing as well. I'd like to 
share some of my observations with 
you, first about Creative, then the 
industry, then a couple of other things. 
For information on any of the products 
mentioned, reader service card 
numbers are on page 41. 

Staff Changes 

Those of you who read our masthead 
and others areas of fine print may have 
noticed some changes, in particular, 
that we have a new editor, John Craig. 
John has been in the computer in- 
dustry for many years with Varian Data 
Machines and Federal Electric and has 
a rich background in both large and 
small systems, software and hardware, 
but most of all he has the unique ability 
to communicate his knowledge 
through the written word in a clear, 
concise, and interesting manner. John 
was co-editor of the Micro-8 
Newsletter back when people were 
building computers from 8008 chips 
(only two years ago, but it's like ancient 
history). More recently, John was the 
editor of Kilobaud. 

This issue was put together by the 
existing team, but you'll start to see 
John's hand next issue. Speaking of 
the existing team, you'll continue to see 
reviews, TRS-80 stuff and more by- 
lined articles by Steve Gray in his new 
role of associate editor. Steve also will 
be doing some free-lance work for 
other publications both inside and 
outside of the computer field. 

Other new names in the associate 
editor column include the following: 

Lee Felsenstein was born in 
Philadelphia and grew up wanting to be 
an inventor. Outside of that, he bears 
no resemblance to W.C. Fields what- 
soever. Instrumental in establishing 
the first experimental public-access 
information-exchange system in 1972, 
he is presently engaged in further 
development in that area of com- 
munications. In his spare time he has 
designed the Penny whistle 103 
modem, the VDM-1 video display 
module, the SOL terminal/computer, 
and the VID-80 video display card. Lee 
was also instrumental in forming the 
original Homebrew Computer Club 
and currently serves as its "toast- 
master." 



Bill Etra is a West Coast-based 
computer design consultant. He is 
coinventor of the Rutt/Etra Video 
Synthesizer — the first portable 
voltage-control analog video syn- 
thesizer, as well as the Video-lab. His 
main interest is videographics, and 
many of his works have appeared as 
cover illustrations on various 
periodicals and books including Com- 
puters in Society and Broadcast 
Management and Engineering. His 
current research centers on "The 
Computer as a Compositional Tool for 
Video." 

AJ. Karshmer is currently com- 
pleting his Ph.D. in computer science 
at the University of Massachusetts. His 
main interest is the use of artificial 
intelligence concepts in solving 
problems involved in the transmission 
of computer graphics. Currently, he is 
developing a method for sending high- 
density information, such as animated 
graphics, over existing low-bandwidth 
telecommunications networks. 

Theodor Nelson is the author of the 
classic Computer Lib/Dream 
Machines, a Whole-Earth-style 
catalogue of computer machinations. 
His latest book is the newly released 
The Home Computer Revolution. Ted 
specializes in highly interactive 
systems for graphics and text. His past 
experience includes a stint at Dr. Lilly's 
Dolphin Laboratory and work as a 
consultant for Bell Lab's ABM system. 

Eben Ostby has been involved with 
computing ever since he crashed the 
PDP-8 at Pomfret School. At present, 
he is doing graduate work in computer 
science at Brown University and trying 
to convince people that APL isn't really 
all that bad. 

Frederick W. Chesson is a graduate 
of the University of Connecticut. After 
work in electronic engineering, he 
gravitated into technical writing. At 
present, he furnishes instruction 
manuals and related items to various 
firms plus construction articles to 
several electronics hobby magazines. 
A member of the American Cryp- 
togram Association since 1958, he is 
currently researching a book on Civil 
War codes and ciphers. 

Robert Osband took apart his first 
telephone at age twelve, and hasn't 
stopped playing with them since. As a 
Communications Center Specialist for 
the U.S. Army in Germany, he ex- 



panded his knowledge of information 
transmission and hisscopenow ranges 
from the Voice Telephone Network 
through the Inter-University AR- 
PANET, to the International Telex 
Network. 

Ed Hershberger is a New York-based 
film-maker and friend of technology, 
ecological balance, high-fidelity, and 
good soldering technique. He can be 
found working on movies, breadboard- 
ing circuits, or perusing Canal Street 
for servos, transformers, and sockets 
for his various projects. Currently, he is 
working on a portable, zero-voltage 
switching clock to turn battery-belts on 
in various motel rooms. 

Margot Critchfield has been 
associated with Project SOLO and 
Soloworks at the University of 
Pittsburgh as editor, illustrator, and 
researcher. She has collaborated with 
Tom Dwyer on his recent book Basic 
and the Personal Computer and 
numerous other articles and booklets. 
She is currently finishing up her Ph.D 
in Education at Pittsburgh. 

There are a number of changes and 
additions in other positions as well who 
I'll introduce to you next issue. 

As many of you know, Creative 
Computing was a "hobby" for me 
whilst working full-time as Manager of 
Marketing Communications for AT&T. 
Well, no more. I am now at Creative 
Computing full time. 




Pethouse Pet Barbara Corser sends 
greetings to Creative readers from the 
Consumer Electronics Show. 



34 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



"Not Just a Magazine" 

Many of you know Creative Com- 
puting mainly as a magazine. However, 
only about one-third of our corporate 
revenues are derived from the 
magazine. Other divisions include: 
Creative Computing Press. Our book 
publishing arm, Creative Computing 
Press, started by publishing material 
reprinted from Creative Computing 
magazine. We now publish a wide 
variety of original books related to 
computer applications in education, 
small business and the home. We 
publish approximately six new titles a 
year along with a line of board games, 
posters, prints and T-shirts. These 
books and other items are sold by mail 
order, and through retail computer 
stores and selected college and trade 
book stores. 

Creative Computing Book Service. Our 
mail order book service handles a wide 
selection of publications of both major 
and small presses. In addition to 
computer applications, titles cover 
computer literacy, problem solving, 
games and puzzles. Many of these 
books are not readily available in retail 
stores. 

Creative Computing Software. Our 
newest division, Creative Computing 
Software, is involved with developing 
and marketing software for home, 
small business and educational com- 
puter users. 

Creative Computing Consulting. Prin- 
cipal clients are educational in- 
stitutions and computer manufacturers 
interested in the education market. On 
these assignments we draw not only on 
our own staff but many collaborating 
educators and researchers as well. 



Consumer Electronics 
Show 

Those of you who read my May 
editorial will recall I predicted that 
more new computers would be an- 
nounced at the Consumer Electronics 
Show (CES) than at the National 
Computer Conference (NCC). The 
score: CES 7, NCC 1. Not a bad 
prediction! I also said we'd cover the 
CES and I did — personally. NCC too, 
for that matter. Here are some of the 
highlights from the CES (most of these 
items are or will be covered in greater 
depth elsewhere on these pages). 

Personal Computers 

PeCos I personal computer. Console 
contains a full 60-key keyboard, MPU 
(6502), 24K ROM and 16K RAM, two 
cassette decks and I/O provision for 
two more (nice for sort merging) and 
an RS232-C output (for printer or 
external terminal). A 9" B&W monitor, 
40 characters per line, 16 lines is 
included with the basic system. The 




Overview of the Consumer Electronics Show, June 11-14, 1978, Chicago, IL. 



program language is PeCos, a 
derivative of JOSS (a list processing 
language developed by Rand Corp). 
It's made by APF Electronics who are 
leaders in printing calculators so the 
aim is probably more small business 
than home or educational use. 

CyberVision 2001. Console contains 
MPU.4K RAM, singlecassette deck and 
built-in speaker. Two alphanumeric 
touch sensitive keypads are included. 
The unit attaches to a color TV set. It 




CyberVision 2001 uses stereo cassette tape 
with one track for programs and one for 
audio. 




CyberVision 2001 control has full alphabet 
and numerals on touch sensitive pad. 



runs Tiny BASIC but most of the pre- 
programmed cassettes are in machine 
code. Because of the relatively small 
built-in memory, programs use con- 
tinuous overlays; i.e., keep the cassette 
running, but this introduces some neat 
possibilities with the separate audio 
track — storytelling, spelling and 
language drill and audio prompts in 
programs. This is the unit sold through 
the Montgomery Ward catalog. (See 
interview with John R. Powers III.) 

Ohio Scientific was showing their 
complete line at both the CES and 
NCC. Interest seemed most keen on 
the $598 Challenger IIP with 6502 MPU, 
built-in keyboard 8K BASIC in ROM, 
4K RAM and video output (to a monitor) 
of 32 lines x 64 characters. Cassette 
recorder is external. 

VideoBrain showed their Expander 1 
(for two external cassette recorders) 
and Expander 2 which is an acoustic- 
coupled telephone modem to make 
VideoBrain into a timesharing terminal. 
Six new cartridges in financial 
management, entertainment, and other 
areas were also introduced. 

Apple showed their "Disk II," a so- 
called intelligent peripheral for the 
Apple II. It was being demonstrated 
most impressively with stock price data 
from the New York Stock Exchange. 
The disk offers random and sequential 
access, 116 kilobytes per diskette in a 
35-track soft-sectored format. Each 
track contains 13 sectors of 256 bytes 
each. Price is $495.00 Apple also 
reduced memory and system prices 
substantially. 

Apple, by the by, is putting a tremen- 
dous amount of money in their 



SEPTADCT 1978 



35 



Ramblings Con't.... 

manuals and documentation at both 
the user level as well as the dealer level. 
Their new basic programming manual, 
which they were giving out as a 
promotional piece, is 130 pages and is 
extremely well done. It's two-color 
throughout and four-color on many of 
the pages. This is a parallel, in a sense, 
to what Digital Equipment Corp. used 
to do when they gave out their Small 
Computer Handbook for the PDP 5 and 
the PDP 8. The idea being, let the 
consumer know how easy it was to use 
the unit and then they will go on and 
buy it. 

Teal Industries showed the Swift 
Personal Computer. The Swift out- 
wardly resembles the PET; that is, it has 
a keyboard and CRT and the computer 
built into one unit.On the other hand, its 
actual electronic characteristics are 
identical to those of the Radio Shack 
TRS-80 computer. It uses a Z-80 chip 
as the central micro processor, has a 
standard keyboard, 12-inch black and 
white screen, and single data cassette 
built in. The screen displays 16 lines of 
64 characters each. The basic unit has 
4K bytes of read only memory (ROM) 
and 4K bytes of RAM. It's imported by 
Teal Industries, Inc., Victoria Business 
Park, 251 East Victoria St., Carson, 
California, 90746. The word is from the 
Teal folks that they are looking to 
produce a private-label version of this 
computer for all comers. The price of 
the Swift in lots of 300 or more, FOB 
Japan is $257.00. That should mean a 
selling price, after mark-up, transpor- 
tation and import duty, of around 
$650.00. 




Home computer by Teal Industries looks 
like a PET but runs TRS-80 software. 



Another "look-alike" unit is 
manufactured by Toshiba which is 
essentially an electronic imitation of 
the Apple computer, although out- 
wardly it looks more like the Processor 
Technology SOL or Ohio Scientific 
Challenger. Apparently the Toshiba 
unit will not be commercially available 
in this country until December or later. 




"Home Wizard" computer from Hong Kong 
carries a $420 wholesale price tag, F.O.B. 
Connecticut. Retail should be around S695. 



Under the "Home Wizard" electronic 
product line was an entry simply called 
Home Computer by EAP Electro- 
Atomic Products, Ltd., Flat B First 
Floor, Kan Bun Industrial Building, 13- 
19 Kwai Wing Road, Kwai Chung, NT. 
Hong Kong. The Home Wizard Home 
Computer has a tape cassette built into 



it, a full 50-key keyboard and appeared 
to have reasonably good graphics on 
the screen with text output of 1 6 lines of 
probably 40 characters each, although 
there are no printed specs. The unit 
supposedly was a 6500 family MPU but 
not a 6502. Curious. Looks like an 
Apple to me. It's unlikely that it's being 
manufactured at this time and the unit 
that was shown at the show was simply 
a prototype to gauge dealer reaction to 
the product. 

Still another personal computer 
system is called the InterAct Personal 
Computer manufactured by InterAct 
Electronics, Inc. It has a 48-key stan- 
dard typewriter keyboard layout, 
however, the keys are more like 
calculator touch-sensitive keys. Also 
built in is an audio cassette recorder. 
More details were unavailable at press 
time. 

Commodore showed the new printer 
for the PET, which prints 80 characters 
per line on roll paper 8'//' wide and 
reproduces all the PET graphics sym- 
bols. Very nice. They also showed an 



Interact computer won 

a design award at 

the CES. 




Personal Computing: The Size of the Market 



According to the Consumer Elec- 
tronics 1978 Annual Review produced 
by the Electronics Industries Associa- 
tion, "the home computer market is 
currently dominated by enthusiastic 
hobbyists, and it's expected to con- 
tinue to be this year. Sales will be 
limited by production, industry 
members believe, and will total about 
250,000 units in 1978." 

The statistical and marketing forecast 
prepared by Merchandising in May 
1978 predicted a somewhat smaller 
180,000 units in 1978. 

What has already been delivered (by 
mid-year 1978) in the three years since 
the first Altair was shipped by MITS? 
Apple's public position is that they 
have shipped more than number two 
and three together, who are PET and 
Radio Shack, although not necessarily 
in that order. There is general agree- 
ment from both inside and outside 
Commodore that 15,000 PETS have 



been shipped. Current deliveries are 
running 3,000 - 4,000 per month and 
are expected to be 10,000 per month by 
years end. Estimates of TRS-80 
shipments to date vary between 8.000 
and 20,000 which indicates that Apple 
(who are extremely secret about their 
sales) has sold about 25,000 units. Mike 
Scott, president of Apple, told me that 
their sales in the fiscal year ended 
September 1978 would be between $10 
and $20 million. Translating this to 
units indicates a unit volume between 
13,500 and 27,000. Sales of everyone 
else put together over the past three 
years is probably in the neighborhood 
of 75,000 to 100,000. hence in the first 
three years of personal computing, 
approximately 150,000 units have been 
delivered. 

So, 1978 will see deliveries of 1 .2 to 1 .7 
times the total sales of the first three 
years. Anyone want to guess what 
sales will be by 1980? By 1985? 



36 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Ramblings Con't.... 

external cassette drive capable of 
storing 170 kilobytes. Price $100. 

Intelligent Systems Corp. again had 
everyone drooling over the spectacular 
color graphics on their Compucolor 
line but delivery is still the big question 
as it has been since first showing the 
products in March at the West Coast 
Computer Faire. 

Bally, of course, showed the 
professional Arcade which is reviewed 
elsewhere in this issue. 

A high-end new entry is the Smarts II 
from Fire Bird Sales Company, P.O. 
Box 116, Woodland, Illinois, 60974. It 
has 32K of RAM built into it with an 
expansion capability to 630K of RAM. It 
also has a mini floppy disc drive built 
into it which can be increased to 3 
drives as the need dictates. It provides 
output on a CRT display which is not 
included with the basic unit, 16 lines of 
64 characters each. It also has provi- 
sion for controlling color. The CPU in 
the Smarts II is a Z-80, actually a 
Mostek 3880, but nobody's ever going 
to know. The price on the Smarts II is 
$1,695. 



Technology: 
VLSI Around the Corner 

Those ingenious engineers who 
gave us integrated circuits, then 
followed that bit of magic with 
large-scale integrated circuits, are 
about to pull another rabbit out of their 
hats. The latest wizardry is something 
called very large-scale integration 
(VLSI), and application of VLSIs to 
consumer electronics could make even 
the most sophisticated products now 
coming along look like Tinker Toys. 

Among the possibilities? How about 
a pocket calculator-device with an 
alpha keyboard and a full foreign- 
language dictionary in its memory. Or 
home computers with vastly expanded 
capabilities over those currently on the 
market. Or even a small voice- 
recognition device which links directly 
to a computer. 

Just what is VLSI? The original 
integrated circuits (ICS) put 15 to 20 
transistors on a chip; large scale 
integration (LSI) jammed 500 tran- 



sistors on a chip. Now comes VLSI with 
the promise of more than 5,000 tran- 
sistors on a chip. The first VLSI chips 
will go to the big computer companies 
but it won't be long (2 years?) before 
they'll be available in consumer 
products. 

The one possible drawback is that 
these circuits apparently can't be made 
with good old standby silicon, but must 
use gallium arsenide. This isn't a 
strange, new material; the industry has 
been using it for high-speed and high- 
frequency semiconductors for years. 
Now they're going to u5e it for VLSI. 
But unlike silicon, gallium arsenide 
can't be made to support higher 
operating temperatures. This means 
that no power output circuits can be 
made as part of a VLSI chip, and in fact 
if there's much heat involved— such as 
in the power output of an audio 
amplifier or of a CB transmitter— the 
output transistors not only have to be 
separate, discrete devices, they must 
have good heat isolation from VLSI 
circuits. 



"The Home Computer: 

A Tool Not A Toy" 

An Interview with Mike Scott, 
President, Apple Computer 
Inc., Cupertino, CA. 

Ahl: I've heard it said that over the next 
two years the distribution channels will 
be the name of the game. Anyone can 
build the hardware — the Japanese, 
Koreans, Hong Kong people and so on. 
But sales support and software support 
is a more difficult game. How are you 
looking at this at Apple? 
Scott: We have two-step distribution, 
meaning a regional distributor that 
supports a regional area of stores, say 
like 60 stores. He's able at least once a 
month to visit all the local stores, able 
to communicate to them the latest new 
product available, how to sell it, and 
service it. 

Ahl: And service takes place at the 
regional level? 

Scott: Yes. But the service is also 
explaining to the guy how to sell the 
product. Everybody's got a pitch on 
why a computer is good. But when a 
customer comes in the door, how do 
you effectively minimize your sales 
time? You want to be able to close that 
sale without having the salesman 
spend eight hours and then maybe lose 
the sale. So, we're spending a lot of 
effort on the advertising to get the 
people into the regional stores or in the 
local stores to get that local support. 
Let's say a year or two out when there's 
100,000 or 200,000 users and they have 



a technical question, they can't call the 
factory. We just can't have enough 
phones. So they have to be able to go 
back to their retail store where they 
bought it to get the service. 

Another thing — I think both PET, 
Radio Shack and ourselves are follow- 
ing a premise that once a guy buys the 
initial computer, over the next year or 
two he'll come back and spend at least 
an equal amount buying accessories 
and peripherals. So there is an after- 
market automatically built in. And 
again, you need a local store rather 
than mail order where the customer 
can go select his add ons. 

Ahl: Are you looking at stores like the 
discounters and the mass-market 
merchandisers? 

Scott: We do not do any business 
through catalog or discount mass- 
merchandising chains. We want to be 




Mike Scott ot Apple Computer 



able to have a higher margin and the 
sales support that you can get from a 
one-on-one sales relationship that is 
necessary to sell at $1,000 computer. 

Ahl: You're not interested in, let's say, a 
Macy's or a Bloomingdales. 

Scott: We're going to do test markets 
over the next six months to understand 
what kind of point-of-purchase sales 
aids you need to be able to sell in those 
stores. We started last September with 
Team Electronics, which is an example 
of a hi-fi chain, to start understanding 
how to sell through those stores. 

I think another change is going take 
place. Right now 80% or more of the 
people that are buying home com- 
puters already know something about 
programming and do programming 
themselves. Two or three years from 
now that percentage is going to 
reverse; 80% are going to want pre- 
canned programs. That's because 
they're lazy. They want to turn on and 
have it come back and say, like the H&R 
Block guy does, "Answer these ques- 
tions and I'll tell you what your 
taxes are." So it's not really user- 
programmed in that sense. The factory 
has a software base on it. But it still is 
adaptable at the home level and once 
you get into it, you could modify the 
programs a little bit. 

Another important thing is to get 
enough people thinking that it's not 
just a toy. This is where the games 
started them thinking. And Apple helps 
encourage it a little bit. You start with it 
because it's a toy. But we've got to start 
getting people thinking of it as a tool. 



SEPT/CXTT 1978 



37 



Ramblings Con't... 




Chuck Peddle, designer of the Commodore 
PET. 

Home Computers: 
The Name of the Game 
is Peripherals 

An Interview with Chuck Ped- 
dle, designer of the Com- 
modore PET 

Ahl: There is a rumor that all of PET's 
being made are going overseas. 

Peddle: During the first half of June 
1978, we shipped exclusively overseas 
but that was planned because of the 
holidays in Europe. Europe tends to 



almost shut down business in July and 
August. So the intent was to load them 
up before that. We'll catch up with the 
U.S. dealers in July and August. Then 
we can start adding new ones. Ad- 
mittedly, we haven't kept all of our U.S. 
dealers as happy as we would have 
liked but we've done what we can. 
Ahl: What do you think of the Exidy 
Sorcerer? 

Peddle: I think it's a legitimate attempt 
to keep the S100 bus alive. That seems 
to be the only major difference 
between it and two or three others. 
Actually, I think that they're a little late 
for the hobbyist market. But if you look 
at their backers, I understand where 
they're coming from and to them it 
makes sense. I've talked to several 
dealers and they're going to carry it 
because of the Z80, and they're trying 
to get the Z80 freaks. So maybe that's it. 
Ahl: In the mass market, who's going to 
differentiate between the Z80 and 
6502? It seems to me that software is 
the crucial element now. 
Peddle: No. I don't think so. I feel that 
the next round of competition is the 
area of peripherals. I think we and 
Apple, particularly, and Ohio Scien- 
tific, are out there fighting peripherals 
in this show (CES). None of us are 
introducing new computers, we're 
introducing new peripherals. That's 
where the battle is. Maybe software 
too. But I think the software is going to 
be generally available to everybody. So 
I think what you do in peripherals is the 
major factor. 



Reliability and Mass Production 



A word to the wise: don't expect that 
new $700 computer to be as reliable as 
a $700 Sony or Technics hi-fi receiver. 
Assembly lines for computers are new. 
DEC and DG come as close as anyone 
to having mass assembly lines for their 
minis; in both cases their computers 
spend more time in checkout, burn-in 
and quality control than the rest of the 
line together. Some of the new 
manufacturers haven't faced up to this 
yet. Furthermore, engineering changes 
are being made daily which further 
complicate any kind of mass produc- 
tion. 

Case in point. Commodore has used 
four different cassette mechanisms in 
the PET in the first nine months of 
production. Each of them required 
changes in the mother board. Consider 
the problems then if you have a 
problem with the cassette recorder in 
your PET, as we did. The local service 
center puts in a new mechanism but 
finds it incompatible with the mother 
board. What then? Modify the mother 
board? Try to find an older 



mechanism? (As of this writing, our 
PET has made numerous trips to the 
Norristown, Pa. regional service center 
and may or may not be cured.) A 
conversation with one of the largest 
PET distributors reveals that 30% come 
through with the tape head misaligned. 
No problem if you're only reading and 
writing your own tapes, but what 
happens when you buy a commercial 
tape? 

I do not mean to single out PET; I 
have no information to indicate that 
they are necessarily any better or 
worse than anyone else. 

In general, the most frequent 
problems I've heard about over all 
manufacturers fall in two major areas: 
(1) cassette recorder, mostly head 
misalignment and (2) over-heating 
errors that occur after the computer 
has been on for some period of time. 

Does all this mean that you shouldn't 
buy a computer yet? Not at all — just be 
sure about the guarantee and service 
arrangements. Hopefully you won't 
need either but . . . 



The Home Computer Market] 
It's Not Here Now" 

An Interview with Arnold 
Greenberg, President, Coleco, 
Hartford, Conn. 

Greenberg: The home computer 
market in part has been a creature of 
the trade press which got a whiff of 
advanced technology and by building 
it up and building it up led the world to 
believe that the market is here now. It's 
not here now. It will be here soon. Right 
now the only market out there is a 
hobbyist's market. The marketing 
challenges haven't been solved. The 
technology is well ahead of the market. 
And until we can make compatible both 
the marketing with the technology, 
we're not going to have something at a 
popular price that's going to do 
something for the consumer. $500 or 
more home computers are not the 
answer to anybody's mass market. 
Ahl: So you think Fairchild and Atari 
may be taking or getting into things a 
little bit ahead of time? 
Greenberg: They're not into it. Atari 
has said that they are not interested in a 
home-computer market at that price 
point. They're not into it nor is really 
Fairchild. 

Ahl: In other words, those are just 
games. 

Greenberg: That's right. And what we 
want is something more than a game. 
It's got to do more than entertain. It's 
got to educate as well and be func- 
tionally significant to the owner. But we 
don't want a sophisticated hobbyist 
item or a small-business computer. 
That's a wholly different market. 
Ahl: So APF is probably out on a bit of a 
limb now with their little entry here. 
Greenberg: Well, it's a very lovely item. 
I think their market is a small-business 
market. And I think they're looking at 
that very directly. They're in the small- 
business equipment field, they do a 
very good job in calculators. But that's 
not a mass-market item. 
Ahl: Right. Where dc you see yourself 
going in the video-game market? 
Greenberg: We see ourselves expan- 
ding; we think we'll continue to be the 
number company with primary 
emphasis on the low end. Absolutely, 
that's where the mass market is. The 
low end. Remember, we are mass 
marketeers. We entered this industry 
not from an electronics distribution 
base but from the traditional toy and 
game industry. We're interested in 
selling hundreds of thousands of units 
of an item. We're not interested in a 
limited distribution or 20 to 25,000 unit 
runs of anything. It's a very big 
difference. 



38 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Ramblings Con't 




Magnavox programmable video computer 
game had full alphabetic and numeric keys 
on a touch-sensitive keyboard along with 
two joystick controls. 

Programmable Video Games 

The industry has labeled video 
games with a removable cartridge 
"programmable" although all the user 
can do is change the cartridge. I guess 
to some people this means program- 
mable. 

Unit sales of all video games in 1977 
were about 4 to 4.5 million with 6 to 9 
million forecast for 1978. Industry 
estimates indicate that 35% to 40% of 
these will be programmables and 
quasi-programmables If what was 
being shown at the CES was any 
indication, it could be even higher than 
this. 

Magnavox's Odyssey II marks the 
phasing out of all dedicated games by 
Magnavox and concentration on the 
programmable. Odyssey II has a 48- 
key keyboard of the touch sensitive 
variety along with two paddle controls. 
Eight cartridges are currently 
available. Inclusion of a keyboard in 
the basic unit indicates Magnavox is 
looking ahead toward a true program- 
mable product, probably along the line 
of the Bally Arcade. 

'1 V] 



i 



v 




Fairchild Channel F System II uses a 
16-button keypad as well as their 
unique (strange?) hand-held joystick 
controls. They boast 24 cartridges in 
their library yielding a total of over 
1 ,000 game variations. I was particular- 
ly impressed with the checkers and 
blackjack cartridges. 

Atari showed their Video Computer 
System along with its many cartridges 
and controllers (See July/August 1978 
Creative Computing for a complete 
review). 

APF introduced their 
Microprocessor 1000 with combined 
12-button keypad and 8-di recti on 
joystick controllers. No cartridges 
were available at presstime. 




"Victory-3" video computer system from 
Conic (Hong Kong) had numeric keypads 
and user control of color and sound. 



Accurate Electronics Industry Ltd. of 

Hong Kong introduced a rather unique 
programmable game under the Conic 
label. Five games (and several 
variations) are built in including a neat 
sketch pad game which gives the user 
control of video color as well as 
musical notes! After you get done with 
your drawing/tune, you can have the 




<.vL 




"Programmable Tele Sports III" from Hong 
Kong will retail for $69 or so. 

system repeat it endlessly with each 
image slightly displaced from the 
previous one. Nice built-in blackjack 
too. Controllers were numeric 
keypads. 

Radofln Electronics of Hong Kong 
introduced a programmable game, 
Telesports III, with two joysticks 
designed to retail at $69. Seven car- 
tridges are promised in the initial 
offering most of which are variations of 
the popular coin-op or Atari games. 
However, at $69. . . . 

Olympos Electronic Co. of Korea 
entered the race with Gamatic 8600, 
another low-priced programmable. 
Two joystick controllers come with the 
unit; four cartridges are promised. 

Two other entries in the price race 
are the Model 501 and 2003 program- 
mables from Video Technology, Ltd. of 
Hong Kong. More of the same. At the 
manufacturer level, FOB Hong Kong, 
price of the 501 is $28, so it should retail 
here for $69 or so. 

Also at the low end is the Video Sport 
TCR-900 PC imported by Internet of 
Beverly Hills. Two joysticks, nine 
cartridges promised, retail price of $69, 
cartridge retail $20. 

Obviously, many of the last five 
games will be marketed under private 



ft. 









Programmable video game from Hong Kong will retail for $69. Atari booth was continuously crowded with video-game junkies 



SEPT/CCT 1978 



39 




Ramblings Conf.... 

or store labels. We'll try to include as 
much up-to-date information as possi- 
ble in our Electronic and Video Games 
Roundup next issue. 

After the Razor, then the Blade 

Needless to say, once the program- 
mable game is sold, the key to con- 
tinuing business is the cartridge. As I 
pointed out in the review of the Atari 
system last issue, you could wind up 
spending two or three times as much 
on cartridges as the basic unit. Also, 
the cartridges are seldom discounted. 
Microtronix of Philadelphia even has a 
mail-order club for Atari and Fairchild 
cartridges with over 5000 members 
enrolled. Dealers like cartridges too 
since it helps smooth out the highly 
seasonal game business (90% of sales 
in the 4th quarter) throughout the year. 

Smart Electronic Games 

Logix Enterprises introduced a nifty 
real programmable computer called 
T.E.A.M. M.A.T.E. with a 
microprocessor, 20-key keyboard, 16- 
LED display, and audio speaker. Price 
$42.50. 

Two electronic backgammon sets 
were on display: Gammonmaster II 
from Tryom, Inc. and Computer 
Backgammon from Texas Micro 
Games. Also two electronic chess 
games: Boris from Chafitz, Inc. and 
Chess Challenger '10' from Fidelity 
Electronics. Watch for a feature com- 
parison of all these units in the 
November /December issue. 

Mattel showed three new handheld 
games, Basketball, Space Alert (similar 
to last year's Missile Attack which has 
been withdrawn) and Mind Boggier (a 
bagels/mastermind type game) 
originally developed as Memoquiz by 
M.E.M. of Belgium. (Actually what 
we're really talking about is a hand- 
held version of Milton-Bradley's 




Quasar robot. Girl at left is the voice; fellow 
in checkered jacket controls the motion via 
radio controller in a small airline bag. 



COMP-IV — see Creative Computing 
November/December 1977). 

Parker Brothers showed the musical 
Merlin and P.E.G.S.; Milton-Bradley 
had Simon saying, and there were 
several other entries originally rolled 
out at the February New York Toy Fair. 
Tl had a new spelling calculator 
Spelling-B' and a talking version with 
234 difficult-to-spell words in its 
vocabulary called Speak & Spell! 
National Semi also had a spelling (but 
not speaking)calculator. 

Watch for our "Electronic and Video 
Games Roundup" in the 
November/December issue for more 
on all these games. 

Other Nifty Stuff 

I won't begin to go into the audio, 
video, CB and other consumer elec- 
tronics, except to mention a couple of 
exceptional items. 

Advent Corp. introduced an audio 
component called the SoundSpace 
control. It derives two rear channels 
from a stereo system by digitally 
processing the signals and adding 
multiple time delays that are mixed and 
recirculated to expand the acoustic 
space of your listening room to the size 
of a concert hall or a cathedral. It uses a 
32,000 bit RAM and crystal-clock 
CMOS logic circuits. It has two con- 
trols, size and reverberation. 'Size' 
controls delay time from to 100 
milliseconds, 50 being about 'right' to 
simulate a good size concert hall. 



'Reverberation' determines the 
'liveness' of the acoustic space, 
creating multiple reflections and echo 
decay times. This is one of the most 
impressive applications of solid state 
logic to a non-computer product that 
I've seen. The sound from this system 
has to be heard to be believed! It's not 
cheap; suggested list is $595. Some of 
the exotic hi-fi manufacturers such as 
Soundcraftsmen have a similar 
product, but none have the range of 
control of the Advent. 

Energy Technology, Inc., 204 Con- 
way Ave., Las Cruces, NM 88001 
announced two energy control 
systems, the COBY-1, a self-contained 
system for remote control of various 
appliances and household devices and 
a second system designed for use with 
an Apple computer. 

Sharp Electronics showed a 
prototype super-thin-screen television 
set, in which the regular picture tube 
was replaced by an electro- 
luminescence panel only two inches 
thick. The prototype shown had a B&W 
6" (diagonal) screen. A spokesman 
said the set would not be available in 
the immediate future. 




National Computer Conference 



Held in Anaheim June 5-8, NCC was 
the biggest ever with over 56,000 
attendance. Except for the overwhelm- 
ing size, there were few surprises. 

Exidy, Inc., one of the large coin-op 
game manufacturers announced a 
beautiful personal computer, the 
Sorcerer. It has a full keyboard and 
numeric keypad (79 keys total) along 
with the MPU (Z-80), 12K of ROM 
(containing the monitor and BASIC), 
and 8K of RAM. It is S-100 compatible 
which opens up all kinds of expansion 
possibilities. The Sorcerer uses plug-in 
ROM PAC cartridges which can con- 
tain applications programs, other 
languages, editors and the like. 
Another nice feature of the Sorcerer is 
its very comprehensive graphics and 
512 x 240 pixel resolution. Text is 
displayed in 30 lines of 64 characters 
each. At the suggested price of $895 it 
appears that Sorcerer has a lot to offer. 
(Watch these pages for a complete 
review). 

A number of computer manufac- 
turers as well as independent firms, 
including Creative Computing, an- 
nounced a line of software, or, more 
precisely the intention to market 



software. GRT Corporation an- 
nounced a line to be marketed under 
the brand name G/2 for all major 
personal computers (TRS-80, PET, 
SOL, Apple, SWTPC). The dummy 
packages were beautiful 4-color boxes 
with space for cassette and instruction 
booklet inside. Projected price $14.95. 

Kilobaud had more modest 2-color 
dummy boxes for their cassettes and 
tiny cassette-size (2% x 4") instruction 
booklets which suffered (at least on the 
samples I examined) from sloppy 
trimming which cut off part of the 
printing. Price $7.95. 

Peninsula School was showing three 
tapes for the PET (reviewed 
elsewhere). Computer Complements 
Corp. announced a line of educational 
cassettes but had only a partially- 
completed prototype to demonstrate. 
PET, Processor Technology, Radio 
Shack, and Compucolor were all 
showing personal applications 
software for their own machines. 
Naturally many firms were showing 
small business software although it is 
most generally available as a system 
rather than separately. ■ 



40 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Rambiings Con't.... t Anaheim Hosts the Circus ... er ... NCC, 1978 



For more information on any of the 
following products mentioned above, 
please circle the appropriate number 
on the reader service card. 



Product and Company 



Number 



PeCos I Personal Computer, APF 243 

CyberVision 2001, Broadrein 244 

Instruments Corp. 

Challenger IIP. Ohio Scientific 245 

VideoBrain and Expanders 246 

Apple II and Disk II, Apple 247 

Computer 

Smarts II, Fire Bird Sales Co. 248 

Home Wizard, Electro Atomic 249 

Products 

PET Printer, Commodore 250 

Compucolor, Intelligent Systems 190 

Corp. 

Professional Arcade, Bally 191 

Manufacturing 

Odyssey II, Maganvox 192 

Channel F System II, Fairchild 193 

Gammonmaster II, Tryom, Inc. 194 

Computer Backgammon, Texas 195 

Micro Games 

Boris, Chafitz, Inc. 196 

Chess Challenger, Fidelity 197 

Electronics 

SoundSpace Control, Advent 198 

Corp. 

COBY-1, Energy Technology 199 

Sorcerer, Exidy, Inc. 200 



By Mary Borchers 

Almost 60,000 people converged on 
Anaheim between June 5 and 8 to 
attend the largest (if not the most 
glamorous) computer conference ever. 
The 1978 National Computer Con- 
ference (NCC) featured a Personal 
Computer Festival (PCF) as part of the 
overall conference. Together the well- 
publicized NCC and PCF managed to 
attract attendees ranging from the 
curious newcomer in the computer 
field to the seasoned electronics 
enthusiast. 

The NCC, centered at the modern 
and spacious Anaheim Convention 
Center, was as much an extravaganza 
as it was a computer conference. This 
is not to say that the conference 
sessions were not good. On the con- 
trary, approximately 75 sessions 
offered something for everyone and 
featured the most knowledgeable 
speakers. The conference proceedings 
were divided into the areas of 
applications, methodology, systems, 
and people and society. Session topics 
included Computer Architecture, Data 
Base Management Systems, Computer 
Careers and Education, New Hardware 
Technology, Software Development 
Methodology, Performance Measure- 



ment, Computer Graphics and Design 
Automation, and an innovative "Recent 
Progress in Japan." In addition there 
was special focus on the world's 
energy problem. 

Registration lines for 
the conference and ex- 
hibit areas sometimes 
stretched for a quarter 
mile. 



But the NCC exhibit floor was truly a 
wonder to all who attended. 353 
exhibitors occupied 1041 booths in 
four large exhibit halls at the center, 
and each exhibitor was anxious to 
attract his share of attention. During 
the entire four days the exhibit areas 
were crowded and there were very few 
exhibitors complaining about lack of 
traffic by their booth. 

Registration lines for the conference 
and exhibit areas sometimes stretched 
for a quarter mile. Once inside there 
was entertainment at all levels. The 
huge rooms took on a carnival-like 
atmosphere, with balloons and but- 
tons, games and contests, puppet 



Rj wire wrapping center :o|c 




UilREUIRRPPinCKITUJK-5 

CONTAINS: 
Battery Tool BW-630 
Hobby Wrap Tool WSU-30 M 
PC Edge Connector CON-1 
DIP/IC Extractor Tool EX-1 
DIP/IC Insertion Tool INS-1416 
PC Card Guides & Brackets TRS-2 
Mini-Shear with Safety Clip SP-152 
14. 16, 24 and 40 DIP Sockets 
Terminals WWT-1 

Tri-Color Wire Dispenser WD-30-TRI 
Hobby Board H-PCB-1 



$J4.9S 



ADD $1.00 FOR SHIPPING 
(N. Y. CITY AND STATE RESIDENTS ADD TAX) 



OK MACHINE & TOOL CORPORATION 

3455 Conner St . Bronx, N Y 10475 (212) 994-6600 , Telex 125091 

CIRCLE 118 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



NCCcon't... 

shows, pretty young ladies, and the 
aroma of hot dogs and lots of cold beer. 
Unfortunately these gimmicks often 
proved a distraction from the supposed 
showstoppers — the millions of dollars 
worth of equipment and services 
featured at the show. 

One could listen to the birds and 
enjoy the garden-like surroundings at 
Lear Siegler while inspecting their new 
CRT terminals and 180 cps matrix and 
bidirectional printers. ACDC Elec- 
tronics had a Jack-in-the-Box look- 
alike mechanical head to draw atten- 
tion to their power supply products. 
NCR had a gambling game at which 
you could win a pocket calculator or 
antique cash register if you played your 
cards right. Perkin-Elmer Data 
Systems' most popular display was a 
white 1959 Rolls Royce convertible. 
Many attendees who weren't tired of 
lines after registration waited to have 
their photos taken while sitting at the 
wheel of this Rolls, and then go to 
Perkin-Elmer's second booth in an 
adjacent hall to have their photo 
mounted on a plastic mug. 

One of the biggest show-stoppers of 
the entire NCC was the Racal-Milgo 
exhibit. Sherry Moreau never failed to 
attract a crowd when she performed 
her ten-minute monologue. Her light 
humor was welcomed by all, even 
though very few remained after her 



'he? 
Software 
Collectionl 

Business Programs For 

AM -1001 

Pbly-8813 

Send $3.95 for I 

fully illustrated catalog w/| 

instructions, flow charts, 

print outs - A/R, fii/P, G/L. 

Payroll. Inventory, etc. 

(programs are $25 -$250) 

BVTE SHOP. 

the affordable computer store 

4 west mission 

santa barbara, ca 

93101 

(805) 966-2638 



CIRCLE 135 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



show to inquire about the modems she 
was publicizing. 

Once past the glamour and glitter, 
there was a multitude of new color 
graphics terminals and 36-inch wide 
plotters. But the IBM 30 series com- 
puter was cause for much discussion 
since Intel, National Semiconductor, 
EMM and Memorex all announced their 
memory systems for the IBM 30, and 
Intel predicted they will soon have add- 
on memory for that IBM series also. 



Although many of the 
small computer systems 
are being readied for the 
small business, there 
does not appear to be an 
abundance of software to 
meet the needs. 



The Personal Computing Festival was 
located at the Disneyland Hotel, about a 
quarter mile from the Anaheim Conven- 
tion Center and spiritually 1000 miles 
from the rest of NCC. The PCF had its 
own conference sessions and exhibit 
area. 

Thirteen conference sessions 
highlighted the three days of personal 
computing festivities. Topics of dis- 
cussions ranged from the home and 
hobby market to "personal" computers 
in government, education, medicine, 
and business. There was also a well- 
attended session on the Legal Aspects of 
Personal Computing, drawing attention 
to the question of patents, copyrights, 
and trade secret protection for software. 

114 companies were represented on 
the exhibit floor. These exhibits lacked 
much of the glamour and high cost of the 
NCC booths, and a less formal attire and 
manner was assumed by those manning 
the booths. The crowd did not seem to 
mind the more casual atmosphere, 
because what personal computing lack- 
ed in size and glamour it made up with 
innovation. 

This year the PCF sponsored a contest 
for the most ingenious homebrew pro- 
ject. Entered in the competiton was a 
three-voice synthesizer, an 8080 
homebrew computer, a cheap S-100 
computer, and computer graphic film 
making, to name a few of the 22 entries. 
The winner was Stephen L. Casner of 
Los Angeles, California, for his solid 
state Monopoly game. Stephen won a 
Compucolor Computer for his efforts. 

There is a new personal computer 
which was introduced at PCF, the Exidy 
Sorcerer. The Sorcerer is Z80-based and 
comes with 16K of ROM memory. This 
machine features unique ROM Pacs, 
which you insert to acquire a high-level 



42 



programming language, operating 
system, or special proprietary program. 
Exidy now has ROM Pacs available for 
standard BASIC, EPROM, an assembler 
editor, a disc operating system and a 
word processing system. 

Although many of the small computer 
systems are being readied for the small 
business, there does not appear to be an 
abundance of software to meet the 
needs. Computertex and DeMarco- 
Shatz Computer have business applica- 
tion software available. Alpha 
Microsystems had some business 
programs running for demonstration 
purposes, but they don't intend to sell 
those programs. Osborne & Associates, 
Inc., offer BASIC business software in 
book form, and announced conversions 
of their payroll and cost accounting 
programs to many systems which are 
being marketed by other companies. 
However, Osborne & Associates will not 
install a system or do any maintenance 
on programs purchased from them. 
Radio Shack had a version of payroll 
running on its TRS-80, but the payroll 
program was very simple, not even 
providing employee totals. 

Several companies including GRT 
Corp., kilobaud and, of course, Creative 
Computing announced plans for 
marketing applications software for 
personal computers. So far it's mostly 
promises. 




The truce table: Mike Scott, president ol 
Apple and Chuck Peddle, designer of the 
Commodore PET. 



A total of 467 companies exhibited 
products at the NCC and Personal 
Computing Festival. Still, a few promi- 
nent companies were missing from the 
exhibitor's roster, among them 
Burroughs Corporation, Hewlett- 
Packard, Apple and Zentec. 

Proceedings from both the NCC and 
Personal Computing Festival con- 
ferences are available. The Personal 
Computing Digest sells for $12.00, 425 
pages, softbound. The AFIPS Con- 
ference Proceedings, Volume 47, sells 
for $60.00, 1300 pages, hardbound, and 
contains over 200 papers. To order, or 
for more information, contact AFIPS 
Press, 210 Summitt Avenue, Montvale, 
New Jersey 07645, (201) 391-9810. ■ 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



PLACE ORDERS TOLL FREE: 



MODEL 801 R Shugart Disc 
with Cabinet 

Includes Cabinet. Disc Drive, Power 
Supply, Cable. Fan & Data Cable. 
Has AC line filter. 

Cabinet size 10"H x 10"W x 16"D 
MODEL DM 2700-S $750. 00 




800/262-1710 inside California 
9 all o jher states 



80Q/421-580S 
J?6& libOn 



F8 

Z80 

Z80A 

1802 

2650 

AM2901 

6502 

6800 

6802 

8008-1 

8035 

8080A 

8085 

8748 

TMS9900 



8212 

8214 

8216 

8224 

8224-4 

8226 

8228 

8238 

8251 

8253 

8255 

8257 

8259 

8275 

8279 

6800 SUPPORT 

6810P 

68B10P 

6820P 

682IP 

6828P 

6834P 

6850P 

6852P 

6860P 

6862P 

6871P 

6875P 

6880 



CHARACTER GEN. 



E PROM 

8 @ $7.50 ea. 



TMS 4044 

<250n<l 

1K (u) $8.00, 



2513 U/L 

2S13(Sv) U/C 

251 3 (5vj L/C 

6S71 

6571 A 

6574 



6.75 
9.75 
10.95 
10.95 
10.95 
13.25 



DYNAMIC RAMS 



416D (200ns) 
4116 (200ns) 
2104/4096 
2 1 7 B-4 
TMS4027 
TMS4050 
TMS4 060 
4096 
MM5270 

PROMS 
1702A 
2516(5v) 
27.08 



EL) 



20.00 
20.00 
4.00 
3.95 
4.00 
4.00 
4.50 
4.00 
4.50 



5.00 

50.00 

9.00 

30.00 

50.00 

26.60 



2716 (Tl) 
2716 (INT 
2758 



STATIC RAMS 

1-63 64 up 



2 1 L0 2 (4 5 

(4 50 ns) 1.50 

21 L02 

(250ns) 

410O 

2101-1 

2102 

2111-1 

2112-1 

2114 

(300ns) 10.00 8.25 

5114 

(4 50 ns) 

2125L 

TMS4044 

(250ns) 8.95 

TMS4044 

(450ns) 8.20 

4200A 10.00 

TMS404S 

(250ns) 8.95 

TMS4 04 5 

(450ns) 8.20 



One of the best "Total Package" 
home and business computers on 
the market. "Basic" in ROM, 
Color Graphics, Floating Point 
Basic Package, etc. 

I6K version only $1,095.00 



416D 16K x 1 

Dynamic Ram Chip can be 
used for expanding Apple II 
Memory or the TRS-80 (200ns) 

8 for $20.00ea. 
16 for $18.00ea. 

Call for quote on larger quantities 



1.75 

10.00 

2.95 

1.25 
3.25 
2.75 



9.00 
11.00 



1.18 

1.50 
8.50 
2.50 
.9 
2.65 
2.35 



7.69 
8.30 



8.00 



7.40 
8.60 



8.00 
7.40 



full ASCII 

PROFESSIONAL KEYBOARDS 

* Full 128 Character ASCII 

* Tri-Mpde MOS Encoding 

* MOS/DTL/TTL Compatable Output 

* Two-key Rollover MnnFl 

* Level and Pulse Strobe MUUCL 

* Shift and Alpha Lock 756 

* Selectable parity (56 keys) 

* Positive or Negative Logic. 

PRICING INFORMATION 
Model 756 (assembled) S59.95 
Model 756K (kit) S49.95 

Model 702 enclosure S29.95 

Model 710 numeric pad S9.95 
Model 756MF Mtg.Frame S8.95 



S100 STYLE 



t 35.00 
75.00 



MOTHER BOARDS 

9 slot "Little Mother" 
Assembled and Tested 
13 slot with front panel slot 
Bare board $35.00 

Kit $70.00 

Assembled & Tested $110.00 

22 slot Assembled & Tested $149.95 



L02 i^bunsi 
Static Rams 
100 @>$1.25ea. 



4200A (200ns) 
Static Rams 

$10.00 ec. 



FLOPPY DISC INTERFACE 

JADE Floppy Disc (Tarbell Boairil 

KIT S175.00 ea. 

S.D. Computer Products 
Versa Floppy Kit $149.00 ea. 
Assembled & Tested $189.00 ea. 



STATIC RAM BOARDS 
ASSEMBLED & TESTED 
8K 

Ram 8 (250ns) S169.95 

Ram 8B (450ns) $139.95 
250ns KIT Mem-1 $169.95 
450ns KIT Mem-1 $125.00 
BARE BOARD $25.00 

16K Uses 2114 (lo pwr.) 
Ram 16 (250ns) $375.00 
Ram 16B (450ns) $325.00 
MEM-2 Kit (250ns) $285.00 
32K Assembled 81 Tested by 
SEALS ELECTRONICS 
JG-32 (250ns) $795.00 

JG-32B (450ns) $725.00 
250ns KIT $575.00 

6800 Adapter • adapts Mem-1 
8K board to Motorola MEK 
6800D2 evaluation kit. 



16K STATIC BOARD 

with memory management can be used 
with Alpha Micro or Cromenco 
Systems, assembled & tested 



RAM 65(250ns) 
RAM 65B (450ns) 



$390.00 
$350.00 



FLOPPY DISC 
17 7 1 BO 1 



CHIPS 
39.95 



KEYBOARD ENKODERS 
AY-5-2376 12.75 

AY-5-3600 13.75 



CONNECTORS 

DB-25P $2.25 DB-25S 

COVER $1.50 

PC 81 EYE 
WW 

(6800) PC 
(COSMAC ELF) PC 
• (Altair) PC 



44 Pin • 
44 Pin - 
86 Pin - 
86 Pin • 
100 Pin 



100 Pm (lms3i)WW 



$3.25 



$1.95 
$2.50 
S5.00 
$5.00 
S4.50 
$4.25 



100 Pin (IMSAII PC 



$3.25 



EPROM BOARDS 

MR 8 <8K uses 2708) KIT S99.50 

with 1K RAM 
MR-16T (16K uses 2716) KIT S99.50 

with IK RAM 
EPM-1 (uses up to 4K of 1702) $59.95 
RAM/N/ROM (16K uses 

any E-PROM) KIT $117.00 
JG-8/16 (uses 2708 or 

2716) KIT $59.95 

BARE BOARD $30.00 

EXPANDABLE E-PROM - 

S.D. Computer Products 
16K or 32K EPROM $49.95 without 
EPROM 

Allows you to use either 2708's for 
16K of Eprom or 2716's for 32K of 
EPROM. 



Z 80 A 

Microprocessor 
$25.00 ea. 



4116 (200ns) 
16K Dvn. Ram 
8 la" $20.00 ea. 



COMPUTER MAINFRAME 

Includes: $295.00 

Power Supply +8v at 18amps 
i16v at 2 amps 
Mother Board - 12 slots with 
connectors Assembled 81 Tested 
Has Whisper Quiet Fan 81 AC Line Filter 
Cabinet si/e 7"H x 19"W x 22" D 



DYNAMIC RAM BOARD 

by S. D. Computer Products 
On board refresh is provided with no wait 
states or cycle stealing required. +8 VDC 
400MA DC, +18VDC 400MA and 
-18 VDC 30 MA DC. 

EXPANDABLE 32K uses 4115 (2oons) 
8K Kit $151.00 24K Kit $325.00 
16K Kit $240.00 32K Kit $400.00 
EXPANDABLE 64K uses 4116 (200ns) 
16K Kit $250.00 48K Kit $675.00 
32K Kit $475.00 64K Kit $875.00 

JADE 16K DYNAMIC KIT 
uses 4096 (300ns) $200.00 



JADE Z80 KIT 

with PROVISIONS for ONBOARD 
2708 and POWER ON JUMP 

(2MHZ) S135.00 im. 

Assembled 81 Tested $170.00ea. 

(4MHZ) $149.95ea. 

Assembled 81 Tested $184.95ea. 

Bare Board $35.00ea. 



JADE VIDEO INTERFACE KIT 

KIT $99.95 

Assembled 81 Tested $139.95 

S-100 Bus compatible 
3 2 or 6 4 Characters per line - 16 lines 
Graphics (128 x 48 matrix) 
Parallel & compositive video 
On board low-power memory 
Powerful software included for cursor, 
home, EOL, Scroll Graphics/Character 
Upper case, lower case and Greek. 
Black-on-white t White-on-black. 



JADE PARALLEL/SERIAL 
INTERFACE KIT 
KIT $124.95 

Assembled & Tested $154.95 

* s-100 

* 2 Serial interfaces with RS2 32 inter- 
interfaces or 1 Kansas City cassette 
interface. 

* Serial interfaces are crystal controlled 

* Selectable baud rates. 

* Cassette works up to 1 200 baud. 

* 1 parallel port. 



TU-i 



Convert T.V set 
to Video Monitor 



KIT 



S8.95 



JADE 8080A KIT 
$100 00 KIT 

$30.00 



Computer Products 




4901 W. Rosecrans-M 
Hawthorne, Calif. 90250 

Freight Charge $2.00 less than 10-lbs. 

NEW CATALOG NOW AVAILABLE 



L~Z-£*^ 



Cards 
Welcome 



"THE PIGGY IS COMING" 



CIRCLE 108 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A Creative Computing Equipment Profile. . .1 



Poly Morphia 8813 



Steve North 



One could easily divide present-day 
microcomputers into three genera- 
tions. The first-generation micros have 
front panels and LED readouts, and 
often require the user to toggle in 
bootstrap programs to get running 
The second generation of micro- 
systems have permanent Read-Only 
Memory monitor programs, which per- 
mit the user to enter and display 
memory, load and save programs on 
cassette or papertape. etc. The third 
generation, just coming to the fore, free 
the user from having to know anything 
about the low-level functions of the 
computer. They have either BASIC 
stored in ROM. or built-in floppy disks 
The BASIC-in-ROM feature lets the 
user start running BASIC as soon as 
the computer is turned on. whereas 
systems with built-in floppy disks are 
somewhat more costly but offer much 
more flexibility, in that the user can 
have almost instant access to any 
number of programs including those 
he has written himself, and in addition, 
data files (So much for a terse, one- 
paragraph analysis of several years 
worth of hardware development') 

The PolyMorphic 8813 is an ex- 
cellent example of this third genera- 
tion of microcomputers with built-in 
floppy disks The 8813 is based on the 
8080 microprocessor and the S-100 
bus. In other computers, we might 
question the decision to use the 8080 
over the Z-80. the current pop 
processor, but most users of the 8813 
won't really care, which will also be true 
of all the other third-generation 
systems. (For the same reason, one 
could easily argue that the 16-bit 
processors will not make the antici- 
pated Big Splash ) The PolyMorphic 
8813 incorporates up to three mini- 
floppy disk drives, each able to store 
and retrieve up to 90K bytes of informa- 
tion. 

Front-Panel Controls 

There are only two controls on the 
881 3 front panel. One is a key-operated 
on/off switch with a LED on off in- 
dicator. The switch may be desirable in 
turnkey applications, but it isn't es- 
pecially desirable when the 8813 is 
used as a personal computer system In 
my own case. I managed to lose the key 
while transporting the system from 
work to home, and until I found the key 
was left looking at a permanently 



turned-off computer, wondering how 
involved it would be to simply short out 
theon/off switch In silent mockery the 
key bears the inscription. Do Not 
Duplicate." The other control on the 
8813 is a LOAD button Just press 
LOAD and the system restarts itself, by 
loading and running a program con- 
tained on the diskette in drive «1 

The 8813 also includes a video dis- 
play board, which can be connected to 
a standard video monitor to provide 
very high quality output, and a custom 
keyboard which is attached to the 
computer with a ribbon cable The Poly 
video board displays 16 lines of 64 
characters. including the usual 
alphanumerics as well as Greek letters, 
math symbols, and graphics 
characters. 

Another nice feature of the 8813 
hardware is that the floppy disk drives 
shut off automatically if they're not 
accessed within about 15 seconds 
This prevents excessive wear of the 
diskettes in applications where the 
computer is left on all day. but on the 
other hand it doesn't degrade per- 
formance when the disk is being 
accessed frequently (because it does 
take a little time for the disk tocomeup 
to speed before it can be read or 
written). 

Disk Operating System 

When the system is booted up (by 
pressing LOAD or by turning the power 
on) it can begin running a disk 
operating system, or some other 
program that you specify The DOS 
(called EXEC) permits you to list the 
contents of a disk directory, delete 
files, pack a diskette, run programs 
stored on a diskette, etc. The packing 
operation is necessary, because when 
programs are "deleted" from a diskette, 
in reality they are only marked in the 
catalog as being deleted. To recover 
the space used up by deleted files, one 
must pack the diskette, which results in 
juggling the positions of the files on a 
diskette to eliminate the deleted files 
EXEC signs on by printing a title, and 
then waits for your input However, you 
may not always want to use EXEC 
when the computer is turned on or 
restarted. If any file on the diskette in 
drive #1 is named INITIAL that file, 
rather than EXEC, will be loaded and 
run instead So if the BASIC language 
program was renamed INITIAL, the 



system would sign on with BASIC 
rather than EXEC freeing inexperienc- 
ed users from having to figure out how 
to get from EXEC to BASIC (Of course, 
that isn't very hard either. To run a file, 
you just have to type its name So to get 
to BASIC from EXEC, just type 
BASIC.) Furthermore, if INITIAL is a 
BASIC program, the system is smart 
enough to know that it must load 
BASIC first, and then your BASIC 
program. This is a very handy feature, 
which we haven't seen on any other 
system. 

Disk files stored under EXEC may 
have names of up to 32 characters and 
two-letter extensions that identify the 
file type. For instance. GAME BS is a 
BASIC program. LETTER TX is a text 
file. MACHINE GO is a machine- 
language program. INVENTORY DT is 
a data file for BASIC, and so on If you 
don't tell the computer which disk drive 
to look on for a file, drive tt 1 is assumed 
Thus PROGRAM BS is assumed to be 
on drive #1. If you want to refer to 
something stored on drive «2 or «3. you 
put the number of the drive in 

before the file name, as in 2 
PROGRAM BS It is normally not 
necessary to use the extensions your- 
self, unless you have several files with 
the same primary name but different 




The minimum PolyMorphic 8813 system consists 
of one floppy disk (three are shown here) in the 
main cabinet, a typewriter Keyboard, and a video 
monitor, plus 16K of RAM memory 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



extensions. Normally, the computer 
takes care of the naming of extensions 
The system software is oriented 
toward doing I/O with the 8813s own 
keyboard and video display In other 
words, you can't hook up another ter- 
minal and use that instead But there's 
no need to. since the video display pro- 
vides a very readable and flexible 
means of displaying output For hard 
copy, the 881 3 has a printer port for any 
RS-232 device, and a printer driver and 
configuration routine that permits you 
to set up all the parameters for your 
printer in software, instead of by 
changing switch settings or jumper 
wires in the hardware Unfortunately, 
the 8813 software is not designed to let 
you say. "Print out everything that's 
displayed on the screen.' 4 Instead you 
have to use separate commands to 
specify that something will be sent to 
the printer. Granted, the video display 
has many special characters that most 
printers do not. and in some applica- 
tions it may be desirable to use the 
screen for one thing and the printer for 
something different, but it would be 
nice to give the user the option to do 
either. While on the subject of I O we'd 
like to point out another nice feature of 
the 8813s buffered-ahead input This 
means that while the system is busy 
with some operation, you can type 
commands for it to execute when it's 
ready A light-bulb inside the LOAD 
button indicates when the system is 
accepting the buffered-ahead input 



Text Editor 

Included in the 8813 system soft- 
ware is a very nifty screen-oriented text 
editor The editor operates upon a disk 
file but the editing is actually done on a 
buffer in memory. The screen is used 
as a window on any 16 lines in the text 
buffer. Text may be added, inserted, 
deleted, moved as a block . searched for 
some string of characters, and so on. 
by using a cursor that may be position- 
ed anywhere in the text buffer This 
editor isn't the ultimate, but I would 
certainly prefer a screen-oriented 
editor to a text editor that must work 
around the constraints of a normal 
terminal and which must use line 
numbers or some kind of non-visual 
text pointer. The text editor may be 
used to create or modify BASIC 
program files. To use the editor, just 
type EDIT FILENAME when in EXEC 
Sure beats typewriting if you can justify 
the cost. 

In case you are interested in 
machine-language programming, the 
8813 EXEC software has a simulated 
front-panel mode, in which the screen 
displays the registers, memory, etc 
This helps you debug your assembly- 
language programs. The 8813 system 
software includes a disk assembler 



Disk BASIC 

PolyMorphic's Disk BASIC seems 
like a good BASIC It has most of the 
features people expect in an Extended 
BASIC: a full set of functions (SIN. 
COS. TAN. ATAN. ASIN. INT. SGN. 
RND...), character strings, arrays, 
multiple statements, etc It also has 
some nice features you may not have 
seen before: DUMP to print out the 
values of all the variables used in a 
program, data file handling, a MAT 
statement (which works as an implied 
FOR loop on a matrix), and PLOT for 
use with the Poly video display PLOT 
is really a lot of fun. The video screen 
represents the first quadrant, and using 
PLOT you plot X and Y values The plot 
extends from to 127 along the x-axis 
and from to 47 along the y-axis. With 
suitable offsets and scaling factors, 
you can plot whatever you want With 
only a couple hour's experimentation. I 
was able to plot parabolas, sinewaves. 
and even functions in polar coor- 
dinates. Of course, it doesn t have the 
resolution of a real plotter, but it's 
within the financial reach of many more 
personal and educational computer 
users. 

We only have two complaints about 
PolyMorphic's Disk BASIC. First of all. 
it is necessary to use an EXIT statement 
to leave a FOR loop prematurely If 
EXIT is not used. BASIC assumes that 
all FOR loops are active unless they 
have been terminated normally When 
EXIT is used. BASIC forgets all active 
FOR loops. In other words, there is no 
easy way to leave an inner FOR loop 
prematurely, and to keep using an 
outer FOR loop. A lot depends on the 
internal structure of BASIC, but off- 
hand it would seem to me that it's much 
better to have BASIC itself determine 
when a loop is active or not. One can 
simply decide that (1) all normally ter- 
minated loops are inactive, and (2) all 
active loops begun after a loop that has 
been terminated or re-started are 
inactive. EXIT is non-standard (you 
won't find it in any BASIC books) and it 
seems like a kluge. The other problem 
is that BASIC can't detect the end of a 
data file, but this can be remedied by 
merely using a dummy data-item to 
detect an end of file. 

Another good feature is the WALK 
command, which lets you single-step a 
a BASIC program to see what's 
happening This is like a TRACE, but 
with a little more flexibility. Overall. 
Polys Disk BASIC is good. 

Error Messages 

One of the things that impressed me 
most about the 8813 was the 
completeness of system error 
messages. Generally, a complete 
description, not a numeric code, is 
displayed. For instance. BASIC will 
point to a location in a statement and 



MERLIN 



TMi ■••Htm -•■ •tntraWtf feV • it |, M 
•raffraa mint HiniTtra MfocitUi- •)•« 
•r«»Mc CMfIC fr NEIL1M 1 





All *h«t«l Contritttf Kith HlMT.f. 
Aasacialas' N«w Cr«(Mtic IMIC t 






High Resolution Graphics 

Intelligent Terminal 

Software Development System 

ROM Graphic Software 

ROM Monitor Board 

Wordprocessing Text Editor 
(26 Commands in ROM] 



MERLIN 
Is all this and mora! 

Write or call today for a 
catalog and a dealer list 

For tha S-100 bus 



MiniTerm Associates, inc. 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



45 



CIRCLE 128 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



U ASKED 4 IT 

APPLE II SOFTWARE: Intelligent Games Series HI offers mony hours 
of challenging competition against any APPLE II. Available in 
bargain packages; 

1) BATTLESHIP/30 TIC TAC TOE 

2) HANGMAN/CONCENTRATION 

3) CASINO ROYALE (INCLUDES 1-ARM BANDIT CRAP GAME, 
BLACKJACK, AND ROULETTE 

All three packages feature APPLE II low and high resolution graphics 

and convenient interaction in APPLE II BASIC, instructions included. 

Each program package costs $12.00, to be paid in advance. 

Individual program listings can be obtained for $3.00 per program. 

Send for free, full descriptions of all available software. 

U ASKED 4 IT 

STUART FRAGER 

P.O. Bex 13331 

Baltimore, Md. 21203 

CIRCLE 169 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



^V 




CORPOR ATIOIM , IMC. 
3834 MAIN STREET, BUFFALO. NY 1 4226 
AC (71 6) 832-0662 

CORSON COMPUTER CORPORATION 
PROUDLY ANNOUNCES 
THE CORSON MEDICAL RECORDS SYSTEM 
(CMRS) ?78. Designed through consultation with a 
leading medical and dental school for both single 
practitioners and larger practices and clinics utilizing 
office procedural guidelines established by the AMA 
and ADA. Either microcomputer or minicomputer 
based. 

System includes full patient records and files 
with data verification. Full financial data — 
generates billings, activity analysis, ac- 
counts receivable, aged A/R, expense and 
revenues, reporting period comparisons GHI. 
Medicaid. BS/BC. Insurance form genera- 
tion. 

Patient Appointment Scheduler. 
Designed to run with a minimum of48K core. 
Handles from single doctor practice to multi- 
doctors-office practices. 
And many, many more features. 

Single practitioner system - 

S 1 8.000 includes 48K Cromemco with 
Dual 8" Disk Drives. T.I. 810 Printer. 
Beehive 150 CRT. CMRS. Training. In- 
stallation and Documentation. 
Corson Computer Corporation is a complete 
systems house for business, professions, govern- 
ment, education and research. Ask about our word 
processing system and services. Authorized dis- 
tributor for: Cromemco. T.I., Beehive, Teletype, 
Commodore and others. We serve everything we 
sell. Licensing agreements available, please use 
letterhead for details. 
"See CMRS at Booths 4422 & 4424 at the 
Personal & Business Small Computing 
Show In New York City. Sept. 15-17" 



say "Bad Subscript" or EXEC will say I 
can't do that to a system file!", instead 
of telling the user BS ERROR or 
ERROR 0232. And. after all. why should 
people have to learn codes and 
abbreviations for errors 9 The 8813 
software uses disk overlays so that the 
functions of the system are not directly 
limited by the amount of memory in the 
computer. Since floppies are not as fast 
as hard disks, the overlays must be 
planned carefully, so that response 
time is not degraded to a serious 
extent. But with the overlays, it is 
possible to keep BASIC'S error 
messages out on disk, and only call 
them in when needed. 

The 8813 manual is well-written and 
contains enough explanation for a 
beginner in using the computer For 
example, the manual explains what a 
floppy disk is. and tells the user that he 
doesn't want to remove it from its 
sheath. OK. if you've used diskettes 
before, that may seem a little stupid. 
but it isn't immediately apparent to a 
first-time user that you don't want to 
take the disk out of its little envelope. 
Likewise, the manual includes an intro- 
duction to BASIC, and a regular full- 
scale manual. 

One of the diskettes that came with 
our 8813. borrowed for review, had 
some interesting application 
programs, for business analysis plan- 
ning of a personal budget, etc These 
programs aren't available from 
PolyMorphic— they feel that the com- 
puter stores can do a better job of 
helping customers with applications 
programs— but they did demonstrate 
to me that the 8813 is quite suitable for 
running these kind of applications 

The 8813 can be used with as little as 
16K of memory, but of course more 
may be required, depending upon your 
application. 

Who should buy the 8813'' I don't 
think it's a machine for hobbyists For 
amateur computing, a Z-80 system 
with full-sized IBM 3740 compatible 
disk drives and an interface to a 
standard RS-232 terminal would be 
more useful. On the other hand, the 
8813 might be an ideal choice for the 
professional who has some serious use 
in mind for his computer and doesn t 
really want to hack around with com- 
puters themselves, or for education 
The 8813 has so many well-plannrd 
details that we can't remember them 
all Although the 8813 is priced at the 
high end of the microcomputer market 
it offers an integrated and peoplr- 
oriented package of hardware and 
software, found in few other systems 



CIRCLE 132 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




46 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



hat's Your Small Business Computing IQ? 



QOQ 



C30Dgg°° 

J ooooo oooo 

oooo 

I oooo 

I oooo 

oo oo 

oooo 

oooo 




1 Five microcomputer-based inventory 
management systems were available as 
of Feb 1978 Each costs less than 
complete 

A S1000 C S 10.000 

B S4000 D $30,000 

2 Which of the following is the most 
effective word-processing system'' 

A Vydec 
B Electric Pencil 
C IBM Mag card Selectric 
D All of the above depending upon 
application 



3 An 8" floppy disc will store a mailing list 
approximately how large 9 

A 300 names C 3000 names 

B 1000 names D 10.000 names 

4 Computer conferencing is most useful: 
A In a single building 

3 Between offices in one state 
C Between offices in several states 

5 What kind of investment analysis is 
suitable for a microcomputer'' 

A Analysis of puts and calls 
B Arbitrage of options 
C P'E and yield trends 
D All of the above 

6 A microcomputer-based fire /smoke /in- 
trusion detection system can be easily 
cost justified 

A True B False 

7 Six magazines deal with small business 
computing. Which is most comprehen- 
sive? 

A Mini/Micro Systems 

B Interface Age 

C Small Business Computing 

D Creative Computing 

E Small Systems World 

F. Kilobaud 



8 The lowest cost ($600) microcomputer 
systems are best suited for which 
application(s) 9 
A Environmental control 
B Maintaining customer files 
C Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) 
D Accounts receivable processing 

9 Most business applications can be done 
using audio-cassette tapes for record 
storage 
A. True B False 

10 Which of the following is not a commonly 
available microcomputer language 9 
A BASIC C FORTRAN 

B Assembly language D COBOL 




An 



sjainduioo 
-OJ3IUJ uo suoi|BDi|dde ssauisnq 
jO( pasn A||ejaua6 8jb NVdldOd P UB 
DISV9 auJ, l 3Jiin( auios ib uoipnpojiui 

J0 J 10900 1° SUOISJ3A UO 6UIX.JOAA 

aq oi pies 3jsaa sujji} ibjsass jsasmoh 
ja|nduj030J3iuj Aue joj aiqaiiBAB AppiM 
lOU SEAA 10900 '8/61 *MB3 (O sv a 01 

Biep luau 

-eiujad )o s6bjois joj pun >(sip Addou e 

asn suoi)B3i|dde ssauisnq ||B A|jb3n 3|i| 

i b ui Biep O) SS333B UJOpUBJ )IOIJ3d lOU 

op pus aaois oo) ajB sai;ossB3 oipny 8 6 

sn|d 000CS 
ISOdA||bj3U36||i» suoi|BOi|ddB ssauisnq 
joj oiajsAs v suoiiBDi|ddB ssauisnq isoui 

JO) D3P33U S|BJ3L|duad J3L||0 JO S3UI| 

iojiuod sjosuas 36bjois sseuj jaiuud 
b3abl| i.usaopii jnq jossaooidojoiuj pue 

U33J0S ibO PJBOqA3M SI! MtlAA 3|qBdB0 

AiuiBuao si jaindujooojoioi 009$ V D 8 

M31O0S IO S3|l|Oq 

C seaoiesaqi — iz$ Aiuojoj sieaAaaim 
Buiindujoo aMieejQ Ajj oj iubaa H.noA 
uaqi — anssi Ajsas iu3|uo3 /euoiipa 
|0 sa6ed OZI ll n l b — sbbjb jaqio ui 
suoi)B3i|ddB (o aouB|Bq aoiu e q)iAA 6uo|B 
ssntxuqoai 6uiwiuE.i6o.id saasu pnpojd 
AA3U suoijBri|BAa lu3|sAs ;ubaa noA 
tl l n 9 puiui uaao jnoA dn ot\ew O) 3abu, 
H.noA puB paseiq 3j.3aa AisnojAqo Q L 

Buiinduioo anneaio 
8/. 6n\/ irif aq| ui paquosap A|3Aisuaixa 
3jb siuaisAs asau,i iinsaj e se paijiisnl 
lso3 sq Aeuj pue s^sei jaqio Aueui 

OP OS|B UB3 0J3IUJ 3q| J3A3AAOH U13|SAS 



swers 

paSKq-jainduiO3OJ0iujB|opjiq| auouBqi 

SS3| )SO3U0l)33|3P UOISnjjUl, 3>|0uJS 3JI| 
JO| SUi3)SAS p3U|BlUOD-J|3S '9 9 

siunoooe .sjsujojsno i\am azAieue o) 
sjaindtuco0J3iuj 6uisn aaou 3jb sasnoq 
aDBja>|Ojq 36jb| |BJ9Aas je sja>(Ojq 
loe) u| joiBinoieo pusq Aq op J3A3 
pinoo noA ueqi jajsej Biep sjouj azAieue 
oinoAsAAO||B jatndujooojoiuj b 6u|sn 9 

J3q)0 U.3B3 0| 
33U3IU3AU03UI OU U.IIAA Old 6 IB J36BUBUJ 
UOD3JO LIB DUB UCOU IB |UB|d siouini 
aq) UJB 9 IB UI )(OOU U63 331(10 ajBAAB|30 
B snqj_ IU3IU3AU03 SI )l J3Aau3L|AA 
UjaisAs 33U3J3|U03 3U.I 3AB3| JO U.IIAA 

dn ^oog ubs uosjsd qses puB jutdmuBd 
q3B3 jo stueujaj agi sajois jsjndujos ibj) 

-U33 B DUI3U3J3)U03 J3|ndlU03 l|l!M O V 

ipnw SB J3)jenb 
-auo inoqe sjojs hjm AddO||-iu|uj „g y 
s3|||Sudp6uj)ped)u3jjn3q|iM pajoisdq 
ubs ssujBu 000C sssjppe pue sujbu aq) 
ui sjajsejeqo 001 tnoqB 6uiujnssv Q C 

sjainduios ssauisnq neujs »3u aq) ne 
uo aiep oi dn noA sdas>( uoiisss pnpojd 
aasu 3Aisu3|xa s,6uiindwoo 9MIB0JQ 
sjsqio aq) jo pjiqi-auo s>so3 ujajsAs 

|l3U3d 3UJ33I3 paSBq-J3indUI030J3IUJ 

aqi ieqi aaou>( jou Aeuj noA jng q z 
6uiinduiOQ OMieeJO >o snssi 

8/ . ja V -"BW 3ql UI p3qU3S3p A|3AISU3|X3 

3J3AA suj3)sAs 3Ai| HV 000^$ inoqB SI 

1S033M1 |OJ|U03 AJ01U3AUI Op O) ajBAA))OS 

puB ssip Addon jaiuud qiim inq ssai jo 
0001$ sisos jajndujo30J3!UJ siscq v 9 1 



For fast service call our toll free number and charge your bank card 

800-631-8112 

(In NJ Call 201-540-0445) 



Scoring 



0-3 Novice You need Creative Computing s 
solid, jargon-free tutorials and no- 
nonsense, non-technical systems 
evaluations 

4-7 Programmer You've got a good start but 
before you blow a lot of money you 
should augment your knowledge with 
Creative Computing's in-depth reviews 
and how-to programming techniques 
8-10 Systems Manager With your knowledge 
your systems are bound for success 
Look to Creative Computing to hone 
your efficiency and effectiveness to a 
fine edge 

r— — ——————— — — — - 

I want to get the most out of my computer 
Please enter my subscription to 

creative computing 



Term 


USA 


Foreign 
Surface 


Foreign 
Air 


G 12 Issues 
n 24 issues 
G Lifetime 
G Vol 1 Bound 
G Vol 2 Bound 


a $15 

G 28 

ri3oo 
G 10 
G 10 


D $23 
G 44 

G400 
f 1 12 
G 12 


( $39 
G 76 
G600 
G 15 
I l 15 


G Payment Enclosed 

G Visa/Bank Americard C 1 Master Charge 


C»'<1 Mo 











( 1 Please bill me ($1 00 billing tee will be added 
foreign and book orders must be prepaid) 



Name _ 
Address 
City 



State . 



-Zip. 



Send to Creative Computing. 
P O Box 789-M. Mornstown. N J 07960 

, — ________ — _ — -. J 



A Creative Computing Software Profile... 




Perhaps you have a Radio Shack 
TRS-80 with Level-I BASIC and you're 
wondering whether to move up to 
Level-I I . Or you're thinking of getting a 
TRS-80, but aren't sure which model to 
get. And although the difference in 
price between the two levels is only 
$99, maybe the money isn't all that easy 
to come by. So let's take a look at what 
you get with Level-I I BASIC. You may 
decide you've got to have it, or maybe 
you'll find you can get along with Level- 
I and some subroutines. 

Even if you don't have a TRS-80, you 
might be interested to know that the 
Level-ll BASIC is written by Microsoft, 
and practically the same 12K Extended 
BASIC as provided for the MITS Altair 
8800b, and which Imsai may also be 
offering for their machines by the time 
you read this. So if you have, or will get, 
an 8K Altair or Imsai, you might want to 
know what you can move up to with 
12K Extended BASIC. Incidentally, 
Exidy's new Sorcerer computer, 
described elsewhere in this issue, uses 
Microsoft 8K BASIC. 

One command found in Altair 8800b 
Extended BASIC, but not in TRS-80 
Level-ll BASIC, is RENUM, which 
automatically renumbers all your pro- 
gram lines. The reason is that the Altair 
Extended BASIC takes up 14.6K in 
RAM, and some things had to be left 
out of the 12K TRS-80 version. How- 
ever, RENUM is such useful command 
that Radio Shack has decided to offer 
RENUM on tape shortly. Incidentally, 
Radio Shack is currently considering 
FORTRAN seriously. COBOL is, they 
say, "too expensive in memory." But 
DOS is "great." 

BASIC in ROM 

If and when you decide to move up to 
Level-ll, you take your Level-I key- 
board unit and $99 to the nearest Radio 
Shack. The store sends it off to a 
Service Center where the 4K Level-I 
ROM is removed, and the 12K-Level-ll 
ROM is inserted (three 4K ROMS, 
actually). With BASIC in ROM, you 
have the maximum amount of RAM 
memory at your disposal. For instance, 
if you stay with Level-I, and write all 
eleven of the math subroutines pro- 
vided in the Level-I manual into your 
RAM memory, you'll have less than 700 
bytes of RAM left for your main 
program. Which is why the manual 
advises that you "try saving different 
combinations of subroutines on 



cassettes: for example, make a 
SGN/COS/TAN cassette, a SGN/SQR 
cassette, an EXPONENTIAL/LOG EX- 
POENTIAL/SGN cassette — whatever 
combinations are useful to you." So if 
you need most or all of those sub- 
routines, but don't want to move up to 
Level-ll, and if you'll be writing 
programs of substantial length (such 
as any complex game, or almost any 
business program), you may have to 
convert your 4K computer to 16K, 
which will cost you $290. And even if 
you save on RAM by going to LEVEL-II, 
which has dozens of subroutines 
stored in the 12K ROM, you'll still need 
16K of RAM if you'll be doing any 
extensive programming. If you need 
more than 16K of RAM, you'll have to 
get the $299 Expansion Interface, 
which can accommodate one or two 
16K RAM units, to give you a total of 
32K or 48K RAM. If that sounds like a 
lot of RAM, note that the TRS-80 
Business System, as configured by 
Radio Shack, includes 32K of RAM. 

Not all the additional features pro- 
vided by Level-ll are as obviously 
important as print formatting or string 
manipulation. Two examples are key- 
board roll-over and faster cassette- 
data transfer rate, which make for 
faster programming and computer 
operation. 



Keyboard Roll-Over 

As the Level-ll manual puts it, "With 
the Level-I TRS-80 (and many other 
computers) you have to release one 
key before the computer will allow 
entry of another key. Level-ll lets you 
hit the second key before you have re- 
leased the first key. This is great for you 
touch-typists." There's a limit, how- 
ever, and if you're such a sloppy typist 
that you hold down three or four keys at 
a time, some keys will then generate 
several characters when you press just 
that key. 

Faster Transfer Rate 

When you load Level-I programs 
from the cassette recorder, or record 
programs on it, the transfer rate is 250 
baud, meaning 250 bits per second. 
The Level-ll transfer rate is twice that, 
or 500 baud. This doesn't doesn't mean 
the cassette recorder runs twice as fast 
for Level-ll, but that the Level-ll bit- 
packing is twice as dense as on Level-I 
tapes. That is, twice as much informa- 
tion is stored on an inch of Level-ll tape 
as on a Level-I tape. 

Because of this faster transfer rate, 
Level-ll 500-baud tapes must be read 
with the cassette recorder's volume 
control set at 5 or 6; Level-I 250-baud 
tapes are read with a volume-control 
setting of 8 or 9. 




48 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Editing Features 

Many owners of a Level-ll TRS-80 
may never use its editing features. If the 
programs you use are mostly "canned" 
programs (bought from Radio Shack or 
elsewhere), or if you write programs 
with short lines, or if you're such a good 
programmer that you seldom if ever 
need to correct or change a line, you 
may never need to do any editing. 

Also, if you seldom need to edit, you 
might not want to bother with the 
Level-ll editing capabilities, simply be- 
cause they're so extensive that if you 
don't use them much, you may have to 
refer to the manual every time you want 
to edit. 

But if you edit frequently, you'll find 
that because program lines can be 
changed so easily, "you'll probably be 
able to do much more experimenting 
with multi-statement lines, complex 
expressions, etc.," as the manual puts 
it. 

No point going into editing in depth 
here, but here are some of the things 
you can do. You can list any line 
individually, insert material anywhere 
in a line, delete the rest of a line beyond 
the cursor and insert material in its 
place, delete any desired number of 
characters to the right of the cursor, 
change a specified number of char- 
acters, search (for example) for the 
third occurrence of letter L and move 
the cursor to that position, and tell the 
computer to delete (for instance) all 
characters up to the third occurrence 
of letter L, and move the cursor to that 
position. 

Other editing features permit you to 
end editing and save all changes made, 
or to end editing and cancel all 
changes made in the editing session, or 
to cancel editing changes already 
made and restart. 



16-Digit Accuracy 

Eight digits are enough for many ap- 
plications, but if you need more for 
scientific, accounting or statistical use, 
you can specify that a variable be 
single or double precision. Ordinarily, 
asking the computer to calculate the 
value of 1/3, will give you a 6-place 
decimal. But if you ask it to PRINT 1/3#, 
you'll get a 16-place decimal. An 
exclamation mark will keep a variable 
at single precision, as in A! or Z1! If 
you're working with whole numbers, 
declaring them as integers (with a 
percent sign as in A%) will take up half 
the space in memory, and execute 
twice as fast. 

Formatted Print 

PRINT USING, as the manual says, 
"allows you to specify a format for 
printing string and numeric values. It 
can be used in many applications such 
as printing report headings, account- 
ing reports, checks. ..or wherever a 

SEPT/OCT 1978 



specific print format is required." Using 
nine "field specifiers," you can specify 
digit positions, cause automatic 
rounding-off, create a "floating" dollar 
sign that will position itself in the first 
position preceding a number, join 
together (concatenate) multiple 
strings or string variables or (for 
example) print only the first letter of a 
group of strings, align columns, etc. 



Strings 

"Without string-handling 
capabilities, a computer is just a 
superpowered calculator," the Level-ll 
manual says. Many applications are 
difficult or impossible without string- 
manipulation functions, which are re- 
quired in many of the games in our 
Basic Computer Games book, for 
example. We get frequent telephone 
calls from people who insist, for 
instance, that the BANNER program on 
page 10 (of the Microcomputer Edi- 
tion) has bugs in it, because it won't run 
on their computer. Then we find that 
their computer can't handle this line 

80P$=MID$(A$,T,1) 
or the lines that involve LEFT$ or LEN. 

"Level-I BASIC offers two string 
variables [A$ and B$]." to quote again 
from the Level-ll manual, "which can 
be input and output to make your 
programs look "friendly" (as in HELLO, 
BOB!). In Level-ll... any valid variable 
name can be used to contain string 



values, by the DEFSTR statement or by 
adding a type declaration character, $, 
to the name. And each string can 
contain up to 255 characters. 
Moreover, you can compare strings in 
Level-ll, to alphabetize them, for exam- 
ple. You can take strings apart and 
string them together (concatenate 
them)." Level-ll offers around 900 
variable names. 

Strings can be compared by using 
the same relation symbols for com- 
paring numbers, such as equal-to, 
greater-than, etc. Actually, the ASCII 
codes for the characters are compared, 
so A! will precede A#. for example. 

ASC and CHR$ are handy for a 
variety of uses, including coding and 
decoding to make secret messages. 
ASC gives you the ASCII numerical 
code for a string character, and CHR$ 
does the reverse. 

INKEY$ lets you input keyboard 
values while the computer is executing, 
without using the ENTER key, very 
important in many video games. IN- 
KEY$ strobes the keyboard and returns 
a one-character string, which will be a 
null string if no key is pressed during 
the strobe. 

Several functions permit manipulat- 
ing characters or groups of characters 
in strings. LEFT$, along with the name 
of a string and a number, will select as 
many of the characters from the left 
end of that string as the number calls 
for. If A$ is TIMOTHY, then 




TURN YOUR COMPUTER 
INTO A TEACHING MACHINE 

The staff at Program Design did not learn 
about educational technology from a book — 
we wrote the book! We have been innovators in 
such teaching materials as programmed instruc- 
tion and multimedia presentations We also belong 
to that minority in education who actually test ma- 
terials to see that people can learn from them 

Now Program Design brings this experience to the personal 
computer field. PDI is developing a line of educational and 
game programs for the whole family — from preschool child to 
adults 

Program Design educational software uses the computer s full teaching 
potential in exciting and effective ways Programs are simple to use and 
memory efficient, and most important they teach! 

TAPES NOW AVAILABLE FOR THE TRS-80. PET. APPLE II 

SAMPLE OUR SOFTWARE FOR $2.00. Send us $2.00. your name, address, and 
type of computer, and we II send you a tape for your computer with actual samples of 
our programs. 

Or circle our number on the reply card for a printed catalog. 

Department 300 PROGRAM DESIGN. INC 1 1 IDAR COURT GREENWICH. CONN 06830 

CIRCLE 111 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
49 



UNUSUAL SOFTWARE FOR TRS-80 



$10.00 each, on cassette' 

UTILITARIAN PROGRAMS 
CS-7 LEND OUT— A program jam packed with 
automatic and semi-automatic features! For 
keeping track of items you lend to other people. 
Automatically assigns to a loaned item an 
identification number and files this number on 
tape along with such information as: what the item 
is. who borrowed it. and the date it was borrowed 
Program updates file when item is returned 
without affecting the rest of the file. Plus even 
more features! 
CS-8 ITINERARY— Prepares a personal itinerary. 
Stores memos with their appropriate times in 
chronological order. Will recall itinerary as a 
whole or in parts Even after an itinerary is filed, a 
new memo can be inserted into it between any two 
previously tiled memos More 1 

SCIENTIFIC CURIOSITIES 
CS-t BIOFORECAST — More advanced than 
biorhythm Uses more exact non-sinusoidal 
functions Gives not only the three cycles, but also 
their interactions More! With special interpreta- 
tion chart 
CS-2 ORBIT— 4 programs figure data on orbits around 

the earth and sun. 
CS-3 INTERSTELLAR— Predicts facts concerning 
possible voyages to more than 30 different stars at 
reiativistic speeds 
"Add $1.00 postage & handling. All programs 



L 



Level- 1. 



Compuirex O 

PO Box 536 Inman SC 29349 1 



CIRCLE 1S3 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TRS-80 OWNERS 

Statistical Programs On Tape 
Only $8 95 (Listing -5 95)' 
Most comprehensive and easiest to use of the 
statistical programs available at any price 
Full explanations and tables included 

• MEAN VARIANCE. STANDARD DEVIATION 

• T-TEST (gives t. F, Ns. DFs. means, variances') 

• CORRELATION (gives r. Ns. means and 

variances!) 

• ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (2 group design) 

...MORE.. 
Runs in 4K ■ Specify Level I or II. Provide Visa or 
Master Charge * and expiration date or make 
check or money order payable to: 
M. M ft S Software 

M Stolzberg 

16 Marilyn Lane 

Westbury. NY 11590 

NY State residents add 7% sales tax 



CIRCLE 1S6 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TRS-80 COMPUTING 

non-profit newsletter 
S10 (U.S.)/12 issues payable 

Computer Information Exch., Inc. 

Box 158 

San Luis Ray, CA 92068 



CIRCLE 138 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Match battle strategy with 
the computer! The classic 
BOAT GAME in 4K BASIC 
for TRS-80 Level I, adapta- 
ble to other systems. 

$4.75 listing only. 

THE PROGRAM MANAGER 
P0 Box 45 

Inglefield, IN 47618 



LEFT$(A$,3) will select TIM, and if this 
is assigned to B$, then PRINT B$ will 
print out TIM. MID$ will select char- 
acters from the middle of a string, and 
RIGHTS from the right end. LEN gives 
you the character length of the speci- 
fied string. STRINGS provides a string 
composed of as many characters as 

you specify, so that STRINGS (30, ) 

can be used to print a row of 30 
asterisks, very handy in creating 
graphs, tables, etc. 

Simplified Debugging 

Type in TRON at the end of a Level-ll 
program, RUN the program, and the 
screen will show you the exact se- 
quence of program lines followed in 
executing the program. To turn off the 
Trace function, enter TROFF. 

TRON and TROFF may be used 
inside programs to show when a cer- 
tain line is executed. For example. 

50 TRON 

60 X=X*3.14159 

70 TROFF 
will point out every time line 60 is 
executed. Each time these three lines 
are executed, 60 70 will be dis- 
played. Without TRON, you wouldn't 
know whether the program was actual- 
ly executing line 60. 

More Arithmetic Functions 

Level-I BASIC offers four built-in 
functions: MEM (tells you how many 
unused bytes are left in RAM memory), 
INT (integer), ABS (absolute value) 
and RND (random number). Level-ll 
BASIC offers these four, and a dozen 
more. The trig functions are SIN, COS, 
TAN and ATN. More math functions 
are provided by EXP, LOG, SGN and 
SQR. Using RANDOM at the beginning 
of a program ensures that you get a dif- 
ferent sequence of random numbers 
each time you run a TRS-80 program 
involving RND. CDBL provides a 
double-precision value of the expres- 
sion following CDBL in parentheses, 
even if the operands are single-pre- 
cision or integers; CSNG does the 
opposite by providing a single-pre- 
cision value of the expression. This 
may be automatic CSNG for disk only!? 

Many other functions may be created 
using the 16 Level-ll functions, and 
Appendix F provides a pagef ul, such as 
inverse sine and hyperbolic secant. 

Cassette Verification 

By entering CLOAD? and a file 
name, you can have the computer 
compare a program stored on cassette 
with one presently in the computer. 
This way you can be sure the program 
was written correctly on the tape 
during a CSAVE. 

Specific Error Messages 

Level-I BASIC has three error 
messages, WHAT? (the computer 
doesn't understand the line), HOW? 



50 



(the computer understands, but can't 
comply), and SORRY (memory is full). 
Level-ll BASIC has 23 two-letter 
error codes, that are much more 
specific including NF (NEXT without 
FOR), LS (string too long), and MO 
(missing operand). 

Arrays 

Arrays are permitted in Level-ll 
BASIC, and with many dimensions as 
available memory will permit. String 
arrays are permitted. 

Fewer Abbreviations 

One advantage of Level-I is that 27 of 
the statements and commands can be 
abbreviated, such as P. for PRINT and 
N. for NEXT. None of these are allowed 
in Level-ll. A conversion tape is pro- 
vided with every Level-ll TRS-80, and 
with every Level-ll upgrade. The tape's 
main function is to convert P. to print, 
N. to NEXT, etc. 

Faster Graphics 

To fill the graphics portion of a video- 
monitor screen in Level-I BASIC, using 
an array of rectangular "graphic 
blocks" 128 across and 48 down, and 
by using SET and FOR-NEXT state- 
ments, takes about 49 seconds. But 
Level-ll has POKE, which loads a value 
into a specified memory location, and 
Level-ll also has 63 special graphics 
characters. These 63 are all the possi- 
ble combinations of six "graphic 
blocks" in a 2-by-3 matrix. 

Although "graphic blocks" can be 
printed as many as 128 across and 48 
down, letters and numbers can only be 
printed in 16 lines of 64 characters 
each, for a total of 1024 PRINT 
locations. Each of the 1024 locations 
takes up a space two graphics blocks 
across and three down. By using POKE 
and the last of the 63 graphics codes, 
which is 191. for "all 6 bits on," the 
screen can be "painted white" much 
faster, theoretically six times faster 
than using SET. When I tried it, the 
screen was filled in less than 7 seconds, 
quite a bit less than the 49 seconds 
taken by SET statements. 

This can be speeded up even more 
by using integer variables: using SET, 
the screen is filled in 35 seconds; with 
POKE, only five seconds! 

The partner of POKE is PEEK, which 
tells you what's stored in a specific byte 
address in RAM memory. POKE and 
PEEK can be used "to set up very 
compact, byte-oriented storage 
systems," and require a good 
knowledge of memory maps and tables 
of codes. 

Machine-Language 
Subroutines 

The USR statement permits calling a 
machine-language subroutine, which 
is handy for quick table lookup, for 



IRCLE 105 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



much faster graphics than possible 
with POKE, etc. 

Double-Width 
Characters 

Mentioned twice in the Level-ll 
manual, but never commented on, is 
the fact that if you hit the shift key and 
the right arrow, the screen display will 
convert to a 32-character-per-line 
format, and hitting the clear key will 
return the display to the regular 64- 
character-per line format. In other 
words, SHIFT provides characters 
twice as wide (but not twice as high) as 
the regular ones. These can be seen 
from much further away, and are handy 
for scoreboard displays, and for any 
classroom work. 

Note that anything on the screen at 
the time of conversion will have only 
every other letter enlarged, so that 
RADIO SHACK LEVEL-II BASIC 
becomes (twice as wide) Al HC EE- 
IBSC, which can be quite mysterious if 
you don't know what's going on. 

Search for File A 

Level-ll BASIC lets you specify a 
desired file in your CLOAD command. 
So if you write CLOAD "A", the 
computer will ignore all programs on 
the cassette until it comes to the one 
labelled "A". As the computer searches 
for file "A", the names of the files 
encountered along the way will appear 
in the upper right of the display, along 
with a blinking*. 

Level-ll Manual 

The 121-page Level-ll BASIC Refer- 
ence Manual is meant to be read after 
you've already had "considerable 
experience with programming in 
BASIC," as the foreward says, con- 
tinuing, "Our Level-I User's manual 
was written for the total beginner.... 
We freely admit this Manual has not 
been written from the same perspec- 
tive." 

As a reference manual, the Level-ll 
book doesn't go into the detail that the 
233-page Level-I User's Manual does. 
(The Level-I manual does such a good 
job of teaching the elements of BASIC 
that Radio Shack offers it separately, at 
$5.95.) The Level-ll manual presents 
nine subroutines for array/matrix 
manipulation, for example, with little or 
no explanation of what each does. One 
of the eight appendixes lists the 31 
function codes, but doesn't tell how to 
use them in a program; you'll have to 
figure this out for yourself. 

The last appendix is User Programs: 
a space-ship lander game; Customer 
Information, for building a name/ad- 
dress/phone number file; Triangle 
Computation with Graphics, a target- 
practice game; and Ready-Aim-Fire, a 
new version of the Level-I bouncing- 
dot game. ■ 



Commodore 



Radio Shad 



PET TRS- 

You can find out what our customers already know— Personal 
Software consistently oilers great software products. Check out the 
programs below— they each represent many man-months ol expert 
programming effort. We're sure you'll be pleased with the results. 



nnnnjtnn ■ 

'it! z 
'ttt'IT*', SI! 



MICROCHESS 1.5 by Peter Jennings for 4K Level I and II TRS-80s 
In Z-80 machine language, easily loaded from cassette using the 
CLOAD command (TBUG is not needed). Uses standard algebraic 
chess notation to describe moves. Checks every move for legality. 
Handles castling and en passant captures. You can play white or 
black, set up and play from special board situations, or even watch 
the computer play against itself! With 3 levels of play $19.95 




BRIDGE CHALLENGER by George Dulsman for 8K PETs and 16K 
Level II TRS-80s: You and the dummy play four person Contract 
Bridge against the computer. The program will deal hands at random 
or according to your criterion for high card points. You can review 
tricks, swap sides or replay hands when the cards are known No 

longer do you need four people to play 1 $14.95 

6502 ASSEMBLER IN BASIC by Dan Fylttra for 8K PETs: Accepts all 
standard 6502 instruction mnemonics, pseudo-ops and addressing 
modes. Evaluates binary, octal, hex. decimal, and character 
constants, symbols and expressions. Assembles object programs 
anywhere in memory. Includes one and two pass versions of the 
assembler, text editor and disassembler, with a 30 page manual and 

PET machine language programming hints $24.95 

ORDERS: Check, money order or VISA Master Charge accepted; 
programs and cassettes guaranteed. It you have questions, please 
call us at 617-783-0694. II you know what you want and have your 
VISA Master Charge card ready, just pick up the telephone and 

DIAL TOLL FREE 
1-800-325-6400 

24 hrs In Missouri dial 1 -800-342-6600 7 days 

Or you can mail your order to the address below. OUR CA TALOG 
describes many other great software products, including an 
ASTROLOGY program, a FOOTBALL game, a GRAPHICS utility 
package and many others. For your free copy, send a letter giving 
your PET or TRS-80 serial number, memory size, and your most 
wanted software product. 

Personal Software™ 

P.O. Box 1 36- C9, Cambridge, MA 02138 

CIRCLE 127 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SEPT/CCT 1978 



51 



A Creative Computing Equipment Profile. 



Merlin Video Interface 



by Jim Baker 



Introduction 

Currently there are many video 
interfaces available for S100 Bus 
computer systems. Indeed, this 
number seems to grow monthly. 
Furthermore, no two of these inter- 
faces are the same. They vary widely in 
both cost and capability. This article 
describes one such video interface, the 
Merlin by MiniTerm. The article does 
not attempt to compare Merlin to other 
video interfaces and tends to have a 
positive bias, as I like my Merlin. 

My background is programming, not 
electronics. However, my electronics 
knowledge is growing as I build and fix 
more and more kits. Much of my ex- 
perience with video interfaces come 
from working with computer term- 
inals, where the video interface is 
integrated. At work, I have access to a 
Tektronix 4014 graphic terminal which 
has a fantastic resolution of 4096 by 
3120 points, about the best on the 
market. However, the 401 4's price of 
around $1 2,000 is too expensive for me. 
This led me to search for an inexpen- 
sive video interface with graphic 
resolution of 100 by 100 points or 
better. In addition, since I planned to 
get a system without a front panel, I 
also wanted a monitor board. As you 
will see, Merlin satisfied those needs 
and more for me. 

Merlin Overview 

When I first heard the name Merlin, I 
asked myself "What is it?". If the 
question were "Who?", the picture on 
their manual of a wizard, presumably 
from King Arthur's court, would have 
solved the problem. But, the question 
was "What?", and I had some research 
to do. As I acquired information one 
thing became very clear, Merlin is more 
than just a video interface. 

The basic Merlin unit consists of two 
high quality printed circuit boards with 
the following capabilities: a video 
interface, with upper case character 
generation, 40 characters on 20 lines, 
as well as 160 by 100 point graphic 
resolution; a parallel input port for 
keyboard interfacing; a serial I/O port 
for the cassette option and last, but 
very important to me, the provision to 

Jim Baker. Apt. 2K, 405 Undsley Drive, Morris- 
town. NJ 07960. 



add two ROMs. 

But that's just the basic unit! You can 
then add any of the following options: 
lower case character generation; a 
cassette interface (MCAS — Merlin 
CASsette) which uses the serial I/O 
port on the basic unit and buffers the 
parallel input port; Super Dense, in- 
creasing the graphic resolution from 
160 by 100 points to 320 by 200; and 
two software monitor ROMs, the MBI 
(Merlin Basic Intelligence), and the 
MEI (Merlin Extended Intelligence). 
The ROMs provide software to 
simulate a front panel, output data to 
the screen, read keyboard input, per- 
form cassette I/O, and more. 

As you can see, you might be better 
off calling this the Merlin I/O sub- 
system. But, by now, you're probably 
thinking, "That's nice but what did it all 
cost?". Well, in kit form, the basic unit 
costs $269, with each option costing 
$39. While you could just buy the basic 
unit, I feel two of the options are worth 
having: MCAS and the MBI ROM. 

I became interested in not only 
where Merlin is today, but where 
MiniTerm plans to take it. In talking to 
MiniTerm and reviewing the current 
sales brochures, I expect the following 
options and expansions: color 
graphics; greater character and 
graphic display densities; game con- 
trollers, consisting of four switches 
which plug into the cassette interface 
(notice the continued use of what's 
already there, tending to protect the 
initial investment); and, joysticks. I 
somehow feel that they're keeping 
themselves busy at MiniTerm. 

But "who?", or "what?" is MiniTerm. 
As it turns out, MiniTerm was started by 
two hobbyists who were unhappy with 
the state of the art in video interfaces 
and decided to change it. In October of 

1976, they went into the Merlin 
business full time. The original Merlin 
unit was announced in September of 
1 976 and deliveries began in January of 

1977. As with most firms, they got 
caught with unexpected startup 
delays. However, MiniTerm thought far 
beyond those first units and soon the 
add-on options, utilizing features on 
the basic unit, began to appear. 
MiniTerm now sells complete systems, 
although everyone seems to do that. 




Figure 1 

The Hardware 

The two Merlin circuit boards are 
solder masked, but not silkscreened. 
However, with the comprehensive 
assembly instructions, I found no great 
need for silkscreening. The boards 
mount piggyback fashion (see figure 1 ) 
and connect with two 14 line ribbon 
cables. Even though only one of the 
boards actually connects to the S100 
bus, two positions are taken up. 

The parts, for the kit versions, come 
in several bags. Each bag contains a list 
of the contents, with a number that 
indicates the board to which the parts 
belong. The super dense option comes 
on a separate circuit board which 
attaches to the main unit using two wire 
wrap sockets. Super dense mode (see 
figure 2) replaces sparse mode. Super 
dense mode has a resolution of 320 by 
200 points. You add lower case 
character generation by placing a 
lower case ROM on top of the existing 
upper case ROM. The cassette option, 
including keyboard buffers, is on a 




Figure 2 



52 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Merlin Con't. . . 

separate circuit board, which 
MiniTerm recommend you mount in 
your keyboard case. The two software 
ROMs plug directly into the basic unit. 
The MBI ROM comes with a 256 byte 
scratchpad RAM. Both ROMs use this 
RAM for stacks, display parameters, 
etc. If you wish to get the MEI ROM, 
you must have the MBI ROM. If you 
don't want to use MiniTerms monitor, 
you can put in your own using 271 6's, 
2708's, or 2704's. Merlin, along with the 
optional ROMs, occupies an 8K 
memory range starting at hexadecimal 
C000. 

Hardware Operation 

Merlin displays data on the screen in 
one of four modes: two character and 
two graphics. The two character 
modes are fixed and free form. In fixed 
mode, Merlin displays a total of 800 
characters, 40 characters on 20 lines. 
In free mode, the number of characters 
displayed varies. Here, Merlin displays 
data on a given line until a carriage 
return is found. The carriage return 
causes Merlin to blank the rest of that 
line and start displaying data on the 
next line. Thus, free mode allows 
"lines" longer than 40 characters to be 
stored in memory. Also, free mode 
generally uses less memory than fixed 
mode, as you do not have to pad lines 
with blanks. The two graphic modes 
are sparse and dense. These modes 
define the graphic resolution which 
Merlin will use. 80 by 100 points for 
sparse mode or 160 by 100 points for 
dense mode. Mixed mode is a com- 
bination of the character and graphic 
modes already discussed. In Mixed 
mode, Merlin displays characters in the 
top part of the screen and graphics in 
the bottom (see figure 3) the display 
changes to graphic mode when an HEX 
"00" is found. This means that the size 
of the two areas is under software 
control. There is also a game mode, but 
I haven't gotten to it yet. There are so 
many modes! In addition, there are 
more combinations possible when the 
other display parameters are used, but 
that could be an article in itself The 
manual devotes over ten pages to the 
topic of display parameters. 




Merlin uses DMA to get display data 
from memory. This means that the CPU 
can tell Merlin to start displaying data 
from anywhere in memory. However, 
DMA does have the disadvantage of 
making the CPU wait while Merlin gets 
the data. As a result, Merlin slows the 
CPU down from a low of 8 percent in 
free mode, to a high of 53 percent in 
super dense graphic mode. Turning 
the display off also turns DMA off. With 
DMA off, the CPU runs at full speed. 
This is very useful when you have a 
large number of calculations to per- 
form without needing the display until 
the results are ready. Furthermore, 
being able to turn DMA off is a must 
when a Tarbell disk controller is used. 
Finally, DMA overhead from Merlin is a 
constant percentage. So, in my case, 
even in super dense mode, the CPU 
runs at 1.82MHz (47 percent of 4MHz). 
This is faster than some systems run 
with no DMA! 

You access both the keyboard and 
cassette using memory mapped I/O, 
thus any memory reference instruction 
can access them. The cassette inter- 
face is software driven, meaning that 
the CPU must provide data to the 
interface at the proper speed. Although 
this means that your CPU cannot 
perform any other functions while 
reading or writing a cassette, it also 
means that you can read or write 
cassette tapes in any format. Further- 
more, the software sets the speed at 
which tapes are read or written! 
MiniTerm provides a listing of the 
software to read and write Tarbell" 1 
formatted tapes, or you can get the MEI 
ROM which contains it. 

The Software 

About the only thing I would debate 
about the MBI ROM software is the use 
of the word "basic." The MBI is the 
central software workhorse of the 
Merlin unit. This software makes inter- 
facing BASICs and other monitors a 
snap. After powering up my computer, 
I hit reset, the CPU board jumps to the 
monitor, and away I go! 

Before I discuss the good features, 
there is one bad thing I found in the 
MBI monitor: all commands must be in 
upper case. Furthermore, any data you 
give to the command must also be in 
upper case. This means you must 
either use only an uppercase keyboard 
or place a software routine in front of 
the keyboard software to correct the 
problem. 

I group the monitor commands into 
three categories: "front panel" com- 
mands, utility commands, and screen 
control commands. The front panel 
commands allow you to display and/or 
modify memory or the CPU registers, 
or execute a user program with 
breakpoints. The utility commands 
allow you to fill any area of memory 



53 



with a given HEX value, copy one area 
of memory to another, or input 
character data. 

The screen control commands allow 
you to move the cursor, or modify the 
display parameters (e.g. set modes, 
etc.). Merlin's cursor defines the lo- 
cation where data will next appear on 
the screen, including data you input. 
Commands are available to move the 
cursor up, down, left, right, to one of 
two user defined locations, or even to 
another screen by "paging" back- 
wards or forwards. You can also 
request Merlin to insert, replace, or 
delete characters, or delete lines. 
These commands provide the software 
needed to create an extremely power- 
ful editor! 

You control the display by defining 
where, in memory, it will start and end, 
and what display mode Merlin will use 
for that area. You can define up to two 
areas at once and request "flipping" 
back and forth between them. This 
"flipping" is very useful when you want 
to work with graphics in one area of 
memory and character data in another. 

Finally, it is worth noting that you can 
call all of the commands from any 
program you write, and most of the 
commands will accept parameters 
from your program (see BASIC exam- 
ple below). In addition, utility routines 
are available for many useful tasks 
such as reading HEX or character data 
from the keyboard, writing the con- 
tents of the accumulator or HL 
registers to the screen in HEX, or 
displaying a message on the screen. 

As if that weren't enough, there's also 
the MEI ROM software. The MEI 
commands and subroutines build upon 
the MBI base. The screen control 
commands are extended to allow 
operation in the graphics modes (e.g. 
draw a line, move graphics cursor, 
etc.). The editor commands are ex- 
tended to provide string locate and/or 
change, block delete, word delete, 
block copy, and word skip. Finally they 
added the tape read and write com- 
mands, block verify, Hex locate, and 
Z80 register display and modify. 

The following is a BASIC program 
which draws perspective "boxes" (see 
figure 4). It is meant to serve as an 




Figure 4 



example of how you can use Merlin's 
graphics capabilities from BASIC, and 
not as a functional program. You would 
have to add some assembler routines 
for the program to be complete. 



Documentation 

Merlin's documentation is truly 
great! If I've seen better I can't 
remember where. There are currently 
over 210 pages. Even at that, MiniTerm 
is working on more! The kit assembly 



1000 REM 1NIT ASM SUE SI - ADD 11,11, 


X2.Y2 TO TABLE 


1010 SU24001 








1020 S0=S1 








1030 GOSUB 2420 








1040 DATA 4E1,42A,460,4D0,4D1,473,423 


,472 






1050 DATA 423,401,473,423, 472, 423, 422 


,460 






1060 DATA 41)0, 4C9. 300 








1070 REM/ S2 CALL PATTERN 








1075 S2=S0 








1060 GOSUB 2420 








1090 DATA 4t1,4£1,4C3,4C2,4BD,4300 






BASIC EXAMPLE 


1100 REM/ S3 EDIQ 








1105 S3*S0 








1110 GOSUB 2420 








1120 DATA 4E1,4C3,4B3,4C3,300 








1130 REM/ EDI0 VARIABLES 








1135 S0*AD034 








1140 GOSUB 2420 








1150 DATA 4b1,43t,481,43t,4U1,43L,4C0 


,*5D 


411,300 


1500 Z«1 








1510 Z=RND(-1) 




4050 


X0r216+RND(Z)»100 


2000 REM 




4060 


Y0*118*RND(Z)*60 


2010 REM/ 1NIT GRAPHIC VARIABLES 




4070 


XU320-X0 


2020 POKE 4007b, 4 3t 




4060 


I1»I0 


2030 POKE 4D07A.461 




4090 


XiXUL 


2100 GOTO 3000 




4100 


YsYI-H 


2200 REM/ SUBROUTINES 




4105 


REM/ 3-2-1-4-3 


2210 REM/ DRAU PATH SUB 




4110 


CALL S1.Y1.X 


2220 POKE 4D079.1 :REM/ SET TO OR 




4120 


CALL S1.Y.X 


2230 POKE 4D06A.0 




4130 


CALL S1,Y,X1 


2240 POKE4D06B.0 




4140 


CALL S1.Y1.X1 


2250 POKE 4D06C.0 




4150 


CALL S1.Y1.X 


2260 POKE 4D06D.0 :REM/ X=Y = 




4160 


X3*319-X 


2270 CALL S2.P0 




4170 


Z0=SQR(X3*X3*Y0»Y0) 


2260 RETURN 




4160 


A5=X3»D/Z0 


2300 REM 




4190 


B5=A5«Y0/X3 


2310 REM/ CLEAR SUB 




4192 


X5=X+A5 


2320 POKE 40079.2 :REM/ CLEAR (CPL, AND) 


4194 


Y5=Y1-B5 


2330 GOTO 2230 




4195 


REM/ -5-6-7-1 


2400 REM 




4200 


CALL S1.Y5.X5 


2410 REM/ POKE SUB 




4210 


B6=A5«Y/X3 


2420 READ A 




4220 


Y61Y-B6 


2430 IF A>255 THEN RETURN 




4230 


CALL S1.Y6.X5 


2440 POKE SO, A 




4240 


A7=B6»X0/Y 


2450 S0=S0+1 




4245 


X7=XUA7 


2460 GOTO 2420 




4250 


CALL S1.Y6.X7 


2500 REM 




4260 


Y9=Y+46000 


2510 REM/ LOAD POINTER 




4270 


CALL S1.Y9.X1 


2520 P1rlNT(P0/256) 




4275 


REM/ 7-6-5 DASHED 


2530 POKE 4D061.P1 




4260 


Y7*Y6*47700 :REM/ DASHED 


2540 P1=P0-256«P1 




4290 


CALL S1.Y7.X7 


2550 POKE 4D060.P1 




4300 


Y8=Y5*47700 


2560 RETURN 




4310 


CALL S1.Y6.X7 


2900 REM 




4320 


Y9=Y5*48000 


2910 REM/ DELAY 




4330 


CALL S1.Y9.X5 
REM/ 4-6 DASHED 


2920 RETURN 




4340 


3000 REM 




4345 


Y9*YW47700 


3002 REM/ MAIN LOOP 




4350 


CALL S1.Y9.X1 


3004 CALL S3 :REM/ EDIQ (FLIP SCREEN) 


4360 


Y8rY5+48000 


3020 1=1 




4370 


CALL S1.Y8.X7 


3030 P0«43DB9 




43c 3 


REM/ 2-6 -0 LAST, DOTTED 


3035 GOSUB 2520 




4390 


CALL S1.Y.X 


3040 GOSUB 4020 :RBM/ CALC PATTERN 




4400 


Y9=Y6+47F00 


3050 GOSUB 2220 :REM/ DRAW PATTERN 




4410 


CALL S1.Y9.X5 


3060 PO*PO+I*90 




4420 


Y9*48000 


3065 GOSUB 2520 




4430 


19*319 


3070 GOSUB 4020 :REM/ CALC NEXT PATTERN 


4440 


CALL S1,Y9,X9 


3060 GOSUB 2920 :REM/ DELAY 




4450 


Y9=Y6*47FO0 


3090 P0«P0-I«90 




4460 


CALL S1.Y9.X7 


3100 GOSUB 2320 :REM/ CLEAR 




4470 


Y9=48000 


3110 Irl«-1 




4480 


CALL S1.Y9.X9 


3120 P0«P0-I»90 




4490 


Y9=Y5*47FO0 


3130 GOTO 3050 




4500 


CALL S1.Y9.X5 


4000 REM 




4510 


Y9=4FF00 


4010 REM/ CALULATE PATTERN SUB 




4520 


CALL S1.Y9.X9 


4020 H«20*RND(Z)«80 




4530 


RETURN 


4030 L«20*RND(Z)»80 




9999 


END 


4040 D=10*RND(Z)»50 









instructions were a lifesaver. When I 
took my Merlin manual home, I had 
never built a kit! As it turned out, I used 
parts of the Merlin manual for assembly 
of other kits. There is a general section 
on kit building with things like how to 
put sockets into a printed circuit board 
for soldering. They gave four ways and 
said to try them and choose. 
Remember, some kit manufacturers 
feel that one page is sufficient! Each 
page of the assembly instructions has a 
picture of the board used in the steps 
on that page, with the areas circled 
where you insert parts. Possibly one of 
the highest praises I can give these 
instructions is to say that I have since 
built a Healthkit scope and found the 
documentation to be of that caliber. 

My Experiences 

My experiences with Merlin have 
been very good. After assembly, the 
basic unit ran the first time, even with 
an error I found later with MiniTerm's 
help. I did have a problem with free 
mode, but it turned out to be a 
sensitivity to dynamic memory. 
MiniTerm had a fix for this, but I never 
used it as the dynamic memory was in a 
system I borrowed for testing the 
Merlin. When I started running on my 
4MHz system another problem arose. 
The display would switch to a section 
of memory which I had not requested, 
and then come back. This was my one 
assembly error. Merlin now runs solid 
as a rock at 4MHz. I am still amazed that 
it ran at all with the error present and 
feel this shows a good design. 

Although the 3 day delivery of the 
basic board was great, the delivery on 
the MEI ROM and MCAS units was 
another story. However, MimiTerm is 
well aware of the problem and 
(allegedly) has taken steps to over- 
come it. 

The technical assistance was very 
good. For the few problems I had, I got 
answers to the questions I asked, as 
well as a few I hadn't. The people at 
MiniTerm reflect an attitude of pride in 
Merlin, and assume that they also have 
a problem, not just the customer. 

My Conclusion 

Merlin is not the Video interface for 
everyone. If all you want is a plain TV 
Typewriter, you can buy cheaper 
interfaces. On the other hand, there are 
those who want "more!" For those 
people, expert and novice alike, Merlin 
should do the job. As you have seen, 
my Merlin provides me with a great I/O 
subsystem, and MiniTerm have a track 
record of providing new add-on op- 
tions, showing that they have not 
forgotten that customers have an 
investment in their product. 

All I can say in closing is that I 
anxiously await more Merlin upgrades. 
After all, King Arthur's wizard must 
perform in color! ■ 



54 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



ecu 



VACATION BOOK SALE 



Basic Software Library— Vol. I & II $24.95 

Basic Software Library— Vol. Ill & VII $39.95 

Basic Software Library— Vol. IV & V $ 9.95 

Basic Software Library— Vol. VI $49.95 

Basic Software Library— Vol. VIII $19.95 

Creative Computing— Vol. I & II $ 8.95 

Instant Basic $ 7.50 

101 Basic Games $ 7 -50 

8080 Bug Book $ 9-95 

Sam Z-80 Program $ 8.50 

Cheap Video Cook Book $ 5.95 

Basic Basic $ 8.95 

Advanced Basic $ 6.95 

I.C. Timer $ 9.95 

TTL Cook Book $ 9.50 

Your Own Computer $ 1-95 

Z-80 Assembly Language $ 7.50 

Z-80 ZPU Technical Manual $ 7.50 

Z-80 Program Logic Design $ 7.50 

First Book of Kim $ 8.95 

SYBEX Microprocessor $ 9.95 

SYBEX Micro Interfacing Techniques $ 9-95 

How to Build a Computer Controlled Robot $ 7.95 

OSBORNE 

Intro to Micro— Vol. & I $ 7.50 

Intro to Micro— Vol. II $15.00 

8080 Programming $ 7.50 

6800 Programming $ 7.50 

Z-80 Programming $ 7.50 

Some Common Basic Programs $ 7.50 

Payroll with Cost Accounting $12.50 

C-MOS Cook Book $10.50 

How to Program Micro Computer $ 8.50 

BUG BOOKS 

Bug Book Vol. I & II & IV & VII $ 8.50 

Bug Book Vol. Ill $15.00 

Bug Book Vol. V Si VI $ 9-50 

The 555 Timer Applications $ 6.95 

The Design of Active Filters $ 8.50 

WE STOCK A COMPLETE LINE OF BOOKS 




ALL BOOKS 10% OFF 
TAB BOOKS 20% OFF 

PRICES IN EFFECT THRU OCT. 30 




IMS 

MEMORY MADNESS 




H 



UJLllL 







^iLLLLLU 1 1 IUJ 



E 



LL 



IT 



JJ! 



INDUSTRIAL 
MICRO SYSTEMS 

8K STATIC 

GUARANTEED TO RUN AT4Mhz 

$159.95 

"WORLDS FINEST 8K MEMORY MODULE" 



ALSO 



16K 250ns REG. $555 NOW $469 
16K 450ns REG. $525 NOW $429 



WE ARE A FULL LINE IMS 
DISTRIBUTOR 



BANK OF AMERICA AND MASTERCHARGE 
WELCOME. TERMS: MIN. ORDER $10.00 ADD $2.00 
POSTAGE AND HANDLING IF ORDER IS UNDER 
$25.00 AND SENT UPS. ADD $4.00 POSTAGE 
AND HANDLING IF SENT VIA U.S. MAIL. 



c 
c 
I 



COMPUTER COMPONENTS INC. 

5848 Sepulveda Blvd., Van Nuys, CA 9141 1 

(213)786-7411 

4705 Artesia Blvd., Lawndale, CA 90260 

(213)370-4842 

6791 Westminister Ave., Westminister , CA 92683 

(714)898-8330 

3808 Verdugo Ave., Burbank.CA 91505 

(Watch for grand opening) 

CLOSED SUNDAYS AND MONDAYS 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



CIRCLE 174 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
55 



Plug-in Basic for a home video game. 



Bally Professional Arcad 



I Karl L. Zinn 



You can now plug a resident Basic 
into a home video game. The package, 
including ROM cartridge and a good, 
printed introduction to Basic, sells for 
about $50. For $50 more you can get a 
tape cassette interface for saving 
programs. The initial purchase 
(processor, built-in arcade games, 
keypad and four joysticks) is about 
$300. I don't get excited about arcade 
games, especially at $300 purchase 
price for home use. However, I am very 
pleased to see a convenient $50 option 
for a family having a video game to now 
move into programming the 
microprocessor themselves. Music, 
color, and 1800 bytes of program 
storage make the programming quite 
interesting. 

In this review I won't try to analyze 
the Bally Arcade as a games product, 
or compare it with Atari or Fairchild or 
RCA. I will provide some commentary 
on Bally Basic as a significant exten- 
sion of the Bally machine and an 
interesting enhancement of Palo Alto 
Tiny Basic. Also I will include a 
comment on advertising and availabili- 
ty of such products in general. 

I appreciated the help of John 
Johnson of NCE/Compumart in Ann 
Arbor, not only for the loan of the only 
Bally Basic cartridge in the area but for 
advice and assistance in exploring 
the language. 

The arcade as a basis 
for educational use 

Bally Basic", written by Jay Fenton, 
is a version of Palo Alto Tiny Basic 
expanded for control of graphics, 
color, sound, and joystick input. An 
instruction booklet by Dick Ainsworth 
provides an easy introduction in about 
36 small-format pages. 

The 24-key numeric pad is converted 
by an overlay which designates control 
keys, alphabetics and Basic 
statements. Four prefix keys across the 
bottom are used to make the 20 other 
keys suffice: one for "words" to in- 
dicate RUN, LIST, FOR, GOTO, and so 
on; and three for indicating which 
character on each key is desired (A, B, 
C or &, @, *). Color codes help with 
this arrangement. Numbers, operators, 
space and some control characters 
(GO, PAUSE, HALT, ERASE) are 
boldly presented in white: they require 



no prefix. Words are printed in gold on 
the overlay, and when the WORD prefix 
key is pressed the screen background 
turns gold as confirmation. The screen 
color changes back after any key with a 
word on it is pressed, and that full word 
(e.g., PRINT) appears at the next posi- 
tion in the program listing. Alphabetics 
are in green, red, and blue with 
corresponding colors on the overlay 
and screen background. 

In addition to color aids the location 
of characters is reasonable, left and 
right parens, brackets, slashes, arrows, 
and the like are on the left and right 
respectively of each cluster of three 
characters on a key. The effect is one of 
soon changing the user's "hunt and 
peck" to simple "peck." The non-typist 
will go just as fast as a typist and 
perhaps with less frustration; a small, 
function-oriented keyboard is 
somewhat of an "equilizer." 

I didn't achieve true touch typing. For 
one thing the key pressure required is a 
distraction just as on some calculators 
the feel of the keys is not suitable to 
working blind. Nevertheless, after a few 
hours of use I was moving immediately 
without distraction to all common 
commands, characters and letters of 
the alphabet. The audio and color 




□□ra ranm nnm ann 



|^r"i->iti-ui&i@i»i 

TT1 



■ CLEAR 2 LINE 3 BOX -f- GOTO 




BALLY BASK ootsuiumfg 



confirmation provides unobtrusive 
support. 

The instruction book begins with 
very simple programs and does not 
assume any computer experience. I 
have not had occasion yet to use Bally 
Basic with complete novices for 
anything more than a demonstration. I 
expect we will find, as with other 
beginner packages, that having an 
experienced user at hand is very 
helpful to answer questions and 
provide encouragement. The booklet 
includes pictures of program steps, 
results and diagnostics as they appear 
on the screen. This confirmation of 
what things should look like is very 
helpful for beginners. Also the reader is 
led through the operation of a variety of 
programs step by step. This detail 
helps clear up confusions which could 
not be anticipated. 

Bally Basic has no confusing 
diagnostic messages; indeed it has 
almost no diagnostics at all. When it 
can't parse (recognize) what is entered 
it responds "WHAT?" And when it 
recognizes but can't execute a state- 
ment the response is "HOW?" When it 
runs out of memory it says "SORRY!" 

Extensions for use of 
games capabilities 

Foreground and background color 
are controlled by placing a number in 
reserved variables FC and BC respec- 
tively. One common way of controlling 
these is through the knobs on the 
joysticks, as in doodling or graphic art. 

Music is fun and easy to do. The 
sound in the speaker is controlled by 
placing characters in a reserved 
variable (mu) as for color. These sound 
codes can be assigned literally or 
computed. Advice on semi-random 
music generation is included. The 
tempo is controlled by the reserved 
variable NT (note time). A program 
listed in the introductory booklet sets 
up the Bally as a "player piano." The 
"player roll" is entered from the 
keyboard and saved for repeated plays. 

LINE and BOX commands provide, 
important extensions for graphics. The 
addressable resolution is 159 dots wide 
by 87 dots high. The graphics pointer 
begins in the center (0,0) and will on 
execution of LINE 24,15,1 draw a line 
from the origin to the point (24,15) in 
Cartesian coordinates, leaving a black 
line (1) connecting the points. (Other 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 







kinds of connections are white, reverse 
and none.) Random and semi-random 
line drawings are fun; line graphs are 
easy. Similarly one can put boxes on 
the screen with additional parameters 
specifying the width and height of each 
box. The user soon is putting semi- 
random visuals on the screen with 
"music" coming over the audio. 

Those who have used the Bally for 
arcade games know the joy stick (hand 
control) has a knob for "analogue" 
input (actually it is read as integers 
from 1-1 28 at about 7 o'clock around to 
+127 at 5 o'clock) and a trigger for 
marking events. Bally Basic makes 
these inputs available to the 
programmer so user programs can 
include doodling, controlling the posi- 
tion of a space ship, and firing rockets. 

A single string array is addressed by 
@(n) where n can have values from 1 to 
874 (by my test). One can store a 
character or a (signed) number in each 
location of the string and retrieve them 
as connected strings through iteration 
involving the subscripted "@" variable. 
Since these characters are stored in a 
separate memory, essentially all of the 
1 800 bytes of user storage can be used 
by program statements (key words 
each take one byte; line numbers and 
linkage require three bytes). Revision 
of programs is accomplished by add- 
ing, deleting or replacing entire lines. 

Bally Basic does have limitations, of 
course; it is helpful not to expect too 
much. I have already mentioned lack of 
storage, speed of animation, and 
access to machine functions. Also it 
needs an editor, although that is not a 
problem with short lines. Nevertheless 
Bally has provided a significant step, 
for only $50, beyond arcade games. 

The manual provides an easy begin- 
ning and suggests interesting things to 



do. Indeed, a library of the programs in 
the manual is sufficient for now to 
impress neighbors with one's control 
of the machine. The programs and 
annotations have been written in a way 
to encourage doing more. The capacity 
of the language and machine go way 
beyond what is demonstrated by 
programs in the manual, i.e., longer 
programs and more complex control. I 
tried the machine with two preteens 



(already programming in Basic) who 
put some interesting games into the 
Bally. Both of them still prefer the 
Commodore PET for programming, 
but thoroughly enjoyed access to 
sound and color and joystick control. 

Implications for marketing and 
education 

I hope (as I suppose Bally does) that 
many purchasers of the arcade games 



"Guess the Number" in Bally Basic 



5 CLEAR 
10 BC = RND(256) 



20 FC 

30 A = 



= BC + 12 

RND(10) 



35 NT = 1 
40 INPUT 



YOUR CHOICE" B 



45 NT = 3 

50 IF A B GOTO 80 

60 IF A B PRINT "MORE 

70 IF A B PRINT "LESS " 

75 GOTO 35 

80 PRINT B "IS RIGHT" 

85 NT = 10 



90 PRINT 
95 NT = 3 



045680068000" 



100 PRINT (46 spaces) 
110 GOTO 5 



Clears the screen. 

Sets a random background color; 16 inten- 
sities of 8 basic colors are available num- 
bered to 256. 

Sets the foreground color to the next basic 
color and opposite intensity from the back- 
ground color. 

Speeds up the operation of the computer. 



Slows down a bit. (NT =3 is "normal ") 



Slows down a lot so the music (line 90) can be 
heard. 

Plays "Charge" through the speaker. All com- 
puter operations produce sounds (which can 
be turned on or off). The two 0's following the 
first 8 produce a 'hold' for three beats. Three 
8's would produce three distinct notes 
whereas a slurs the preceding note. 

Uses up some time so you can see what you 
did. 



SEPTADCT 1978 



57 







14 Thing* 

You Can Do 

With Your 

Personal 

Computer 



build a robot 

write poetry 

control lights and alarms 

balance a checkbook 

automatically dial a 

telephone 
score musicals 
sort mailing lists 
draw graphics 
handle payrollH 
plan (dropping lists 
calculate tax returns 
manage inventory 
plan menus 
aecounting 

Ami 4 unities ( o 
help you! 




Available at your local 
computer store! 



peigonal 
computing 
books! 




ffl 



lluy<lc-il Hook Company. 
nt) iittHCX Street 
Kochcllc Pktrk, XI 07668 



Si 



CIRCLE 113 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



will want to go beyond them. But is it 
reasonable to expect purchasers of the 
$100 tiny Basic to want the add-on full 
keyboard and the much more capable 
(8k) Basic to be offered by Bally (for 
about $500?). The problem is, one 
needs more access to the machine to 
do the kinds of programs included on 
the games cartridges: speed of anima- 
tion, control of color, and so on. For 
some the experience with Bally Basic 
could backfire. That is, beginning with 
the more capable machine would have 
been a better route to learning Basic 
and the enjoyment of programming. 
Nevertheless, the $50 entry is a lot 
easier to take than $500 for full 
keyboard and more memory, and many 
more will at least try their hands and 
minds at programming. If a majority 
develops a sense of being able to 
master the machine, some important 
educational purposes have been serv- 
ed. 

Bally Basic, as now delivered is 
interesting enough for schools work- 
ing with video production and even 
small TV stations or community cable 
systems. Even those who already have 
a character generator (typically 
costing $2000) will find greatly ex- 
panded capability for making up titles 
with the $400 Bally Arcade with Basic 
and tape interface. This home enter- 
tainment equipment offers more for 
less in generating video displays. It is 
practical to use in real time, as in 
walking some text across the bottom of 
the screen, or in production of a video 
tape, as in progressive assembly of 
graphics incorporating a title or credits 
for a program. 

The quality of the picture suffers 
from going to radio frequency in the 
Bally (for connecting to common 
television sets via antenna leads) and 
back to video signal in the monitor or 
interface box. Bally should provide a 
video connector for use with video tape 
machines and monitors. The improved 
picture quality will be appreciated by 
home users as well now that new TV 
sets accommodate direct video input. 

The video game manufacturers (see 
Exidy's Sorcerer as well as Bally 
arcade) have led the way with 
pluggable software, an extremely im- 
portant concept for educational use of 
personal computers. This is not sur- 
prising since they are accustomed to 
producing pluggable games. Probably 
by the publication date for this product 
review, Tl will have announced its entry 
in this area. Keep in mind the long 
experience of Tl in Solid State 
Software" for the Tl 58 and 59 and the 
impressive 256 kilo byte plug-in 
memory (actually two chips) for the 
Speak & Spell™. 

I am hopeful that Bally Basic will lead 
purchasers of arcade games to try out 
programming and find some enjoy- 
ment in creating their own games or 

58 



other simple routines. Their disap- 
pointment at not being able to match 
the complexity and pace of the 
professionally prepared games will be 
compensated by a sense of control 
through their own programming. Bally 
Basic does provide access to color, 
motion and line drawing, joystick 
input, and musical tones. Users should 
be advised that the programs will not 
execute as fast as those in machine 
language, and of course they can not 
be as complex or detailed due to 
storage limitations. Incidentally, the 
demonstration program is rather im- 
pressive, filling available storage to 
within one byte and showing off the 
full range of features. 

Advertising and product availability 

Perhaps many of you have seen the 
same JS&A ad I read in the Scientific 
American (September 1 977) and many 
airline magazines for the Bally Home 
Library Computer. It offered a 
professional computer for under $300 
with the fun of arcade games too. 
Actually it described a games com- 
puter which with some additions would 
become a professional machine. 
Riding along on the advantages of 
large volume production for home 
games, the same basic unit was to be 
adapted and extended for professional 
uses. And JS&A claimed to have "a 
small console unit manufactured ex- 
clusively for JS&A." 

A colleague ordered the machine at 
once and kept me informed during a 
long succession of conversations with 
JS&A. Delivery slipped from the four 
weeks stated in the ad to Thanksgiving, 
then Christmas, then early in the year. 
Finally in mid-March, about three 
weeks after I obtained a plain Bally 
Arcade machine at a local store, my 
friend received delivery from JS&A. 

Then began a series of conversations 
with JS&A about how the Home Library 
Computer differed from the one I 
obtained through the Bally distribution 
network. One proposed advantage was 
in the design, another in quality con- 
trol, another in price or schedule of 
deliveries. On each occasion the effort 
to confirm the difference came up 
empty. That is, the item sold in the 
arcade box appears identical but for 
label and advertising to the one sold 
through the mail by JS&A, except for 
minor changes attributable to different 
production runs. And the performance 
of our two early machines, one from 
JS&A and one from Bally, was poor. 
Both of us had problems with 
overheating, poor signal strength for 
the RF input to TV antenna leads, and 
erratic connections for the peripheral 
devices (joysticks). A later unit from 
Bally does not show any of these 
problems. And JS&A was very prompt 
in crediting my friend's account when 
he returned his equipment. 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



I won't try to place blame for mis- 
leading advertising. Whether Bally did 
not deliver to JS&A as soon as promis- 
ed or JS&A promised more things and 
sooner than Bally had committed to do 
is not important. Something does need 
to be said about such delays and 
problems that are characteristic of 
hobbyist and personal computers. 

Equipment promised by many 
different companies has not been 
made available on anything near the 
stated schedule. Some may never 
become available. And yet various 
companies have taken money in ad- 
vance payment for products that have 
not yet been demonstrated to work, or 
for which development has not yet 
been completed. 

Good finances and a sound design 
are more important to product success 
than advance payments by over anx- 
ious purchasers. I hope the buying 
habits of hobbyists and others in- 
terested in being in on early deliveries 
will adjust to reward sound practices 
and will help the burgeoning industry 
for personal computing to mature. ■ 



An interview with Dave Mar- 
tin, Bally Manufacturing 



Ahl: I notice your little keypad has 
only 24 keys and a selector at the 
bottom that lets each key equal up to 
five different things. How easy is that to 
learn? 

Martin: It's easy to learn. And if you 
don't know a typewriter keyboard, it's 
actually easier to learn than a 
typewriter keyboard. You can do it 
faster. Also the fact that some of the 
keys allow you to print a whole word 
without having to type it out letter by 
letter. 

Ahl: Okay, that's certainly handy. 

Martin: Right, and it only uses one 
piece of information in memory, one bit 
rather than five bits, for example, in the 
word print. It uses one bit instead of 
five. 

Ahl: Extremely handy as far as 
conservation of memory space. JS and 
A, a mail order vendor, have pictured it 
with a standard keyboard. Is that one of 
your products? 

Martin: It will be one of our products 
some time in the first quarter of next 
year. We don't have an exact date yet as 
to when it's going to be available. We 
hope to be selling it at the January 
CES, or have it available and func- 
tioninq. 

Dave kindly explained the many 
other attributes of the Bally, however 
these are discussed in greater depth in 
Karl Zinn's review. 



8 


IM 

(8 

o 



to 

•O 

u 





- 3 

x o 

5 3 

< < 

as > 

u x 

i x 

z I 

2 I 

z I- 

> o 



uj 

d 
< 

0. 

X 
u 
►- 

- 

<, 



3 UO 

a. — 

3 -i fc. 
Oal 

ID > - 
3 LU CO 

uj d O 

ZM 

< . OB 
-J S Li. 

3 as u. 

S W * 

« »- ei 



z 

UJ 

C 
z 

UJ 

0. 
UJ 

Q 

Z 



OS 

< 

o 

CL 

0.' 

O 
O 



O 

Sfc 

<1 

ut 
a. 5 

Si 

5 < 

*§£5 



Q 
_ 
oc 

5 
o 

UJ 
K 



LU 



z - 



&£E 



z 

Q 

a: 
oe 

_i(J 

si 

zo 

< U0 



JUL 

CL> -J </> 

SO u. 3 

OuJ H 

Z"J uo d 

< CM UJ 06 

H3« 



* Pig* 

_1 Z H n 



uo O <j 

3 Sj W 
CL O N 

>o - 

U0{N UJ 



< 

X 

SB 
LU 
P 

U 

< 

SB 
< 

X 

u 

< 

< 
UJ 

CL 

UJ 

CB 

> > 

UJ UJ 

X 2B 

< < 

UJ UJ 

a. a. 

UJ UJ 

CB as 



Q 

O 00 

I I 

[jy «C 

s o 

UJ t- 

U SB 

< UJ 

- ID 

£ g 

n Q 

CB h- 

i I 

> -J 



Z 

< 

0B 
UJ 

U 

z 

UJ 

uo 

< 
u 

ID 
UJ 

< 

z 



uo 

■* 

UJ 

H 

00 3 
3 00 

a © 



S ° 

>• © 

UJ o 

* SB § 

ac O •» 



U ; 
H j 

& ! 
5 1 

at 

UJ u 

■ 

an 



3<-o 

<oc<2 

•- w ri — 
u * ^ It 

LLl -J X OS 

uo 06 O "■ 
OB UJ H UJ 

lu a. o h 
uo a. < < 



•:: 



^uo jr O 

SB (j 7 

W S I UJ 

uo— < uo 



■ezz 

Pi 

x (j a. 
<« uj O 

&^< 

I- 0B — y 

Eg i w 
a.<<E 

US3n 

£ z z cl 

X « S" 5 

UJ Q Cl g 

-i UJ t O 

Li. _i IN -J 



5 ^ 

w i 



e 

ON 




o 

cc 

U 

■•I 
O 

> 



i 



o 



o 



SEPT/CXTT 1978 



Two new electronic learning aids 
from Texas Instruments 



Speak & 
Ming 



II 



Karl L. Zinn 

Education in the home through 
computer assistance has just been 
moved ahead a year or two by the intro- 
duction of a new electronic learning aid 
by Texas Instruments. The Speak & 
Spell'" includes memory (256 kilobits), 
logic (speech synthesizer), and new 
modes of interaction not expected for 
at least another year. 

Perhaps my enthusiasm will temper 
with more exposure to the machine, 
and with results from trials in the 
schools. So far I have tried the machine 
only under rather unfavorable con- 
ditions (noise and bustle of the Con- 
sumer Electronics Show), and I talked 
at length with two of the people who 
had a great deal to do with packaging 
the device and developing supporting 
materials. 

So this product review will talk 
mostly about significant trends in 
capabilities of hand-held learning aids, 
and implications for educational com- 
puting generally. For a later issue I will 
get some users to report on initial use 
in schools and homes. 

Establishing a Growth Trend 

Some years ago someone, wonder- 
ing what to do with calculators that 
were discarded due to faulty displays, 
wired in red and green lights in place of 
the LED's to confirm if a user keyed in a 
correct expression and its value. This 
new application of calculators gained 
the attention of math educators and 
CAI developers when the device was 
redesigned to generate the ex- 





pressions at random but within con- 
straints of reasonable problems for 
kids. 

I first saw the Tl Little Professor'" in 
the fall of 1976. At that time I was 
impressed by the amount of expensive 
CAI math exercise which was replaced 
by the $25 machine, but I predicted 
double the capability within a year in a 
new product. Also, I expected a price 
reduction of about 50% for the Little 
Professor. 

In the fall of 1977 I saw that Tl outdid 
my predictions. Most will agree that the 
Dataman'" more than doubled the 
capability of its predecessor, and it was 
offered at the same price ($25). In- 
cidentally, the price of Little Professor 
has dropped to $14 list. I was par- 




ticularly interested to see group learn- 
ing activities encouraged with 
Dataman. For the fall of 1978 I 
predicted another doubling of capabili- 
ty and the introduction of alphabetics 
for word drills. Also I expected audio 
the year after that, a larger display with 
point graphics, and pluggable software 
(as on the Tl 58 and 59). 

Now in June of 1978 Texas In- 
struments has announced products 
including all I predicted for this year 
and next and part of the year after. I 
should like to make such predictions 
on when we will see Allan Kay's 
Dynabook! 

I haven't seen the full package for 
Speak & Spell (the books weren't 
available yet) and I haven't tried it with 
children (no one under 18 is permitted 
in the Consumer Electronics Show). 
Knowing something of what the Tl 
Learning Center can do in product 
development and testing, I am confi- 
dent that the new spelling aid will be 
enjoyed by kids and will be judged 
effective by educators. 



A talking learning aid 

The box has the appearance of a 
colorful, hand-held toy radio or 
typewriter. It weighs about one pound 
and measures about 6 x 10 inches. 
Forty keys are arranged in four rows of 
ten with command keys across the top 
and the characters arranged in 
alphabetical order. 

Spelling words are selected at ran- 
dom from one of four lists of about fifty 
each and dictated through a small 
speaker in the top of the case. As the 
child presses the keys, the machine 
speaks each letter and displays it on 
the screen. The ERASE key will take 
the last letter off the screen. When the 
child presses ENTER the machine 
compares the character string dis- 
played against one stored in the chip 
along with the bit string which provided 
the vocalization. If the two match, the 
machine confirms "That is correct" and 
goes on to the next word. If they don't 
match the machine prompts for a 
second try. After two errors the correct 
answer is spoken and spelled. 

The SAY IT key, also labeled by a 
"speaking" cartoon face, provides 
dictation with a pause for the child to 
pronounce each word, after which the 
machine repeats the word. When the 
ten words chosen at random within that 
difficulty level have been spoken, the 
machine proceeds with the regular 
spelling mode, presenting the ten 
words in a different order. Each word is 
spoken once, then again as part of the 
confirmation after the child has spelled 
it correctly (or missed). 

A REPEAT key causes the current 
word to be spoken again, and REPLAY 
key restarts the exercise at the begin- 
ning of the current list of ten words. 
( Each key carries both a word above or 
below it and a single symbol on the key 
as a reminder for kids who can't read 
or remember the function.) Four other 
keys control three kinds of games. 
MYSTERY WORD is a version of 
"Hangman" in which one guesses 
letters in an unknown word one at a 
time. With the CLUE key one can "buy" 
a letter which is part of the word and 
see where it appears. SECRET CODE 
is based on a one-to-one translation of 
the alphabet into another ordering of 
the characters; on pressing the CODE 
key the machine will code any string 
that shows in the display. Pressing 
LETTER simply calls a random letter 
generator for a variety of games set up 
by the activities booklet. 

The attractiveness of this new 
machine is partly due to the novelty of 
synthesized speech with random 
selection from a large file of words. 
However, the designers did a good job 
fitting spelling drills and word games to 
the technology of synthesized speech 
that Tl had been developing for some 



60 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Many other things might have 
been done with a synthesizer that 
would not have been as attractive and 
engaging as a learning aid. 

The unusually good quality of audio, 
compared with other systems available 
now, results from the use of a model of 
the human vocal system contained in 
the synthesizer chip. 

Instead of generating phonemes 
from phonetic spellings of the words, a 
bit pattern is stored in memory for the 
entire word or phrase. These patterns 
are taken from human speech; hence, 
Tl can redo the memory chips for the 
UK with a British actor reading the 
words. Indeed the same machine can 
be used for second language learning 
or medical technology with a change 
only in the ROM's which hold the voice 
patterns. 

The present product was designed 
for the home market. Parents will be 
intrigued by it; kids will enjoy it. 
Educators might want a volume control 
and/or headset to accommodate use 
in the classroom or study hall. 

Minor problems 

If the child presses a key before the 
processor is ready for the first 
character, that is, before it has finished 
speaking the word, it does not record. 
Of course, it does not show on the 
display either. The audio confirmation 
of each character displayed helps out 
further. The child only needs to be 
reminded that the machine won't be 
listening while it is talking. 

I am a little bothered by the clipping 
of some sounds. However, I was 
listening under very poor conditions. 
Actually some distortions might be 
intentional to help distinguish easily 
confused sounds. Generally the quality 
is very good. Incidentally, a few words 
were left out of the experts' 200 "most 
troublesome" list because of potential 
confusions. 

At times one would like to have a 
clock, especially for games with the 
machine. I recall the advances in 
motivation and group play from uses of 
Little Professor to Dataman because of 
a visible clock and time reports. 

Some other uses 

One might change the colors of the 
packaging and labels next to the keys 
for other ages of learners. I expect 
Speak & Spell could be helpful drilling 
students in medical sciences and 
technology on terminology. The ROM 
could be set up for the machine to 
speak one phrase and check the user's 
response (up to eight characters) with 
another word or code. The memory 
structure pairs a bit string for the audio 
(any word, short phrase or other sound 
that can be handled by the synthesizer) 
with any character string for the 
anticipated answer. 

Second language learning seems a 
natural application, especially with a 



large collection of vocabulary chips. I 
wonder how easy it is to change the 
logic of the learning exercises and 
games. For some applications the 
machine should first display the 
character string as a prompt for speak- 
ing. 

In industrial settings use of the 
machine could help establish common 
language conventions for new 
employees in a situation of rapid 
turnover. The list of potential 
applications goes on and on. 

As an option on terminals 

How many people would be in- 
terested in a 200-word audio output 
device as an inexpensive option on 
terminals? It should not add much to 
the price. This year Tl is providing a 
great deal for $50 in a home product. 
Consider what 256 kilobits of ROM 
costs. Yet in two years we will probably 
have four times as much for the same 
price. Incidentally, Tl will probably sell 
the plug-in ROM, presently on two 
chips carrying about 200 words, for 
about $10. The figure will be deter- 
mined by the market. Even if the price 
doesn't cover initial production costs, 
soon it can be profitable. 

I see prospects for Speak & Spell as a 
peripheral on other machines. Even 
with the present version one could 
come in through the keyboard inter- 
face or perhaps the memory module 
connector. 

I would like to see the machine used 
as an output device on calculators and 
other equipment for the blind since it 
provides a significant improvement in 
quality for a much lower cost. 
(Telesensory's talking calculator is 
$400.) Also I expect the technology to 
soon find use in speaking aids for those 
without sufficient control of their vocal 
mechanisms to be understood by 
inexperienced listeners. 

A speechless companion 

Spelling B" was not ready in time to 
show any more than a prototype case 
with a picture book at CES. I did see 
that it complements the talking 
machine in games and exercises. It is 
small enough (about 4x6 inches) to slip 
in a large pocket, being similar in 
format to Little Professor and 
Dataman. A friend or parent can type in 
up to five words for the child to spell as 
the machine presents them one at a 
time in random arrangement. The 
missing letter key will set the machine 
to presenting words from its list of 264, 
each time with some characters miss- 
ing, to be completed by the child. 
Hangman is there too, called "Mystery 
Word." 

The basic mode of use is in spelling 
the words for pictures which are given 
in the accompanying book. The 
machine prompts with the number, 
randomly chosen, for an object to be 
spelled. Spelling B has its word list 



divided into three levels of difficul 
suggested for kindergarten through 
fourth grade. Deliveries are scheduled 
to start in September with a suggested 
list price of $30. 

A marketing strategy is emerging 
which separates the learning aids from 
calculators and also from toys. Tl plans 
to support merchandisers in es- 
tablishing a Learning Center concept 
for the display area providing a collec- 
tion of electronic aids for spelling, 
reading and time telling as well as 
computation. You will probably see 
extensive television advertising at 
times chosen to influence back-to- 
school and holiday gift purchases. But 
this is more than just an advertising 
campaign. The Tl Learning Center in 
Dallas is working hard on educational 
design, getting advice from persons 
expert in language arts and math skills, 
and testing extensively with learners, 
parents and educators of varying 
background and geographic location. 

Impact on personal computer market 

I predict dramatic impact of hand- 
held electronic products (from $10 to 
$50) on the personal computer and 
video games market. Presently I find 
the presentation of math drills on the 
Bally Arcade less interesting than 
similar ones on Dataman. Math Bingo 
on the Bally and Maxit on the Com- 
modore PET are much more 
motivating. 

Consider how soon the hand-held 
devices will get sufficient display size 
and point graphics to compete with 
what is done with a TV raster on a 
personal computer. Think about how 
the two kinds of products and their 
various markets may be coming 
together. We should be seeking out the 
crucial contributions of general- 
purpose personal computers in con- 
trast to the less expensive and easier- 
to-use, special-purpose learning aids. 

Trends 

The significance of the introduction 
of these two new products by Tl is the 
trend line. Consider how long it took to 
go from early photography to movies to 
talkies to home films. Or the elapsed 
time from phonographs to wire 
recorders to pocket tape machines. 
Electronic calculators have moved into 
hand-held learning aids in just a few 
years, and the technology that makes it 
cheaper and more capable every year 
is expected to continue to improve at 
about the same fantastic slope for at 
least twenty years. 

The producers of personal com- 
puters need to take notice of the role of 
hand-held products in areas previously 
the domain of general-purpose and 
more expensive machines. And the 
educators (including parents) should 
seriously consider adopting both kinds 
of learning aids before the end of this 
year. ■ 



SEPT/CXTT 1978 



A Creative Computing Equipment Prof lie... ^ 



: Computalker CT-1 - 
Speech Synthesizer 



Steve North 



"Don't touch that switch!" shouts 
your computer, as you reach to turn it 
off. Very unlikely, yes, but possible— if 
your computer is equipped with a 
Computalker. The Computalker CT-1 
is an S-100 bus board capable of 
generating high-quality synthesized 
speech, through an external audio 
amplifier. 

The Computalker hardware allows a 
high degree of control over the sounds 
it makes. It's programmed through a 
set of I/O ports addressed at EO-EF 
hex (some of these ports are reserved 
for future expansion). The I/O ports 
control the fundamental parameters 
that compose human speech: 
amplitude of voicing, voicing frequen- 
cy, the three formant frequencies, and 
some other amplitude and frequency 
parameters. There is also provision for 
control of the speech pitch by an 
external square-wave clock, thus 
suggesting the possibility of a 
"Compu-singer"! The square-wave 
source could be a computer music 
board within the same system, though 
the software and timing complexities 
get a little mind-boggling. 

To create intelligent speech, the I/O 
ports of the Computalker must be 
programmed with the correct values in 
sequence to form the speech at fairly 
close intervals — about every 10 
milliseconds, depending on the 
desired rate of speech. And because 
there is so much information to be 
processed to obtain natural-sounding 
speech, the overhead software is 
somewhat complicated. This is just one 
of the tradeoffs involved in a device 
with a great deal of built-in flexibility. 
But by fine-tuning the speech data, it is 
possible to get very intelligible and 
almost human-sounding speech. Con- 
trast this with the Ai Cybernetic Model 
1000 speech-synthesis unit (reviewed 
in the May-June 1978 issue of Creative) 
which relies on a rather trivial software 
routine for its operation, actually of no 
more complexity than that of a routine 
used to drive a Teletype. The end result 
is that speech generated by the Ai 
Cybernetic unit suffers from a rather 
choppy, mechanical effect, but it is a 
snap to interface the 1 000 to almost any 
software (such as BASIC). Of course 
another advantage to the Com- 
putalker's dependence on software is 



that it's much easier for both the 
manufacturer and the user to improve 
the performance of existing units by 
modification of the software. 

The Computalker may be driven with 
either of two software packages 
provided by Computalker Consultants. 
CTMON, a speech-synthesis monitor 
program, comes with every Com- 
putalker. It must be used in a computer 
with a keyboard, papertape 
reader/punch, audio cassette, and a 
VDM-1 or similar memory-mapped 
video display. [Ed. note: By the time 
read this, CTMON will probably be 
replaced by CTEDIT, which does not 
need a memory-mapped video, and will 
work with Teletype, TVT, serial display, 
etc.] CTMON allows creation and 
modification of a table of speech data, 
divided into "frames." Each frame 
contains the set of data that must be 
programmed into the Computalker's 
different I/O ports for each time 
interval (10 msec). By programming a 
whole series of these frames, you can 
make the Computalker speak a single 
word. (There are roughly 70 frames in 
the word hello.) 

Conversion to Frames 

The conversion of speech into 
numerical data frames is a slow, 
painstaking process, requiring access 
to a spectrum analyzer (so you can 
examine the makeup of natural 
speech) and a good knowledge of 
exactly how speech works. Unfor- 
tunately, most personal-computer 
users lack these. The manual suggests 
that it may be possible to use a micro- 
computer with a filter, A/D converter 
and floating-point hardware to assist in 
the conversion process, but this 
technique has not been much ex- 
plored. Computalker can also do a 
rough conversion of your audio tape 
for around $25 per second of speech, 
and then you must do some work on 
your own to polish the speech. If you 
want to avoid this slow and/or expen- 
sive conversion process, you can try 
out some of the demo tapes that 
Computalker provides for use with 
CTMON, which contain the speech 
synthesis data for speaking the 
numbers 0-10, letters A-z, and the 
message: "Hello, I'm Computalker, a 
speech synthesizer for your standard- 



bus 8080 microcomputer." These 
messages are highly understandable 
and demonstrate the quality of which 
the Computalker is capable. However, 
for most applications, it is desirable to 
be able to create your own unique 
messages, with a minimum of effort. 
Otherwise, when limited to a small 
dictionary of messages, and capability 
of synthesized speech isn't much more 
useful than just a set of prerecorded 
messages on audio tape. (An excep- 
tion: when you want your computer to 
read your BASIC programs or hex 
dumps out loud while you consult a 
printed listing, it is quite helpful to have 
a few words spoken well.) 

Synthesis by the Rules 

The other software package, CSR1 
(available at $35) fills this need. CSR1 
is a speech-synthesis-by-rule 
program, consisting of six modules 
and a top-level monitor program that 
handles interaction with the user 
through any ASCII terminal. CSR1 lets 
you enter a message to be spoken in a 
special phonetic language, called 
ARPABET. The phonetic language 
allows expression of most sounds with 
one or two upper-case letters. The 
message entered by the user is 
processed by several rules (which may 
modify the input string to sound more 
correct) and eventually produces a 
speech data table like that used in 
CTMON. The phonetic language con- 
tains 29 consonants, 19 vowels, punc- 
tuation marks ("?", "," and ".") and 
some other special symbols. It seems 
easy enough to get reasonable quality 
synthesized speech just by using the 
famous Chinese Menu Algorithm (one 
from column A, two from column B, 
etc.) but with some practice and an 
idea of what sounds normally go 
together, even better quality is possi- 
ble. According to the CSR1 manual, the 
consonants are fairly easy to pick out, 
but some care must be taken with the 
vowel sounds. The speech generated 
under CSR1 is not as understandable 
as that made by manually preparing the 
speech data with a spectrum analyzer 
and CTMON, and you won't mistake it 
for natural speech, but it is acceptable. 
The punctuation marks are helpful, 
since the machine can't really know 
what kind of inflection to add, and this 



62 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



gives you some degree of control 
(along with the option of assigning a 
stress value to vowel sounds by post- 
fixing a numeral from 1 to 5). The 
Computalker under CSR1 still sounds 
better than the Ai Cybernetic Unit, at 
least to these ears, and while it does 
require a lot more software to make it 
go, it's certainly worth it to achieve 
better-sounding output. 

The top-level CSR1 monitor program 
permits only entry of a new line of 
phonetic speech, line delete (control- 
X), play the previous message (control- 
P), and a hex dump of the previously 
generated speech data (control-B). In 
the event that you want to have 
synthesized speech under the control 
of some other program (meaning that 
you want to do more than type in 
phonetic messages and hear them 
spoken back at you), then it is possible 
to call CSR1 as a subroutine from your 
own main program, in lieu of the CSR1 
monitor program. All you need to give 
CSR1 is a pointer to the string of 
characters in memory that contain the 
message in phonetic language. (In 
BASIC you would have to POKE the 
message into some place in memory 
and then call CSR1 as an assembly- 
language subroutine). Keep in mind 
that both CTMON and CSR1 eat up 
significant amounts of memory: CSR1 
runs from 1000 to 5FFF hex (a 24K 
system) and CTMON uses 100-800 hex 
and anything upwards for buffer space 
(the LETTERS data uses 10K bytes). 
Source code and I/O patches are 
provided for all the software. The 
software itself is available on paper- 
tape, cassette, or diskette. (We didn't 
try the diskette version, but hopefully 
the assembly-language source of the 
software is included to encourage 
tinkering, since few people have the 
time to manually key hundreds of lines 
of source code). The quality of the 
documentation is high. 

Tight Fit 

The only objection I have is that it's a 
bit difficult to fit CSR1 and BASIC in 



Interaction with CSR1: Three examples 

ENTER TEXT: 

KRIYEY4TIHV KAAMPYUW2TIHNX . 

The phrase "Creative Computing" looks a little strange unless you know that 
the vowels are expressed as two-letter combinations (such as IY for an ee sound), 
and the letter X is always part of a two-letter combination. The period is used for 
inflection. 

ENTER TEXT: 

WAH2N . TUW2 . THRIY2 . F0H2R. FAY2V . SIH2KS . SEH2VEN . EHIY2T . 

NAY2IYN.TEH2EHN. 

The numbers 1-10 in the phonetic language. The numerals (such as 2 in the 
word WAH2N) control the stress. 

ENTER TEXT: 

AY WIH2SH AY WAAZ AX KEH2LA0GZ K0H3RN FLEHYKHH. 

ENTER TEXT: 

AY 70 59 55 96 9B 00 00 80 00 

BA 58 55 96 9B 00 00 80 00 

E0 56 55 95 9B 00 00 80 00 

E0 55 56 9*» 9B 00 00 80 00 

E0 53 58 93 9B 00 00 80 00... 

The sentence "I wish I was a Kellogg's Cornflake," or at least a rough 
approximation thereof, followed by a portion of the speech-data table generated 
from this input. This is what you get when you type control-B. 



one system. CSR1 leaves 8K of 
memory below it, which isn't enough 
for an 8K BASIC and a program, so it's 
just wasted space. IfCSRI a was lower, 
then a relocatable BASIC (such as 
TDL— uh, I mean, Xitan BASIC) could 
be loaded above it and could call CSR1 
from a BASIC program. CSR1 is 
available in a high-memory version, 
though, so you can keep CSR1 way up 
out of the way and have BASIC down in 
low memory. Obviously, if you have the 
source it can be assembled wherever 
you want. 

If you're shopping around for a 
speech synthesizer, or just something 



new to try out in your computer, then 
the Computalker is a good choice. It's 
the best performing and most flexible 
speech synthesizer board we've tried 
so far, and has the potential for even 
better performance with improved 
software. 

Availability 

The Computalker CT-1 synthesizer 
board, plus CTMOM (or CTEDIT) 
parameter editor program, is $395, at 
your local computer store, or from 
Computalker Consultants, 1730 21st 
St., Suite AE, Santa Monica, CA 90404. 



IT'S ABOUT TIME! 

Finally * COMPLETE dish utility package for the 
NORTH STAR MICRO DISK SYSTEM A MUST for 
both BUSINESS and hobby systems PKGUT1 on 
diskette includes the following four NORTH STAR 
BASIC programs PACKIT - Packs & Unpacks disk 
files so you can get more storage per disk' CHANGIT 
Prints Dumps and / or Changes data in disk files up 
to a global level. SORTIT - A generalized sorting 
utility COMPIT - File comparison utility Will 
compare disk files sequentially or by key and display 
differences. 

Diskette with full user's documentation *80 OO 

North Star BASIC games: ROADRACE. 
EVENWINS. BIORHYTHM. 3D TICTAC. and the 
addicting SUPERWUMP! PKGN1 

(5 games on diskette) »15 00 

VDM GAMES (requires SOLOS or CUTER): Real 

time ROBOTS and ASTEROID! PKGV1 (2 games on 

1200 baud CUTS tapel MO.OO 

,,■ rn P.O. Bon 922. Madison Square 

■ • .• . Station. New York. NY 10010 

LOgiStlCS N Y res add applicable sales tan 

CIRCLE 129 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SOFTWARE SEARCH 

Sell your software. Integrator of microprocessor- 
based small business systems is seeking business- 
oriented applications software packages. We will pay 
an initial license fee and an ongoing royalty for 
established packages in the general areas of manufac- 
turing controls and support in addition to all business 
and professional applications. For consideration, 
please send details to: 

Software Search 
Pacesetting Computers, Inc. 
Post Office Box 590 
San Pedro, CA 90733 



CIRCLE 139 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



63 




argains 




Technico-IMSAI 

Vector •Cromemco 

Limrose • SWTPC 

National Multiplex 

Solid State Music 

We stock various books and 
magazines of interest to 
the engineer and computer 
hobbyist. We also have 
available a large selection 
of components and used 
electronic test equipment. 

MARKETLINE SYSTEMS, Inc. 

2337 Philmont Ave. 

Huntingdon Valley. Pa. 19006 

215/947-6670 • 800/523-5355 




CP/M™ 

LOW-COST 

MICROCOMPUTER 

SOFTWARE 

CP/M™ OPERATING SYSTEM: 

• Includes Editor, Assembler, Debugger and Utilities 

• For 8080, Z80. or Intel MDS. 

• For IBM-compatible floppy discs. 

• $100-Diskette and Documentation. 

• $25-Documentation (Set of 6 manuals) only. 
MAC™ MACRO ASSEMBLER: 

• Compatible with new Intel macro standard. 

• Complete guide to macro applications. 

• $90-Diskette and Manual. 

SID™ SYMBOLIC DEBUGGER: 

• Symbolic memory reference. 

• Built-in assembler/disassembler. 

• $75-Diskette and Manual. 
TEX™ TEXT FORMATTER: 

• Powerful text formatting capabilities. 

• Text prepared using CP/M Editor. 

• $75 Diskette and Manual. 

d DJGJTflL RESEARCH 

P.O. Box 579 • Pacific Grove, California 93950 
(408) 649-3896 



puzzles & 




An hour ago, the time was four 
times as many minutes past 1:30 
as there now are minutes until 
four o'clock. What time is it? 



The Mathematics Student! 



Thinkers' Corner 

s Layman E. Allen 

MATHEMATICS PUZZLES 

How many of the problems (a) through (f ) below can 
be solved by forming an expression equal to the 
GOAL? (Suppose that each symbol below is 
imprinted on a disc.) 
The expression must use: 

(1) only single digits combined with operators, 

(2) all of the discs in the REQUIRED column, 

(3) as many of the discs in PERMITTED as you 
wish, and 

(4) at most one of the discs in RESOURCES may 
be used. 

The '" indicates "to the power of". Thus 

3*2 - 3 ! = 9. 
Special The 'V indicates "the nth root of". Thus 

3V8 = 2. 
Rules Parentheses can be inserted anywhere to 

indicate grouping, but never to indicate 

multiplication 



PflOB. 


GOAL 


REQUIRED 


PERMITTED 


RESOURCES 


la) 


15 


38* 


1 4 = 


♦-X2468 


lb] 


7 


2x 


58- 


♦rV 1 399 


|c] 


5 


3r 


29x 


♦ X+V458 


[d] 


12 


1 - 


678 


-+'2588 


|e| 


1 


3* t6 


46Xr 


♦ -xO 1 23 


m 


14 


5 + 


36* 


♦-V2589 



H)l8t' m Moqjv uuv peou pjetped 
3-0061 3ouo6i|iaiui ueiunH jo luaiuaauBqug 341 joj uoiiepunoj 
am uioj| isonboi uodn oiquiiBAe si sauieS leuoipruisui jaqio pue 
Sim inoqe uoiibujjojui aajj soiiewaiiie^ aAiieajQ |o aiueg am 
SNOIlvnOB 6uiXe|d a>ti| igSiuj noA 3|zznd jo pui>) sigi Xofue noA n 

9*(Z.e)(il (9-»)*(e+ I) |e) (Z-l)-9(P) 

z ♦ (e + 6) I") e-te«9llq] 8 + * * e l»] 

(sjagio aje ajam Auuanbajj) sjaMsue paisa66ns auuos 



64 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



CIRCLE 167 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



problems 




If Alice and Betty can complete their jobs 
in 2 hours and if Alice and Charlene can do 
the same work in 3 hours, while Betty and 
Charlene require six hours to do the same 
jobs, how long would it take each girl 
working alone? 




Igor, Ivan and Dornatz are all giraffes. 
Igor is as old as Ivan and Dornatz together. 
Last year Ivan was twice as old as Dornatz. 
Two years from now Igor will be twice as 
old as Dornatz. What are the respective ages 
of the three giraffes. 

SEPT/OCT 19/B 



TERMINALS FROM TRANSNET 



PURCHASE 

12-24 MONTH FULL OWNERSHIP PLAN 

36 MONTH LEASE PLAN 



PURCHASE PER MONTH 

DESCRIPTION PRICE 12 MOS 24 MOS 36 MOS 

DECwrlterll $1,495 $145 $ 75 $ 52 

DECwriter III 2,895 275 145 99 

DECprinter I 2,295 219 117 80 

VT52 DECscope 1,695 162 85 59 

VT100 DECscope 1,695 162 85 59 

VT55 DECgraphic CRT 2,695 260 135 94 

ADM 3A CRT 875 84 45 30 

HAZELTINE 1400 CRT. 845 81 43 30 

HAZELTINE 1500 CRT. 1,195 115 61 42 

Tl 745 Portable 1,875 175 94 65 

Tl 765 Bubble Mem 2,995 285 152 99 

Tl 810 RO Printer 1,895 181 97 66 

Tl 820 KSR Terminal .. 2,395 229 122 84 

Data Products 2230 . . . 7,900 725 395 275 

QUME, Ltr. Qual. KSR . 3,195 306 163 112 

QUME, Ltr. Qual. RO .. 2,795 268 143 98 

DAT AMATE Mini floppy 1,750 167 89 61 

FULL OWNERSHIP AFTER 12 OR 24 MONTHS 
10% PURCHASE OPTION AFTER 36 MONTHS 

ACCESSORIES AND PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT 

ACOUSTIC COUPLERS • MODEMS • THERMAL PAPER 
RIBBONS • INTERFACE MODULES • FLOPPY DISK UNITS 



PROMPT DELIVERY • EFFICIENT SERVICE 



X 



IrassNet Corpora tio \ 

2005 ROUTE 22, UNION. N.J. 07083 

201-688-7800 



CIRCLE 155 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



m 




NEW SOFTWARE FOR 
YOUR COMPUTALKER! 



65 



SOFTWARE PACKAGE II 
to be available October, 78 



CTEDIT A new parameter editor 

CSEDIT Editor for CSR1 input 

CTEST CT-1 Hardware diagnostic 

PLAYDATA To hear the data files 

MEMVOICE A vocal memory dumper 

KEYPLAY Subr. to play letters /digits 

PIANO A simple musical keyboard 

8080 Assembly Language 

• • • Sources included • • " 

CPM 8", North Star, Micropolis, 

Tarbell. CUTS, MITS ACR, 

paper tape 

on any of the above media $30.00 
calif, res. add 6% sales tax 



COMPUTALKER CONSULTANTS 

1730 21st Street, AE 

Santa Monica, CA 90404 

(213) 392-5230 



CIRCLE 134 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The Future is Here Today 



Susan Hastings 




Human beings have always been 
curious about the future. They've 
peered into crystal balls, examined 
human palms and animal entrails, 
shuffled cards, and prayed for divine 
guidance — all in an effort to prepare 
themselves for changes to come. 

But change has never been so 
constant and overwhelming as it is 
today. That's true not just for in- 
dividuals, but for human organizations 
as well. Recent events like the first 
resignation of a U.S. President, in- 
creasing unemployment paired with 
inflation, and the political emergence 
of resource-rich developing countries 
have made managers and 
organizations realize that they must 
develop better methods for adapting to 
the trauma of organizational future 
shock. If they can't adapt, they will fall 
by the wayside. 

Most organizations plan for the 
future with budget estimates or sales 
projections, but the changes being 
experienced today are so fundamental 
that they cannot be predicted by the 
traditional methods of merely examin- 
ing the past. To quote management 
expert Peter Drucker, "The most ac- 



curate quantitative projection never 
predicts the truly important: the mean- 
ing of facts and figures in a different 
tomorrow." 

Of the 500 largest industrial cor- 
porations listed by Fortune magazine 
in 1955 only about 57% were left in the 
1975 list. Many of the lost companies 
disappeared because they could not 
adapt to the new tomorrow that 
suddenly faced them. 

The trauma that surprised and ruined 
many organizations was often a result 
of too much dependence on the past. 
Continued breaks from the past face 
industry today and those breaks might 
be almost anything: the refusal of 
developing countries to accept U.S. 
dollars for their oil and other resources: 
severe climatic changes endangering 
America's agricultural heartland: 
organization-directed nuclear 
terrorism; or even the sudden 
emergence of an irresistible worldwide 
outcry for disarmament and peace. 

Events such as these might seem 
absurd until they happen, and many 
organizations opt to disregard the 
possibilities. However, a small but 
growing number of farsighted 



organizations is applying advanced 
forecasting methodologies to their 
long-range planning efforts. They are 
using techniques such as Delphi poll- 
ing to discover how informed experts 
view the distant future. Cross-impact 
analyses also are made to trace the 
effects of one innovation upon another 
and scenarios are built to produce vivid 
pictures of the future in the way George 
Orwell did in his book 7984. Finally, 
computer-driven systems analyses 
models which process mountains of 
facts are used to try to forecast things 
to come. 

The new "futurists" require enor- 
mous amounts of good information 
and the ability to minimize perceptual 
biases when collecting and analyzing 
it. The information they utilize is of two 
types: quantifiable "hard" data which is 
usually economic and scientific in 
nature, and non-quantifiable "soft" 
data which tends to be more societal 
because it deals with changing human 
values, aspirations and demands. Yet, 
despite the quality and quantity of 
information available to help forecast 
the future, the problem of human 
perception in selecting and analyzing it 
is a major one. Futurists must be able to 
step outside of their own — and their 
organization's — traditions, values, 
and taboos in order to recognize and 
analyze early-warning signals of what 
lies ahead. And even if the futurist 
succeeds admirably, the report might 
be filed away and forgotten by 
management because it bumped into 
the organization's sacred cow. 

Change can never be managed 



66 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



SAY GOODBYE 

to old manual 

wire wrapping 

tools! 



NEW P184 
SLIT N-WRAP 

tool Willi Ti 
wire makes 
connections as 
lie as 
wrap tools 



Now you can wrap 
thick insulated wire 
4 TIMES FASTER 
with 

NO pre-cutting 
NO pre stripping 
DAISY CHAIN 
RUNS. 





P184, with 
100' of 28 
gage Tefzel 
wire. $29.50. 



Insulation is slit 
open before 
wrapping on post, 
not between 
posts. No unwanted 
cut-thru/ 



P184-4T with batteries and recharger, S89.50 (includes P184). 

P184-4T1 110V AC. $99.50 (includes P184). Tefzel wire, 28 gage, various 

colors, $4.18/100 ft. If not available locally, factory order-add $2 handling charge. 

Prices subject to change without notice 



pern 



'ELECTRONIC COMPANY, INC., 12460 Gladstone Av., Sylmar, CA 91342 
phone (213) 365-9661, twx 910-496-1539 
571177 



A growing number of colleges and 
universities now offer courses in 
futures studies, but anyone interested 
in improving his own ability to forecast 
the future can do so on a more informal 
basis. Alvin Toffler's now classic book, 
Future Shock, is probably the best 
introduction to the study of futurism. It 
is "about what happens to people when 
they are overwhelmed by change . . . 
about the ways in which we adapt — or 
fail to adapt — to the future." The daily 
newspaper is alsaan excellent futures 
textbook for studying the changes in 
our lives. Simply by watching and 
talking to other people one can gain 
insight into the events and attitudes 
that are fashioning the world of 
tomorrow. 

Trying to forecast the future by 
thinking about second and third order 
consequences of future developments 
and alternative futures can be done 
alone or with others on an individual, 
community, or organizational level. 
Futures analyses can help to define 
goals, and give one the opportunity to 
work toward the future he prefers. 
Tomorrow will always arrive right on 
schedule. In order to make it the best 
tomorrow possible, think about it to- 
day. ■ 



CIRCLE 110 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



effectively unless an organization 
perceives the need to change. Rigid 
organizations which repress change 
hasten their own demise. Today 
however, attempts at scientifically 
analyzing the future are being pursued 
by cities, states, trade associations, 
medical societies, universities, labor 
unions, foundations, churches, and 
citizen activist groups as well as the 
larger and more powerful corporations 
and government which pioneered 
future studies. 

The study of organizational futurism 
is also growing vertically as more and 
more subdivisions within organiza- 
tions are being charged with foresight 
responsibilities. A timely illustration of 
this is the enactment of new Federal 
legislation requiring that every com- 
mittee in the U.S. House of Repre- 
sentatives (except Budget and Appro- 
priations) "undertake future research 
and forecasting on matters within the 
jurisdiction of that committee." 

While futures studies are still in 
their infancy, all citizens, but especial- 
ly those in management positions, 
should be encouraged to participate in 
planning for tomorrow. Studying the 
future is fascinating to do; it can help 
one to manage better, and it can be a 
mind-expanding experience. 



Apple II is at The Computer Store 




The Apple" II. today's must popular personal computer, is at The 
Computer Store. Along with the latest in Apple peripherals. Like 
the new Disk™ II floppy disk drive. Or, printer and communica- 
tions interfaces. And. the latest in software including the new 
Apple /Dow Jones Stock Quote Reporter. The compact Apple II 
gives you 48K. RAM memory with full color graphics and high 
resolution graphics. Its the most powerful computer in its price 
range. 

At The Computer Store, we have more than ever before in 
microcomputers, memories, terminals and peripherals. All backed 
by a technical staff and a full service department. Stop in today, 
you'll tind more than ever before at The Computer Store. 

The Computer Store 

820 Broadway. Santa Monica. California 9040I (213) 451-0713 
The Original Name In Personal Computer Stores 

Storr llimn: Tu**.-r'ri.. NmMi-Hpm. Saturday lllam-ftpm 

!t,-.l mo bl.vks north ol the Santa Mnai n Blvd exit 

Phone and mall orders invited BankAmcfKard Visa and Master Charge accepted 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



67 



CIRCLE 124 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A Creative Computing Software Profile... 



PET 
Pe 



Cassettes from 
ninsula School 



Steve North 

It seems that almost everyone and 
his computer are hawking Blackjack 
and Lunar Lander for the PET on 
cassettes these days. So it was quite a 
relief to find some really different, 
interesting PET software on cassette, 
available from the Peninsula School of 
Menlo Park, CA. (One immediately 
suspects some kind of tie-in with 
People's Computer Company.) The 
Peninsula School offers three 
cassettes with ready-to-run programs. 
As one would suppose, all the pro- 
grams are more-or-less educationally 
oriented, but they're a lot of fun even if 
you're not trying to learn anything. All 
the tapes come with a 5'/2-by-8Vi booklet 
describing the use of the programs and 
a complete program listing. 

Tape#1 

The first tape sells for $19.95, which 
seems a little steep, but it contains six 
programs. From a programming stand- 
point, the most interesting thing about 
these programs is that they're written, 
not in BASIC, but in PILOT, a language 
designed for CAI dialog applications. 
But, because the PET itself only knows 
BASIC, each program also includes a 
PILOT interpreter written in PET 
BASIC. Thus, to run a PILOT program, 
you have PILOT being interpreted by a 
BASIC program, itself interpreted by a 
BASIC interpreter. This is not very 
efficient on memory or time so you get 
the feeling that someone went over- 
board for PILOT. One interesting 
feature of the PILOT is that it outputs 
word by word, rather than character by 
character, which is somewhat easier to 
read. 

The first program on the tape, 
Hammurabi, is rather close to the 
BASIC version of the game that has 
been around for a while. Unfortunately, 
we couldn't load this program into our 
PET. Our PET cassette has been 
aligned at a Commodore Repair Center 
(a story in itself) so we tend to suspect 
THEIR PET, which is standard 
procedure when you can't load 
someone else's programs. The other 
programs on the cassette (they work- 
ed!) are simpler dialogs: GOLD 
(modified version of Goldilocks and 
the Three Bears), SKY (A conversation 
with the PET about things in the sky), 
NAMES (a dialog about names), and 
HANDS (which encourages you to 
write a poem about your...). A copy 



of PET PILOT without any PILOT 
program is included. Overall, these 
programs are nice dialogs for in- 
troducing kids (or anyone) to a com- 
puter, but the almost-$20 price tag is 
too high, unless you're really dying to 
use PILOT. 

Tape #2 

Tape #2, which sells for $14.95, 
includes four programs. We never got 
LEMON to load, but a look at the 
documentation booklet reveals that it's 
a simulation of a lemonade stand, 
designed to give the user experience in 
handling money and making decisions. 
In LEMON, you can make a fortune 
during a heatwave, or spend money on 
signs for advertising, or have your 
mother withdraw her free paper cups. 
RENUMBER is a short program used to 
renumber BASIC programs, because 
PET BASIC does not have this func- 
tion built-in. However RENUMBER 
does not really RENUMBER programs 
(with references to other line numbers) 
but just the line numbers themselves. 
In other words, 13 GOSUB 132 may be 
changed to 50 GOSUB 132, but 132 will 
never be changed. Doing a real 
renumber is somewhat trickier. 

The flip side of the tape has 
Kaleidoscope and WSFN on it. 
Kaleidoscope is a program that does 
nothing but make pretty pictures on a 
TV screen, much like the TV Dazzler 
version if you've ever seen it, but not as 
nifty because the PET version is slower 
(it's in BASIC) and it's only in black and 
white. WSFN, which stands for 
nothing, is a rather sophisticated 
piece of software, actually a language 
used to control a turtle on the PET 
screen. This is definitely not first- 
grader stuff, since it involves concepts 
such as moving the turtle on the screen 
and leaving a trail, an accumulator, 
branching, and macro-instructions. 
The manual gives sample macros used 
for drawing curves such as "Sierpinski 
curves" on the screen with WSFN. It 
would certainly take a long time to 
explore the potential of WSFN. Also, 
the price of this tape is a bit easier to 
take. 
Tape #3 

This tape has only two programs. 
QUEST is a scaled-down version of 
Adventure, one of the ultimate com- 
puter games in which you explore a 
cavern in search of treasure while you 



fight off baddies. One of the interesting 
things about Adventure (unlike Star 
Trek, where you have so many com- 
mands and this much energy, etc.) is 
that you never know exactly what 
options you have or what actions will 
have what effect, until you try it. In 
QUEST, you search through a small 
cavern for a pirate's treasure, avoiding 
a giant. This is really a lot smaller than 
ADVENTURE, but still a lot of fun. 
(Speaking of Adventure, I saw a version 
in which your cavern is Hill Center at 
Rutgers. For treasure you can take out 
an IBM 370/168 or a card reader, but 
you have to fight off a nasty operator or 
an insane applications consultant.) 

DRAW, on the other side of the 
cassette, lets you doodle on your PET 
screen, leaving trails of various 
characters, blanking them out, and so 
on. This is an interesting program, but I 
prefer a box of crayons — they work in 
color, too. This tape is only $9.95. 

In general, the Peninsula School 
software cassettes are fun to use and 
educational (although certainly not at 
the level of, say, the Huntington Project 
programs). They are indeed much 
better than the schlock that many 
individuals are selling. Contact Com- 
puter Project, Peninsula School, 
Peninsula Way, Menlo Park Ca. 



©£) OO Oc 



° N ° / T°^o- 




68 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Simulation 

and Gaming 

in Business 

and Education 



Probability is a subject that is used in a wide variety of 
disciplines. Examples of applications can be found in the 
study of marketing, population planning, system reliabili- 
ty, and even mathematics, itself. The purpose of this paper 
is to present problems (and solutions) from these areas to 
show how a computer simulation can be used as a 
problem-solving strategy in probability. 

In probability, problem-solving often involves the use of 
known theory [P(A|B) = P(ANB)tP(B)] and/or the study of 
actual experiments that are designed to suggest or give 
answers to questions of interest. For this discussion, is it 
the experimental aspect of probability that will be 
emphasized, for experiments are at the heart of probability 
and are what simulations are all about. 

PROBABILITY AS A MOTIVATOR 

Probability is an almost guaranteed motivator. People 
enjoy predicting the outcome of elections, estimating the 
chance that a particular team will win a world series, or 
applying the subject to games of chance. As other 
examples, consider the following: 

Population Planning 

Suppose that you have decided that you want exactly 
four children in your family. What are the chances that the 
four children will be boys? 

Marketing 

Assume that you are responsible for marketing 
packages of bubblegum and to increase sales you enclose 
a picture of a famous football player in each package. If 
there are 25 pictures, what is the expected number of 
packages of bubblegum an individual would have to 
purchase to acquire a complete set? 

System Reliability 

The figure below is an electrical system that was built by 
using five components arranged in parallel and two small 
systems, A and B, arranged in a series. If each component 
has a 60% chance of lasting 1 000 hours, what is the chance 
that the entire system lasts 1000 hours? 



COMPUTER SIMULATIONS 
AND PROBLEM-SOLVING 
IN PROBABILITY 




Paper delivered al NAUCAL 77. Dearborn. Michigan, Nov 3-5. 1977. The 
author is a professor at Wayne State University. College of Education, 
Detroit. Michigan. 



John S. Camp 



Although the problems could be presented "as is," if 
they are to be used in the classroom they should probably 
be introduced with a little flair. In the population example, 
you might ask, "Why is this an important question to some 
people? Is there anything wrong with all boys?" Students 
are usually quite willing to argue the pros and cons of this 
issue especially when there are boys and girls in the class. 

The bubblegum problem is especially interesting to 
those students who collect cards. Ask if there are any 
collectors in your class and ask them "How hard is it to 
acquire the last card of a set?" You might ask the students 
for a show of hands for how many think it would take more 
than 10,000 packs of gum, how many think less than 200, 
and how many think between 200 and 10,000. 

In introducing the exercise on system reliability, you 
might say that the component is an integral part of say a 
VOYAGER spacecraft and it is important to increase its 
reliability. 

For each problem, a good strategy is to ask students to 
guess at the answer before attempting to solve it. If there 
are a wide range of guesses, this will cause students to 
want to find a solution to determine whose guesses are 
correct. For these examples, most students will be 
surprised at the answers. 

EXPERIMENTS AND SIMULATIONS 

Probability tells us something about the "long run." For 
a fair die, we know that on a single toss of the die, 

P(3 showing) = 1/6 
and so in the "long run" (i.e. many tosses of the die), I 
expect to see 3 appear about 1/6th of the time. This "long 
run" aspect of probability can be used to approximate 
probabilities simply by collecting data on many trials of an 
experiment 

Actual experiments, however, may be costly as well as 
time consuming. For example, one could locate 4-child 
families and determine the ratio of the number that were all 
boys to the total. In the case of the electrical system, one 
could build many, turn them on for 1000 hours and 
determine the rate of success. 

An alternative to an actual experiment is a simulation 
(representation) of the experiment. When a simulation can 
be conducted by studying arrangements of random 
numbers, then the computer becomes a powerful 
problem-solving tool. 



SEPT/CKZT 1978 



69 



PROBABIUTY con't. 



SOME SIMULATIONS 

The heart of the simulation process is generating 
numbers at random. The following two methods are rather 
standard; BASIC is the language that is used. 



Method 1: Using a String 



10 
20 
30 
40 
50 

60 
70 
80 
90 
100 



DIM A$(10) 

A$= "0123456789" 

FOR N = 1 TO 100 

FOR F = 1 TO 4 

Z = INT(10*RND(8)) + 1 

PRINT A$ (Z,Z); 
NEXTF 
PRINT " "; 
NEXTN 
END 



The digit string 
Generate 100 numbers 
Each number has 4 digits 
An integer between 

1 and 10 inclusive 
Print the Zth digit 



Note how A$ contains the possible digits of the 4-digit 
numbers that are generated and printed in lines 30-90. The 
output is 100 4-digit numbers like: 
1257 9843 0016 

where each digit of each number has been generated at 
random. Another method that will generate individually 
produced digits is: 



10 
20 

30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 



FOR N = 1 TO 100 
X = 



100 numbers 
X is the number; 
initialize to 

FOR F = 1 TO 4 4 digits in X 

X = 10*X + INT(10*RND(8)) Successive passes 

NEXT F through F loop "fills" X 

PRINT X; 

PRINT" "; 

NEXTN 

END 



Method 2: Generating a number between a and 6 
In some systems, ^ RND(8) < 1 and so 
4 (b-a) * RND(8) < b-a 
a^ (b-a) * RND(8) + a < b 
To generate 100 4-digit numbers, run 
10 FOR I = 1 TO 100 
20 Z = INT (1000*RND(8) + 2000) 
30 PRINT Z; 
40 NEXT I 
50 END 
Note that 1 000 ^Z <3000. The output is 1 00 4- d ig it 
numbers like 

1257 2639 2411 

where each number has been generated at random 
(rather than each digit of each number). 




Population Planning Simulation 

Depending on the students and their backgrounds, 4- 
child families can be simulated in a number of ways. One 
method is to generate 4-digit numbers, as in Method 1 of 
this section, and for each number, let an even digit 
represent a boy, an odd digit a girl. Students can count the 
results. In the run of 100 numbers that follows, there are 
exactly 6 all even digit numbers and so 

100 
is an approximation of the probability of having an all boy 
4-child family (the exact probability is .0625). Although 
our approximation is fairly good, in practice one would 
simulate many more trials to increase the chances that the 
approximation is close to the true probability. 
LIST 
RNDDIG 
10 DIMA$[10] 
20 A$="01 23456789" 
30 FOR A=1 TO 100 
40 FOR F=1 TO 4 
50 Z=INT(10*RND(8))+1 
60 PRINT A$[Z,Z]; 
70 NEXT F 
80 PRINT " "; 
90 NEXT A 
100 END 



If it is not important to display the intermediate results 
then run a program like the one which follows to simulate 
1000 families (Here = girl, 1 = boy) and determine if a 
family contains all boys (product of digits will be 1). The 
only information that is printed is the approximated 
probability. 



(SAMPLE RUN AT 
BOTTOM OF PAGE) 



Start counter 
1000 trials 
4 per family 
Generate or 1 



10 C = 

20 FOR I = 1 TO 1000 

30 FOR J = 1 TO 4 

40 F(J) = INT (2*RND(8)) 

50 NEXT J 

60 IF F(1)*F(2)*F(3)*F(4)=0 THEN 80 If product 0, then at 

least 1 girl. Don't countj 
70 C = C+1 Count number of all 

boy families 
80 NEXT I 

90 PRINT "P(4 BOYS) IS APPROXIMATELY"; C/1 000 
100 END 



RUN 
























RNDDIG 






















0819 


7981 


0598 


3150 


5916 


3600^ 


3729 


9761 


6806^ 


9971 


6710 


7968 


7883 


1559 


6670 


6883 


3864 


0731 


5821 


6334 


0080 V 


7868 


8275 


7807 


9579 


3696 


0531 


5335 


7636 


4959 


5006 


4957 


0773 


0945 


2748 


8443 


7189 


3392 


3545 


3404 


2667 


2427 


1546 


0818 


3242 


5763 


8450 


7857 


1347 


1806 


9215 


3326 


4755 


1135 


4575 


8989 


0309 


6394 


3465 


9619 


9726 


1687 


5042 


0673 


4341 


7069 


4729 


2959 


6568 


4547 


6118 


3077 


6021 


3417 


9999 


1263 


5372 


9399 


8319 


8487 


9455 


2019 


5125 


8993 


2866 Y* 


3752 


5297 


6324 


5962 


2534 


1671 


3751 


4805 


4605 


7660 


6488/ 


6642^ 


9119 


2770 


5394 



















70 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



PROBABILITY con't. . . 



Bubblegum Simulation 

This particular problem is a good one for computer 
simulation, for few people know how to calculate the 
answer directly. Do you? 

Here's how we will proceed. Simulate the purchases 
made by 100 people (Line 50) in the following way: 

(1 ) Initialize a 25-elemen t matrix A to zero to represent the 
25 pictures. = picture not purchased; 1 = picture 
purchased. 

(2) Start buying (Line 70). For each purchase, randomly 
generate an integer Z (Line 80) from 1 to 25 inclusive. 
Set A(Z,1) ■ 1 to show that the picture of star Z has 
been purchased. Check to see if set has been 
completed (Line 120). 

(3) Compute average number of purchases required to 
complete set. 

Here's the program: 

10 DIMA(25,1),C(1,25),P(1,1),B(100,1),D(1,100) 

20 MAT B = ZER 

30 MAT C = CON 

40 MAT D = CON 

50 FOR I = 1 TO 100 

60 MAT A = ZER 

70 FOR J = 1 TO 500 

80 Z = INT (25*RND(8)+1 

90 A(Z,1)=1 

100 MAT P = C*A 

110B(I,1) = B(l,1) + 1 

120 IF P(1.1) = 25 THEN 140 

130 NEXT J 

140 NEXT I 

150 MAT P = D*B 

160 PRINT "EXPECTED NUMBER OF PURCHASES IS ABOUT "; P(1 ,1 )/100 

170 END 

System Reliability 

The following program, when run, simulates an experi- 
ment to approximate the probability that the system 
described earlier works for 1000 trials. The program uses 
these facts: 

(1 ) A system made up of components arranged in series, 
will work if and only if all components work. 

(2) A system made up of components arranged in parallel 
will work when at least one component works. 



CONCLUSIONS 

The three examples presented in this paper illustrate 
how computer simulations can be used to "problem- 
solve" in probability. 

Teachers need not delay the study of probability just 
because their students lack theory. The foundation of 
probability is experiments and young children can be 
introduced to questions about chance events and can 
conduct experiments to suggest answers. Upper elemen- 
tary school children can study coins, dice, cards, and 
other objects by actually experimenting with them. As the 
children get older and the experiments become more 
complex, simulations become a welcomed relief. In- 
troduce simulations gently and with much practice so that 
the concept is understood. One approach is to devise 
simulations using tables of random numbers and then lead 
to the computer when appropriate. Good luck. ■ 



100 trials 

Allow for at most 500 purchases 

Generate integers 1 to 25 

Star Z purchased 

Product is the sum of the elements of A 

If sum is 25 you have entire collection 



5 S=0 

10 FOR I = 1 TO 500 

20 FOR I = 1 TO 5 

30 C(J) = INT(10*RND(8))+1 

40 IFC(J)>6THEN70 

50 C(J) = 1 

60 GO TO 80 

70 C(J) = 

80 NEXT J 

90 IF C(1) = 1 or C(2) = 1 orC(3)=1THEN 110 Does subsystem A work? 

100 GO TO 140 

110 IFC(4)=1 orC(5)=1 THEN 130 

120 GO TO 140 

130 S = S+1 If both work, count as a success 

140 NEXT I 

150 PRINT "RELIABILITY ABOUT" S/500 

160 END 

The reader should note that there are other ways to 
accomplish the test above. For example, lines 90-130 
could be replaced with 

90 IF (C(1 ) + C(2) + C(3)) * (C(4) + C(5)) = THEN 1 10 
100 S = S+1 
110 NEXT I 



Try 500 systems 

5 components 

Integer between 1 and 10 inclusive 

If C(J)=7,8,9, or 10, then C(J) fails 

Replace C(J) by 1 to mean it works 

Replace C(J) by to mean it fails 



Does subsystem B work? 



EEEC53 



by mail 



from l\\ 1 1 I I i: 




Send for FREE catalog.. 

i:\ii hi: oept.c 

Ward-Whidden House/ The Hill 
Portsmouth, NH 03801 USA 



CIRCLE 153 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



P.E.T.™ PRODUCTS 



SOFTWARE/ACCESSORIES/HARDWARE 



■■■ HttCO * ■ . 



Sort^er* Hf I CO ■••, loo "N*>» prog-*." 

afftM and es*. *<",' Ou' 'ft—' 

offers J5N Royalties on Pel program* * 

HttCO >»• edddionel mtamMion on ou> »•>. Royalty Program 

PCf A NnplMMMNHCO ■.."- - . v. " '" v 

to* Ihe Pat Cease*. m and PenePeref KttO Pnwter HI t CO I 

•■cellent personal ft Warranty service'" tnfereeled in a NaT 

-*-i.,*'i ]■ Pt T Mag Par* f eel tree to call and as* question-* 



F*e Music aW Mwuc Compote* and vow-n eftecis generator allows you 
to compos* and t»e*r nunc on your Par Program * Hardware allows 
you to rMptey note* hear Ihe notes saw pages of music on tape lor ■»*'• 
playback or modification' The afteew See actually displays the noses PS a 
song or tune is (Hayed' Allows you to add sound effects to rout own Pat 
Programs Endless Poss>D>l< ties' An Cassette Software ptwgm Hardware 
and Mwe* Bmt mst«uct>ons for only |49 9V Mm**: tee Fits ngnt .nstde 
yow Pet Ho assembly reguewd 1 Mwajc *** even piays landom tunes' 



^STlTc^uTtTensr^^^^^^er^^T^^^fT 
and Keyboard Irom dust that tan ove* lime cause ml* 
tenures' Heavy ctee* Plastic Oust Ceeer snows off you' Pef aMrj 
protecting .t from dust sprits and those inevitable Unwanted Such* 
fingers' Manufactured to i**t as long as your Peer -only 1 1 7 *4 



VISA OO MC Phon* '!■■•■■ 



Surcheroe on Keidwer*i 







NBNBCUND BJC1H0MKS CO 

248 Bridge Street Aim Code i4i3t st^K^ri"!* *iT of ow- 
Springfield Mass 739-9626 't^gJ^nTpZlmm 



CIRCLE 182 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SEPT/CTCT 1978 



71 





|lfW"\ k C ft fl C T QM1AC O fl /I Reproduced with permission from the Computing Newsletter. Cragmor 
-"-*VJVJ*Va VJ11 VJalllva ClllU Road. Colorado Springs. CO 80907. For a complete copy of the annual 




_ . -m s . s "Books Useful in Teaching Business Applications of the Computer" issue, 
Vl f 11 |-| 1 - 1 #- 1 / A »-» Jor>nni /-mac send * 4 to the Newsletter (Note: CDC. ■ Control Data Corp.; M-H ■ 
»-» 1111 11 lailU 11 1CL11111UUCS McGraw-Hill; P-H ■ Prentice-Hall; W-A ■ Wright-Allen Press.) 




I 


Avtk»r 


rule 


Publish** 


Data 


NfJH 


Ty»« 


*rW 




1 


t 


i 


■> 


: 



u 


i 
1 






Business Games 




























Barton 


A Primer on Simulation and Gaming 


P-H 


1970 


239 




X 








X 








Belch 


Contemporary Games Vol. 1 Directory 


Gala 


1973 


560 




X 








G 








Belch 


Contemporary Games Vol. II Bibliography 


Gale 


1974 


408 




X 








G 








Coppard, Goodman , cd 


Urban Gaming/Simulation "77 


Michigan 


1977 


376 




:■: 








G 








Duke 


Gaming: The Future's Language 


Sage 


1974 


223 




:■: 








X 








Frazer 


Business Decision Simulation:A T/S Approach 


Reston 


1975 


160 




:•: 








G 








Frazer 


Introduction to Business Simulation 


Re st on 


1977 


131 




X 








X 








Gibbs 


Handbook of Games and Simulation Exerciser, 


Sage 


1974 


226 




:■; 








:•: 








Greenbalt. Duke 


Gaming Simulation: Rationale , Design&Applic . 


Ha Is ted 


1975 


435 




:■: 








G 








Henshaw, Jackson 


The Executive Game 


Irwin 


1972 


161 




:■: 








G 








Inbar, Stoll 


Simulation and Gaming in Social Science 


1'ress 


1972 


313 




:■: 








:■■: 








Jensen, 


The Business Management Laboratory 


B.P.I. 


1973 


87 




:■: 








<; 








J.nsen , Cherr ington 


Manual for the Business Management Lab 


B.P. I. 


1977 


200 




:■: 








'.; 








Maidment , Bronstein 


Simulation Games: Design, Implementation 


Merrill 


1973 


99 




:■; 








X 






J 


McFarlan, et al 


The Management Game 


Macmillan 


1970 


153 




:•: 








G 






Scott, Strickland 


Tempomatic IV: A Management Simulation 


Houghton 


1974 


77 




X 








c. 






I 


Smith, et al 


Integrated Simulation 


South-W 


1974 


56 




:■: 








G 






Smith 


Simulating Gaming 


C.D.C. 


1973 


128 




:■: 








P 






a 
< 

1 t. 

1 

E 

1 


Zuckerman, Horn 


The Guide to Simulation Games 


Info . Res . 


1970 


334 






:■; 






:■: 




Simulation Techn. 




Introduction to Urban Dynamics 


W-A 


1976 


340 




:■; 








:■; 




Alfeld, Graham 






Birtwhistle, et al 


SIMULA Begin 


Auerbach 


1973 


391 


X 










X 






• 


Bobillier, et al 


Simulation With GPSS and GPSS V 


P-H 


1976 


495 




:■; 








;■; 








Chen, Kaczka 


Operations & Sys . Anal.: A Simulation Appr. 


A-Bacon 


1974 


452 




:■: 








X 








Colella, et al 


Systems Simulation: Methods & Applications 


D.C. Heath 


1974 


290 




:■: 








X 








Forrester 


Collected Papers of Jay W. Forrester 


W-A 


1975 


284 




:■; 








X 








Franta 


The Process View of Simulation 


Elsevier 


1977 


244 




:•: 








X 








Gordon 


The Applic. of GPSS V to Discrete System Sim. 


P-H 


1975 


389 


X 










X 








Greenberg 


GPSS Primer 


Wiley 


1972 


324 




X 








:■; 








House, ed. 


Business Simulation for Decision Making 


Petrocell 


1977 


364 




X 








R 








Lewis 


Distribution Sampling for Computer Simulation 


Lexington 


1975 


150 




X 








:■: 








Mass 


Readings in Urban Dynamics: Vol. 1 


W-A 


1974 


303 




:■; 








•< 








Moore, Clayton 


GERT Modeling and Simulation 


Petrocell 


1976 


230 


X 










X 








Padulo, Arbib 


System Theory--Cont . , Discrete Systems 


Saunders 


1974 


779 




X 








X 








Poole, et al 


Using Simulation to Solve Problems 
Simulation With GASP-PL/ 1 


M-H 


1977 


333 


X 










x 








Pritsker, Young 


Wiley 


1975 


335 


X 










X 








Scalzo, Hughes 


Elementary Computer-Assisted Statistics 


Petrocell 


1976 


345 


X 










:■; 








Schriber 


Simulation Using GPSS 


Wiley 


1974 


533 


X 










X 








Shannon 


Systems Simulation: The Art and Science 


P-H 


1975 


387 




X 








X 








Speckhart, Green 


A Guide to Using CSMP 


P-H 


1976 


325 


;■: 










X 








Zeigler 


Theory of Modeling and Simulation 


Wiley 


1976 


435 


X 










X 








/'jxit our mane ~^\ t 

I SMALL AOJUST*£IMT) 




A r^ L 




/ 1 SUPPOSr ^\ o 










V ANO / .. ± t j 




HffiMs 




( yov THINK # J 










f\&, 






V^ TMA 


t's fun a 


0^ t 














k^?p=rf\ 




t^XF ¥g£~rX 




f/*' /h** \ f" - "**"^ 














■ 11 1 

■ lA 




/1$Ma 




iK Lo 


i*\ 








u 


w 




^J^^^^^^^^ ^»V • "creative computing 




oi&^r \jOj 


\»J 










72 




^^^^^ 1 \ V ' 

CREATIVE COMPUTIf 


4G 





a COMPUTER INTERFACES & PERIPHERALS a 

For free catalog including parts lists and schematics, send a self -addressed stamped envelope. 



APPLE II SERIAL I/O 
INTERFACE * 

Part no 2 

Baud rate is continuously adjustable 
from to 30.000 • Plugs into any periph- 
eral connector • Low current drain RS- 
232 input and output • On board switch 
selectable 5 to 8 data bits. 1 or 2 stop 
bits, and parity or no parity either odd or 
even • Jumper selectable address • 
SOFTWARE • Input and Output routine 
from monitor or BASIC to teletype or other serial printer 
• Program tor using an Apple II tor a video or an intelli- 
gent terminal Also can output in correspondence code 
to interface with some selectncs Board only — $1500; 
with parts — $42 00; assembled and tested — $62 00 




MODEM 



Pari no. 109 

• Type 103 • Full or half 
duplex • Works up to 300 
baud • Originate or Ans- 
wer • No coils, only low 
cost components • TTL 
input and output-serial • 
Connect 8 ohm speaker 
and crystal mic directly to board 
demodulator • Requires +5 volts 
with parts $2750 




UsesXRFSK 
» Board $7 60; 



DC POWER SUPPLY* 



Pari no. 6085 

• Board supplies a regulated +5 volts 
at 3 amps., +12. -12. and -5 volts at 
1 amp • Power required is 8 volts AC 
at 3 amps . and 24 volts AC CT at 1 .5 
amps • Board only $12.50; with 
parts excluding transformers $42 50 




TAPE INTERFACE * 

Part no 111 

• Play and record Kansas 
City Standard tapes • 
Converts a low cost tape 
recorder to a digital re- 
corder • Works up to 1 200 
baud • Digital in and out 
are TTL-serial • Output of 
board connects to mic. in 
of recorder • Earphone of 
recorder connects to input on board • No coils • 
Requires +5 volts, low power drain • Board $7 60 
with parts $2750 




TV. TYPEWRITER 



Part no 106 

• Stand alone TVT 

• 32 char/line. 16 
lines modifications 
for 64 char/ line in- 
cluded • Parallel 
ASCII (TTL) input • 
Video output • 1K 
on board memory • 
Output lor compu- 
ter controlled cur- 
ser • Auto scroll • 
Non-destructive curser • Curser inputs up. down, left, 
right, home. EOL. EOS • Scroll up. down • Requires +5 
volts at 1 5 amps, and -12 volts at 30 mA • All 7400. TTL 
chips • Char gen 2513 • Upper case only • Board only 
$39 00, with parts $145 00 




TIDMA 




Part no. 112 

• Tape Interface Direct Memory Access • Record 
and play programs without bootstrap loader (no 
prom) has FSK encoder/ decoder for direct con- 
nections to low cost recorder at 1200 baud rate, 
and direct connections for inputs and outputs to a 
digital recorder at any baud rate. • S-100 bus com- 
patible • Board only $35 00; with parts $110.00 



UART & BAUD RATE 
GENERATOR 9 " 

Part no 101 

• Converts serial to parallel 
and parallel to serial • Low 
cost on board baud rate 
generator • Baud rates 110. 
150. 300, 600. 1200, and 
2400 • Low power drain +5 
volts and -12 volts required 

• TTL compatible • All characters contain a start bit. 5 to 
8 data bits. 1 or 2 stop bits, and either odd or even parity 

• All connections go to a 44 pin gold plated edge connec- 
tor • Board only $12 00; with parts $3500 with connector 
add $3.00 




8K STATIC 
RAM 




Part no 300 

• 8K Altair bus memory • 
Uses 21 02 Static memory chips •Mem- 
ory protect • Gold contacts • Wait states • On I 
board regulator • S-100 bus compatible • Vector 
input option • TRI state buttered • Board only | 
$22 50; with parts $160.00 



RF MODULATOR 



Part no 107 

• Converts video to AM modu- 
lated RF, Channels 2 or 3 So 
powerful almost no tuning is re- 
quired. On board regulated 
power supply makes this ex- 
tremely stable Rated very 
highly in Doctor Dobbs' Journal Recommended I 
by Apple • Power required is 12 volts AC CT. or | 
+5 volts DC • Board $7.60; with parts $13 50 




RS232/TTY* 
INTERFACE 



Part no 600 

• Converts RS-232 to 20mA 
current loop, and 20mA current 
loop to RS-232 • Two separate 
circuits • Requires +12 and -12 
volts • Board only $4.50. with 
parts $7.00 




RS 232/TTL* 
INTERFACE 




Part no. 232 

• Converts TTL to RS-232. ] 
and converts RS-232 to 
TTL • Two separate circuits * 

• Requires -12 and +12 volts 

• All connections go to a 10 pin gold plated edge 
connector • Board only $4 50; with parts $700 
with connector add $2 00 



ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS De P i x - p ° Box 21638 ' San Jose ' Ca USA 95151 



To Order: 
I 



Mention pan number and description For parts kits add "A" to part number In USA. shipping paid for orders accompanied by check, money order, or 
Master Charge. BankAmencard. or VISA number, expiration date and signature Shipping charges added to C O D orders California residents add 6 5% 
for tax Outside USA add 10% tor air mail postage, no C.O.D.'s. Checks and money orders must be payable in US dollars Parts kits include sockets for all 
ICs. components, and circuit board Documentation is included with all products All items are in stock, and will be shipped the day order is received via 
first class mail Prices are in US dollars No open accounts To eliminate tarilt in Canada boxes are marked Computer Parts' Dealer inquiries invited 
24 Hour Order Line (408) 226-4064 ♦ Circuits designed by John Bell 




Jury Selection: 
A Simulation 



Gary Greenberg 




Most people get their picture of the criminal justice 
system from television, which is like studying public 
schools by watching "Welcome Back Kotter." 

No criminal trial gets resolved during a commercial 
break. And I have yet to meet a lawyer who claims to have 
seen a witness break down on the stand and admit he was 
caught lying, no matter how obvious the untruth. Rarely is 
a surprise witness brought in at the last minute to explode 
the whole case. 

In fact, the average criminal trial is a slow, plodding 
adventure. Most cases fall into a routine pattern consisting 
of one or two essential witnesses. In the robbery case, the 
issue is the victims memory of the perpetrator's 
appearance. In the burglary or drug case, the issue is 
usually the credibility of the police officer's testimony. 
Very few other kinds of cases go to trial. 



The prosecutor will usually challenge 
all nonwhite minorities, young peo- 
ple, and people in social-service work 
or involved in arty or radical causes. 



In New York City, where most of my observations take 
place, at least 90% of the defendants are black or hispanic. 
Over 70% of the jurors are white. A small percentage of the 
more than 500,000 arrests ever reach a trial stage. Almost 
everything is disposed of through plea bargaining. 

But there are cases that do go to trial. And in such 
situations the selection of the jury is a key procedure. 
Though jurors are always told that a defendant is innocent 
until proven guilty, the defense attorney acts on the 
assumption that the juror believes the defendant is guilty 
until proven innocent. 

Gary Greenberg. 35-63 80th St., Jackson Heights. NY 11372 



Additionally, when probing into the biases and prej- 
udices of a juror, the defense attorney rarely accepts the 
juror's word. The skill in jury selection usually revolves 
around the attempt to place the juror in a social category 
and play the percentages. Little nuances in the way the 
juror answers also play a role. 

For the most part, the defense attorney and the 
prosecutor make broad assumptions and look for the 
exceptions. The prosecutor will usually challenge all 
nonwhite minorities, young people, and people in social- 
service work or involved in arty or radical causes. The 
defense attorney will usually challenge white ethnics, 
older people and government employees. Of course there 
are exceptions. If you have a police defendant, the defense 
and prosecution might reverse polarity in their choices. 
Similarly, for example, if you have a black victim and a 
white defendant. Crass as it sounds, this is the way jury 
selection is frequently conducted. 

However, there is a big kicker. Each side is only allowed 
a certain number of challenges without having to state a 
reason. In New York, on a robbery or burglary in the first 
degree, you get 15 such challenges. This greatly hand- 
dicaps the defense in that there are substantially more 



SEX JOB 

Male (50-0) Professional (10-5) 
Female (50-2) Civil Service (15-8) 
Blue Collar (30-7) 
White Collar (15-6) 
Unemployed (10-3) 
Retired (20-10) 



RACE 

Wasp (25-7) 
Irish (15-10) 
Italian (10-12) 
Jewish (5-11) 
Nordic (10-13) 
Black (20-3) 
Slavic (10-15) 
Hispanic (5-5) 



AGE 

20 (10-5) 
30 (20-8) 
40 (20-10) 
50 (25-12) 
60 (25-15) 



Fig. 1. This figure shows the percentage and point 
distributions for each category. The first number in the 
parenthesis is the percentage of the category allotted to 
that member of the category. The second number 
indicates how many points are allotted for that member of 
the category; that is, Irish constitute 15% of the racial 
category and add 10 points to the jury member's total. 



74 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



unsatisfactory jurors in the pool from the defense point o 
view than from the prosecution point of view. That is, there 
are a lot more older white ethnics than there are young 
blacks. The defense attorney approaches jury selection, 
never expecting a sympathetic jury, but merely trying to 
minimize the bias against the client. And once he has used 
up his challenges the attorney is stuck with whoever is 
subsequently selected, unless the judge can be convinced 
that the jury is inherently biased against the defense, a 
difficult task to be sure. 

Figure 1 is an outline of the model for the jury selection. 
There are four major categories: age, sex, race and job. 
Each element in each category is assigned a probable 
percentage and a probable anti-defendant bias factor. The 
program presents a bias in favor of conviction. The 
challenge is to minimize that bias. 

You will be given ten challenges. After each round of 
displaying the potential jurors' characteristics, you will be 
asked to make any challenges. If you do not challenge a 
juror during the round in which he is placed in the jury box, 
you will not be able to reconsider later. On each round you 
will only be shown those new jurors that are up for 
consideration. Once you are out of challenges you will be 
stuck with whatever jurors the computer picks to complete 
the twelve-person jury. After the jury is completed, you will 
be shown the completed jury and the characteristics for 
your study. Then you will be shown the first ballot vote and 
the final verdict. 



Statistics at best give a guideline for 
guessing, but guarantee nothing 
about any specific individual. 



At this time, when many people are sensitive to group 
slanders or slurs, I think a few cautionary notes are in 
order. The allotment of bias points should in no way be 
used to believe I have a positive or negative view of any 
particular group in this study. And yes, of course, in no 
way can one determine what any specific member of a 
group would do, given a statistical sample about that 
group. Statistics at best give a guideline for guessing, but 
guarantee nothing about any specific individual. The 
assignment of zero bias points to males does not mean 
that men are not antidefendant and that women are. It 
means that, I had to have some point which was ground 
zero because, the program is based on a cumulative scale. 

In the model, sex is the least significant factor involved 
in the jury-selection criteria. However it is believed by 
many attorneys that females on average are likely to 
exhibit a slight more bias than a male towards a criminal 
defendant. Therefore zero points were assigned to the 
male and two points to the female. These are the two 
lowest assigned bias points in the model. 

How The Program Works 

I have set up three arrays. The A$(3,8) array contains the 
string names for race, job, and sex. The N(12,6) array 
contains the numeric description of the elements in each 
category for each juror. The M(12,6) array contains the 
bias points for each element for each juror. The M and N 
arrays can be redimensioned to (12,5) since the extra 
column was just left over from my experimenting with 
additional characteristics. 

With (I) standing for the Ith juror, N(l,2) is equal to 
either 20,30,40,50 or 60 and gives the age of the Ith juror. 
N(l,3) equals 1 or 2 and gives the sex of the Ith juror. N(l,4) 
is an integer from 1 to 8 and represents the race of the Ith 
juror. And similarly N(l, 5) represents the job classification. 

SEPT/CXTT 1978 



us: AS (1,N(I,3)) gives the Ith juror'! 
A$(2,N(I,5)) gives the Ith juror's job. 
A$(3,N(I,4)) gives the 1th juror's race. 
N(l,2) gives the Ith juror's age. 

TheMarrayfrom(l,2)(l,5) correspond element for ele- 
ment with the N array with each element of M containing 
the bias points for each corresponding element of N. 
M(l,1) contains the sum of M(l,2)-M(l,5). 

Lines 430-470: selects jurors for consideration. Line 
440 checks the value of N(l,1 ). N(l,1 ) is the selection status 
for each juror seat. IF N(l,1)=0 then the seat is vacant and 
has to be filled, in which case the program branches to 
subroutine 2030 to select the juror's characteristics for the 
potential new juror. 

Lines 515-615: This is the portion of the program that 
makes sure the proper challenges are made, and records 
the challenges. 

Line 690: Tests to see if jury is complete. 

Line 700: Checks to see if any challenges left. 

Line 710: Sends you back for additional round of 
challenges if the jury is incomplete and you have 
challenges left. 

Lines 770-790: Selects the remaining jurors when jury is 
incomplete and challenges are exhausted. 

Lines 1070-1140: Prints out the first ballot. 

Lines 1050: Generates the verdict testing number. To 
increase the chances of acquittal, reduce the multiplier of 
RND(1). To increase the chance of a conviction, raise the 
multiplier. 

Lines 1150-1230: Determine final verdict. 

Lines 2030-2410: This is the subroutine that selects the 
characteristics of each juror. Each element in each 
category is independently determined, with one excep- 
tion. If the juror is determined to be retired (line 2270) then 
the age is set at 60 (line 2280). 

Line 90: To increase the number of challenges, increase 
K. 

Dialect Notes 

This program is written in PET basic and is esthetically 
designed for a 40-character-width screen. The language 
should be compatible with at least Altair and OSI basic and 
should be easily convertible to other Basics. 

In PET Basic a ? can be used instead of the instruction 
PRINT. In line 3000, I used the statement ?"CLR". This 
clears the screen and is done on the PET by holding the 
SHIFT and CLR at the same time. On the PET, this will be 
displayed as a heart on a reverse field. It is not necessary 
for the program to use that instruction if it is not available 
to you. If omitted make sure to eliminate all references to 
GOSUB 3000. 

PET Basic does not require the RANDOMIZE statement. 
iF your version does, make sure to include it. 

Finally, the program takes up about 4200 bytes with 
instructions and about 3200 bytes without the instruc- 
tions. ■ 



75 



S REM 
10 REH 
15 RED 
20 REH 
25 REH 
30 REH 
35 REH 
40 REH 
45 REH 
SO REH 
SS REH 
60 REH 
65 REH 



JURY 



COPYURIGHT 1?78 BY 
GARY GREENIER6 



Jury 

Program 

Listing 



PROGRAMED IH PET 
BASIC 



A SIMULATION OF THE 

EXPERIENCE OF PICKING 

A JURY 



Jury Listing con 




80 DIN N<12, 6), N(12, 61, Al<3, 81 

90 K=10:S=0:E=0:T=0 

100 AJ(1,1>="HALE":A*<1,21="FENALE" 

110 A$(2,1)="PR0FESSI0NAL":A*(2,2>="CIVIL SERVICE" 

120 A1(2,31="BLUt C0LLAR":A»(2,41="UHITE COLLAR" 

130 A*(2,5>="UNEMPL0YED":A$<2,6>*"RETIRED* 

140 A*<3,1)="UASP":A$(3,21="IRISH" 

150 A»<3,3)="ITALIAN":A$<3 t 41="JEUISH" 

UO AX3,5) = "N0RDIC":A$(3,61 = "BLACK" 

170 AI<3,7)="SLAVIC":A»(3,81«"HISPANIC" 

180 FOP 1 = 1 TO 12:F0R J*1 TO 6 

190 H(I,J)»0jM(I,J>»0 

200 NEXT J:N£XT I 

210 GOS'JB 3000:G0SUB 3200 

220 PRINT TAB(181;"JURY" 

230 PRINT TAB<19);"BY" 

240 PRINT TAB(12);"GARY GREENBERG* 

250 GOSUB 3200 

260 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT TAB(2); 

270 INPUT " DO YOU UANT INSTRUCTIONS <Y OR N)";Q$ 

280 IF LEf T*(0», 1 ) <> "Y" GOTO 420 

290 GOSUB 3000:PRINT TAB113) ;"INSTRUCTIONS" 

300 PRINT TAB(13)J" " 

310 PRINT "YOU UILL BE SHOUN A PANEL OF POTENTIAL" 

"JURORS ALONG UITH SOHE BACKGROUND DATA.":PRINT 
"THE DATA REFLECTS FACTS THAT MANY" 
"ATTORNEYS THINK UILL AFFECT A JUROR'S" 
"FINAL VERDICT. AFTER EXAMINING THE PANEL" 
"YOU UILL BE ASKED HOU MANY CHALLENGES" 

340 PRINT "YOU UISH TO USE. YOU UILL HAVE A TOTAL" 

350 PRINT "OF 10. YOU UILL BE ASKEO UHICH JURORS" 

355 PRINT "YOU ARE GOING TO CHALLENGE. ":PRINT 
"ANY JUROR NOT CHALLENGED UILL" 
"BE SEATED AND HAY NOT BE CHALLENGED" 
"LATER. IF YOU EXHAUST YOUR CHALLENGES" 
"THE COMPUTER UILL SELECT THE REMAINING" 
"JURORS. UHEN THE JURY IS COMPLETED, YOU" 
"UILL GET A LISTING OF THE JURY MEMBERS," 
"THEIR DATA, THEIR FIRST VOTE, THE FINAL" 

400 PRINT "COLLECTIVE VERDICT. ":PRINT 

405 PRINT "THE DATA IS BASED ON A CRIMINAL TRIAL." 

410 GOSUB 3400 

420 GOSUB 3000:PRINT:GOSUB 3100 

430 FOR I«1 TO 12 

440 IF N(I,1) <> GOTO 470 

450 GOSUB 2030 

460 GOSUB 3300 

470 NEXT I 

510 GOSUB 3200 

515 PRINT "YOU HAVE";K;" CHALLENGES LEFT." 

520 INPUT "HOU MANY CHALLENGES";C:C=INT(C) 

525 IF CM2-T GOTO 510 

530 IF OK GOTO 510 

540 IF C<1 GOTO 590 

542 K=K-C 

545 FOR J=1 TO C 

550 PRINT "CHALLENGE «";J;:INPUT Y 

552 IF Y<1 GOTO 550 

554 IF Y>12 GOTO 550 

555 IF N(Y,1) <> GOTO 550 
560 N(Y,1)=2:NEXT J 

590 FOR 1*1 TO 12:IF N(I,1> <> 2 THEN N(I,1)-1 

595 NEXT I 

600 FOR 1*1 

605 NEXT I 

610 FOR 1=1 

615 NEXT I 

620 T=12-E 

625 PRINT "YOU HAVE SEATED";T; 

630 GOSUB 3400 

690 IF T=l 2 GOTO 900 

700 IF K=0 GOTO 720 

710 E=0:GOTO 420 

720 GOSUB 3000 



315 PRINT 
320 PRINT 
325 PRINT 
330 PRINT 
335 PRINT 



340 PRINT 
365 PRINT 
370 PRINT 
375 PRINT 
385 PRINT 
390 PRINT 
395 PRINT 



TO 12:IF N(I,1>=2 THEN N(I,1)«0 
TO 12:IF NU,11=0 THEN E=E+1 

JURORS" 



730 FOR 1=1 TO 6:PRINT:NEXT I:GOSUB 3200 

740 PRINT TAB(6);"Y0U ARE OUT OF CHALLENGES." 

750 PRINT " YOU GET THE NEXT";12-T;"JUR0RS IN THE BOX." 

760 PRINT TAB(13);"HERE THEY ARE.":GOSUB 3200:GOSUB 3100 

770 FOR 1=1 TO 12: IF N(I,1) <> GOTO 790 

780 GOSUB 2030:GOSUB 3300 

790 NEXT I 

800 GOSUB 3200:GOSUB 3400 

900 GOSUB 3000:GCSUB 3200 

910 PRINT TAB(6);"THE JURY IS NOU COMPLETE.* 

920 PRINT TAB(6>;"HERE IS THE FINAL SEATING." 

930 GOSUB 3200:G0SUB 3100 

940 FOR 1=1 TO 12:G0SUB 33O0:NEXT I 

950 GOSUB 3200:GOSUB 3400 

1050 R1=5+56«RND<1) 

1055 GOSUB 3000:GOSUB 3200 

1060 PRINT:PRINT TAB(14) ;"FIRST BALLOT* 

1065 GOSUB 3200 

1070 FOR M TO 12 

1080 M(I,1)=M(I,2)+M(I,3>+N(I,4)+M(I,5) 

1090 M=M(I,1) 

1100 PRINT TAB(9);"JUR0R »";:IF K10 THEN PRINT TAB<17); 

1105 PRINT I 

1110 IF M<R1 GOTO 1130 

1120 PRINT"6UILTY!":G0T0 1140 

1130 PRINT "NOT GUILTY!" 

1140 M=0:NEXI I:GOSUB 32O0 

1150 V=0:FOR 1=1 TO l2tV-V«H(I,1>lNEXT I 

1190 V1=V/12:IF VKR1 GOTO 1230 

1210 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT "FINAL VERDICT: 6UILTY!":G0T0 2600 

1220 IF Z2=0 THEN 1240 

1230 PRINT "FINAL VERDICT: NOT GUILTYI":G0TO 2600 

2030 R=100*RND<1) 

2040 N(I,2)=20:M(I,2)=5 

2050 IF R>10 TJ-'EK N( 1 ,2) = 30:M(I,2)=8 

2C60 IF R>30 THEN N( I,2)=40:M( I,2)=10 

2070 IF R>50 THEN N< I,2)*50:M< I ,21=12 

2080 IF R>75 THEN N( I,2)=60:M< 1,21=15 

2140 H(I,3)=1:R=RND(1) 

2150 IF R>,5 THEN Nil, 31=2:N(I, 31=2 

2220 N< 1,4 > = !:«< 1, 4 >=5:R=RND< 11*100 

2230 IF R>10 THEN N( I,4)=2:M(I,4)=8 

2240 IF R>25 THEN N( I,4)=3:M( I,4>=7 

2250 IF R>55 THEN N( I,4) = 4:ll< I,4)=6 

2260 IF R>70 THEN N< I,4)=5:rt< 1 ,41=3 

2270 IF R>80 THEN N< I ,4>=6:M< I ,4 1=10 

2280 IF R>80 THEN NU,21=60:N< I,2)»15 

2320 N(I,5>=1:rt<I,5)=7:R=RND<11*100 

2340 IF R>25 THEN N(I,5)=2:M<I, 51 = 10 

2350 IF R>40 THEN N(I,5)=3:M(I,5)=12 

2360 IF R>50 THEN N( I,5)=4:M(I,5)=1 1 

2370 IF R>55 THEN N( I ,5>=5:M(I, 51=13 

2380 IF R>65 THEN N(I,5)=4:M(I,5)=3 

2390 IF R>85 THEN N< I,5)=7:H( I ,51*15 

2400 IF R>95 THEN N< I,51=8:N(I,5)*5 

2410 RETURN 

2600 INPUT "DO YOU UANT TO TRY ANOTHER CASE";Z» 

2610 IF LEFT*<Z*,1)="Y" GOTO 90 

2630 PRINT:PRINT "THERE BEING NO FURTHER BUSINESS BEFORE" 

2640 PRINT "THE COURT, UE STAND IN RECESS." 

2650 GOTO 9999 

3000 PRINT "CLR":RETURN 

3100 PRINT TAB(14);"JURY PANEL" 

3110 PRINT TAB(I4>;" " 

3120 PRINT " I SEX AGE RACE JOB" 

3130 GOSUB 3200 

3140 RETURN 

3200 FOR J=1 TO 39:PRINT "-";:NEXT J:PRINT 

3210 RETURN 

3300 IF K10 THEN PRINT TABU); 

3305 PRINT I;TAB(41;":";A*(1,N(I,3)>; 

3310 PRINT TAB(12);N(I,2);TAB(17);At(3,N<I,5)l; 

3320 PRINT TAB(26);A»(2,N(I,4)):RETURN 

3400 PRINT TAB(IO); 

3410 INPUT "HIT 'RETURN' TO CONTINUE";Q$:RETURN 

9999 END 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 







« SEX 


JURY PANEL 




RUN 


AGE RACE 


JOB 


CLR 


t :FENALE 


60 BLACK 
60 IRISH 
SO JEUISH 
60 IRISH 
60 NOROIC 


RETIRED 




JURY 
BY 
6ARY GREENBER6 


6 : FEMALE 

7 tFEMALE 
11 :HALE 


CIVIL SERVICE 
BLUE COLLAR 
RETIRED 
BLUE COLLAR 











DO YOU UANT INSTRUCTIONS (Y OR N>? Y 



CLR 



INSTRUCTIONS 



YOU UILL BE SHOUN A PANEL OF POTENTIAL 
JURORS ALONG UITH SOME BACKGROUND DATA. 

THE DATA REFLECTS FACTS THAT HANY 
ATTORNEYS THINK UILL AFFECT A JUROR'S 
FINAL VERDICT. AFTER EXAMINING THE PANEL 
YOU UILL BE ASKED HOU HANY CHALLENGES 
YOU UISH TO USE. YOU UILL HAVE A TOTAL 
OF 10. YOU UILL BE ASKED UHICH JURORS 
YOU ARE GOING TO CHALLENGE. 



ANY JUROR NOT CHALLENGED UILL 
BE SEATED AND HAY NOT BE CHALLENGED 
LATER. IF YOU EXHAUST YOUR CHALLENGES 
THE COMPUTER UILL SELECT THE REMAINING 
JURORS. UHEN THE JURY IS COMPLETED, YOU 
UILL GET A LISTING OF THE JURY NEHBERS, 
THEIR DATA, THEIR FIRST VOTE, THE FINAL 
COLLECTIVE VERDICT. 

THE DATA IS BASED ON A CRIMINAL TRIAL. 

HIT 'RETURN' TO CONTINUE? 
CLR 



YOU ARE OUT OF CHALLENGES. 
YOU GET THE NEXT 1 JURORS IN THE BOX. 
HERE THEY ARE. 

JURY PANEL 

YOU HAVE 5 CHALLENGES LEFT. 

HOU HANY CHALLENGES? 2 « SEX AGE RACE JOB 

CHALLENGE I 1 ? 6 - 

CHALLENGE * 2 ? 7 7 :HALE 60 UASP RETIRED 

YOU HAVE SEATED 10 JURORS 

HIT 'RETURN' TO CONTINUE? HIT 'RETURN' TO CONTINUE? 

CLR CLR 

THE JURY IS HOU COHPLETE. 
HERE IS THE FINAL SEATING. 

JURY PANEL 

• SEX AGE RACE JOB 





JURY PANEL 




1 SEX 


AGE RACE 


JOB 


1 :HALE 


30 


NORDIC 


UHITE COLLAR 


2 :HALE 


SO 


BLACK 


PROFESSIONAL 


3 :HALE 


60 


BLACK 


UNEHPLOYED 


4 :HALE 


60 


BLACK 


CIVIL SERVICE 


5 :HALE 


30 


NORDIC 


BLUE COLLAR 


6 :HALE 


60 


SLAVIC 


BLUE COLLAR 


7 :FEMALE 


60 


SLAVIC 


BLUE COLLAR 


8 :HALE 


30 


BLACK 


BLUE COLLAR 


9 rFEMALE 


30 


NORDIC 


UNEMPLOYED 


10 :MALE 


40 


BLACK 


UNEHPLOYED 


11 :HALE 


60 


UASP 


UNEHPLOYED 


12 tFENALE 


60 


JEUISH 


RETIRED 


YOU HAVE 10 


CHALLENGES LEFT. 


HOU HANY CHALLENGES? S 




CHALLENGE * 


1 ? 


1 




CHALLENGE 1 


2 ? 


6 




CHALLENGE 1 


3 ? 


7 




CHALLENGE N 


4 ? 


11 




CHALLENGE • 


5 ? 


12 




YOU HAVE SEATED 


7 JURORS 




HIT 'RETURN' TC 


CONTINUE? 


CLR 










JURY PANEL 



1 SEX 


AGE RACE 


JOB 


6 :FEHALE 

7 :HALE 


SO IRISH 
60 BLACK 


UHITE COLLAR 
CIVIL SERVICE 



YOU HAVE 3 CHALLENGES LEFT. 
HOU MANY CHALLENGES? 2 
CHALLENGE I « ? 6 
CHALLEN6E « 2 ? 7 
YOU HAVE SEATED 10 JURORS 

HIT 'RETURN' TO CONTINUE? 
CLR 



I SEX 



JURY PANEL 



AGE RACE 



JOB 



6 :HALE 30 ITALIAN UNEHPLOYED 

7 :NALE 60 SLAVIC RETIRED 

YOU HAVE 1 CHALLENGES LEFT. 
HOU HANY CHALLENGES? 1 
CHALLENGE • 1 ? 7 
YOU HAVE SEATED 11 JURORS 

HIT 'RETURN' TO CONTINUE? 
CLR 



1 (FEMALE 

2 :HALE . 

3 :HALE 

4 :HALE 

5 :HALE 

6 :HALE 

7 :HALE 
6 :HALE 

? tFENALE 

10 :HALE 

11 :HALE 

12 :HALE 



60 BLACK 

SO BLACK 

60 BLACK 

60 BLACK 

SO HORDIC 

30 ITALIAN 

60 UASP 

30 BLACK 

30 NORDIC 

40 BLACK 

60 IRISH 

60 NORDIC 



RETIRED 
PROFESSIONAL 
UNEMPLOYED 
CIVIL SERVICE 
BLUE COLLAR 
UNEMPLOYED 
RETIRED 
BLUE COLLAR 
UNEHPLOYED 
UNEMPLOYED 
RETIRED 
BLUE COLLAR 



HIT 'RETURN' TO CONTINUE? 



CLR 



FIRST BALLOT 



JUROR » 1 
NOT GUILTY! 

JUROR « 2 
NOT GUILTY! 

JUROR « 3 
NOT 6UILTY! 

JUROR I 4 
NOT GUILTY! 

JUROR I S 
NOT GUILTY! 

JUROR « 6 
NOT GUILTY! 

JUROR N 7 
NOT GUILTY! 

JUROR « 8 
NOT GUILTY! 

JUROR I 9 
NOT GUILTY! 

JUROR I 10 
NOT GUILTY! 

JUROR M 11 
NOT GUILTY! 

JUROR » 12 
NOT GUILTY! 



FINAL VERDICT: NOT GUILTY' 

DO YOU UANT TO TRY ANOTHER CASE? N 

THERE BEING NO FURTHER BUSINESS BEFORE 

THE COURT, UE STAHD IN RECESS. 

OK 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



77 



Charles Staelin at Amherst introduces students to tough 
management decisions via a simulation game. 

Real World Games 



by Robert D. Chadbourne 



I am by nature a pack rat; I 
seldom throw anything out except 
under great duress, or until it has 
gathered dust for at least 10 years. 
Well, it was just a year or so ago 
that I finally tossed out my files and 
notes from graduate school. And 
then this article arrived last week. 
What's the connection? Read on. 

This article is about one of the 
most incredibly complete and 
sophisticated simulations of the 
consumer packaged-goods in- 
dustry, consisting of a number of 
competitive business firms com- 
plete to the last detail. This type of 
simulation is commonly called a 
management game; this particular 
one is the grandaddy of many 
subsequent offspring games. It 
was originally conceived and 
written at the Graduate School of 
Industrial Administration at 
Carnegie-Mellon University in the 
late '50s and early '60s. It was 
written for the Bendix G-15 (and 
G-20) computer in a language 
called GATE. Some wise person 
decided in 1961 that GATE wasn't 
a very transportable language and 
it really shouldbe in FORTRAN. 
Further it was decided that some 
graduate student who (1 ) was on a 
work fellowship and thus owed his 
life to the school and (2) who was 
bilingual in those two languages, 
should do the translation. And 
guess who got the job 

And guess which hundreds of 
flowcharts and thousands of pages 
of sample runs and side-by-side 
listings I just threw away. To most 
readers today, GATE would look 
like an obscure Welsh dialect and 
even Fortran II looks pitifully 
archaic. But it's all gone now, 
although the "game'itself lives on! 
I— DHA 



Sample Student Decision Sheet 



Sales forecasting, model building, 
production scheduling, profit analysis 
and cash flow. The corporate level 
decision making usually made by the 
man with a title on the door and some 
gray at the temples. So who in the name 
of sanity would ever turn over that kind 
of authority to a bunch of nineteen and 
twenty year olds? 

Charles P. Staelin, Associate 
Professor of Economics at Amherst 
College for one. Staelin's thirty Junior 
Economics majors have been cast into 
leadership roles in phantom multi- 
million dollar corporations in a game 
known as a management simulation 
exercise developed by the Graduate 



School of Industrial Administration at 
Carnegie Mellon University in 
Pittsburgh. 

Staelin, an affable bearded young 
man of 32 had heard it all before like 
every other prof. "Why do I have to 
learn this?" "Why aren't you getting us 
ready for the Real World?" And the new 
modern version of complaint reaching 
faculty ears these days: "How is this 
relevant?" 

There's not much more of that talk 
being heard at Amherst. Staelin, a 
Riverside, Connecticut native who 
joined the Amherst faculty three years 
ago after completing all his Economics 
schooling through the doctorate level 



World-Wide Widgets 

Management Simulation 

DECISION SHEET 



INDUSTRY 



FIRM 



QUARTER_ 



Product 1 



Selling 
Price 


Promotion 
Expenditure 


Development 
Expenditure 


Production 
(units) 


S 


S 


s 





Product 2 



Selling 
Price 


Promotion 
Expenditure 


Development 
Expenditure 


Production 
(units) 


$ 


$ 


$ 





General Decisions 



Size of 
Workforce 



Plsnt 

Capacity 

(units) 



Dollar 
Balance in 
Marketable 
Securities 



Dollar 
Balance of 
Loan 
Outstanding 



Dividends 



Number of 
Shares Out- 
standing 



78 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The young decision makers decide the 
size of the work force, the plant 
capacity and the amount of each 
product to be produced. They grapple 
with decisions on overtime and over- 
utilization of plant capacity in terms of 
gains vs expense. They must set 
product price, designate an advertising 
budget, plow some money into R&D 
and handle the banking to include 
loans, stock, dividends, and dollar 
balance of marketable securities. 

As in the real world, some of the 
student companies squeaked by while 
others flourished. The students get to 
see the results of their decisions as the 
computer tells them if they were wise to 
hold back on product development to 
get a more immediate "bang for the 
buck" through an ad campaign. The 
computer sometimes has to advise a 



young hotshot that the results of R&D 
come late, but last longer than the TV 
spot. 

Staelin's students get a whiff of 
everything but the cigar smoke when it 
comes to unions. They are bound by a 
contract specifying $4 an hour with 
time and a half of overtime. The work 
force cannot fluctuate more than ten 
percent per quarter. The contract 
requires 500 hours per quarter for each 
worker. The union limits overtime to 
a maximum of 100 additional hours per 
quarter per man. 

To assimilate all the input necessary 
to keep the game flowing, Staelin says 
any computer with a 32,000 byte 
memory can handle it, and he 
recommends the exercise for present 
day executives for training purposes. 
The IBM 1130 system at Amherst 



Staelin with students. "Can your 
decisions stand up in the face of a 
stockholders meeting?" 

at the University of Michigan, respond- 
ed to student gripes by spicing up the 
texts. 

Staelin coordinates the game, but the 
big boss is the computer. Feeding in 
student appraisals of situations from 
the traditional classroom work, the 
students get to see regression analysis, 
linear programming and pro-forma 
analysis as more than terms in the 
glossary of Economics 101. 

Students are broken down into five 
teams of six students each. Each team 
is given 3-million dollars in working 
capital, members are made corporate 
managers of a corporation manufac- 
turing two unidentified products within 
a simulated market. The aim, just as in 
real life, is to make a profit. 

Staelin gets to indulge himself in all 
his interests at the Amherst campus. 
He gardens, plays squash, hikes and 
sails, skates and skis cross-country 
when he's not watching Amherst 
College sports. But if he had to choose 
one activity it would probably be 
playing with computers. Calling the 
Amherst College Computer Center 
"my crossword puzzle," Staelin can 
usually be found rewriting and im- 
proving a program. As coordinator of 
the Carnegie Mellon game he gets to 
amuse himself by controlling unseen 
events, like slapping an overconfident 
student mogul with an Arab oil em- 
bargo to mess up his rosy corporate 
graphs. 

For the students, no details of 
corporate management are spared. 



Sample Program Output 





STATEMENT CF INCOME 
0UARTER 4 


AND CASH FLOWS 
FIRM 1 






SALES RFVEM.E 

I TSS- COST OF CCCDS SCLD 

GOCSS PROFIT ON SALFS 






I 


4231417. 
1913682. 


% 


2317735. 


LFSS- 

PPf RATING 


PROMOTION EXPENSES 
CEVEL0PMENT EXPENSES 
TFPRECIATICN CHARGES 
ADMINISTRATIVE CCSTS 
MISCELLANEOUS EXPENSES 

PRCFIT 


s 


637000. 
541C00. 
125000. 
317314. 
151560. 




1771874. 






% 


545860. 


PLUS- INTEREST 1NCCME 
LFSS- INTEREST EXPFNSE 

PQC-TAX PRCFIT 


1 


37750. 
0. 




37750. 






i 


583610. 


LESS- FEDERAL INCOME TAXES 
INCCME 








2U0132. 


f 


303477. 


LTSS- 
PLUS- 

AT1ITI0N 


riVICENDS DECLAREC 
STUCK ISSUE (REPURCHASES 

TO OWNERS ECUITY 








75000. 
0. 


% 


228477. 


PLLS- 
LFSS- 

NET CASH 


OPERATING ADJUSTMENTS 
SECURITY SALES 
t HAN PCRRCWINGS 
PLANT INVESTMENT 
SECURITY PURCHASES 
LOAN REPAYMENTS 

INFLCW 


1 


3C2587. 

0. 

0. 
125000. 

0. 

0. 


I 


177586. 






406064. 




CTFER INFORMATION 

SALES LCST CR0E°S PRODUCTION 
VCLUME tUNITS) VCLUME 


ENDING 

INVENTORY 

tUNITS) 


PRnr i 
PRCr> 2 


370420. 162913. 
145895. 5C494. 


344404. 
127797. 


344404. 
127797. 


e ob p 


BATE NE"T CTR. 0.25 


QUARTERS WITH 


LOANS 


0. 


" FORCE » 500. STOCK PRICE * 33 


3/8 


SHARES 


OUT = 500C00. 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



79 









COGITATE - 


GSIAICMU1 














CLUSTER 


4 














ECCNCMIC STATISTICS 










GNP 
(ACTUAL! 


GNP 
(ADJUSTED) 


YIELD 
RATE 




PRIME 
RATE 






764 


1 


727.7 


7.55 




7.74 




5 


GNP 


FORECAST 
6 


(AOJUSTEO) 

7 


8 


RATE FORECAST 
YIELD PRIME 




693 


7 


664.3 


661.4 


655.2 


7 


.81 7.74 








CUARTERLV CCMPARISON CATA 








FIRM 


PROD 


PRICE 


PROMOTION 


DEVELOP 


SALES VOL 


"KT SHARE 


1 
2 
3 
4 
5 




6.50 
6.50 
6.00 
6.50 
6.50 


313000. 
369000. 
29J000. 
321000. 
380000. 


261C00. 
245CCC. 
24 2000. 
27BC00. 
243000. 




369000. 
356000. 
463000. 
516000. 
609000. 


15.8 
15.2 
2C.7 
22.1 
26.1 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


12.50 
12.50 
13.00 
12.50 
12.50 


2°9000. 
309000. 
210000. 
163000. 
131000. 


302COC. 
27600C. 
33000C. 
373C0C. 
L3900C. 




129000. 
115000. 
160000. 
205000. 
163000. 


16.7 
14.8 
20.7 
26.5 
21.1 



QUARTERLY FINANCIAL REPORTS 
CUARTER 4 



FIRM 



FIRM 



CASH 



3776686. 
3793004. 
1435037. 
3237543. 
2667776. 



SECURITIES 



20000CC. 
2000000. 
2000000. 
2000000. 
2000000. 



INVENTORY 



1736095. 
1738984. 
2199003. 
2252757. 
2659007. 



PLANT 



TOT ASSETS 



5000000. 12512782. 

50000C0. 12531988. 

5000000. 1063404C. 

5000000. 124903C1. 

5000000. 12326783. 



LCANS TAX CRETIT NET ECLITY 



1 


0. 


0. 


12512782. 


2 


c. 


0. 


125319eg. 


3 


0. 


C. 


10634040. 


4 


0. 


0. 


12490301. 


S 


0. 


0. 


12326763. 



FIRM NET PRCFIT CIVIOENDS SHARFS OUT STOCK PRICE 



303477. 
173566. 
487541. 
827293. 
907489. 



750CC. 
75000. 
75000. 
75CC0. 
75000. 



500000. 
500COO, 
50000C. 
500000. 
500000. 



33 3/8 
29 7/8 
27 5/B 
43 
4C 1/2 



proved fully capable of keeping score 
of the Economics student decisions. 

The exercise ran for three weeks. It 
placed the students in their positions 
on the ground rules of their firm having 
been in business one year, the span of 
time covered by the program simulated 
three years. "I was quite impressed," 
reported Staelin when it was over. "The 
novelty didn't wear off, the students 
worked extremely hard, their decision 
making markedly improved," he added. 
While no academic credit was granted 
at Amherst, the exercise is presented 
as a formal course to the grad students 
at Carnegie-Mellon. 

How did the exercise reveal the 
exuberance of youth in comparison to 
the typical moves of seasoned ex- 
ecutives? "I found little difference," 
reported Staelin. "Some went after the 
fast buck, others formed stable long 
range plans." The students also had the 
temptations of knowing they were 
bringing their role in the firm to an end, 
stepping aside as if they were resigning 
or retiring. "The way they treated that 
career milestone was also interesting," 
noted Staelin. "For some it was impor- 
tant to put the firm in good shape on 
paper reaping high profits. But for 
others there was the feeling of respon- 
sibility to end their reign with the 
company in strong long range health. 

Staelin found his students surprised 
at how intense competitive industry 
could be. In retrospect, he wished he 
had exercised his role of coordinator a 
bit more. Although recessions and 
recoveries were built into the exercise, 
Staelin was free to introduce any other 
monkey wrench that came to mind. 
"Another time I'd call a surprise 
stockholders meeting," he concluded. 
"I'd want to see if my managers could 
survive questions from the floor. Many 
of them sold off shares for short term 
gain. They should have been exposed 
to stockholders who wouldn't stand for 
it." Staelin clearly relished playing the 
role of the irate stockholder himself. 

When will Amherst Economics ma- 
jors get to make these decisions for 
real? "We're talking Vice President and 
Division Manager level executives, well 
into their forties," guessed Staelin who 
quickly added young fast growing 
companies might be staffed with ex- 
ecutive talent much younger. 

How many of these original thirty 
students who played the game will be 
making their decisions for New 
England firms? "It's hard to tell, most of 
my people are planning on grad 
school, but many come from New 
England, some will doubtless settle 
here," says Staelin. 

Wherever they settle, when the day of 
corporate decision making arrives, 
they can look back and recall they've 
done it all before, back on the campus 
at Amherst. ■ 



80 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



m j\ BUSINESS SOFTWARE FOR MICROCOMPUTERS 
CT 1 IS HERE— AT LAST 



Osborne & Associates is publishing its business systems in book form. These 
systems represent five years of development and testing by 0& A programmers, 
and the books include another year's worth of extensive and detailed documenta- 
tion. 
What systems are we selling? 

1. PAYROLL WITH COST ACCOUNTING — available now, on display at 
your local computer store. 

2. ACCOUNTS PAYABLE AND ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE — this long- 
awaited book is finally published. 

3. GENERAL LEDGER — will follow Accounts Payable and Accounts 
Receivable, scheduled for completion this fall. 

Each book sells for $15, and includes source listings in Wang BASIC, program 
and system documentation, and user's manual. Each is a complete package by it- 
self, or all three may be implemented together to form a complete system with 
interdependent files. 

And if Wang BASIC won't work, or you don't know programming, or you'd 
rather not key in thousands of words of source code*, take a look at the list of 
consultants who have adopted O&A programs, converted them to run on many 
popular systems, and are waiting to hear from you. 
•Wang listings available from Osborne & Associates on cassette or hard disk. 

GOOD NEWS FOR CONSULTANTS, COMPUTER STORES AND SYSTEMS 

HOUSES 

Osborne & Associates is converting its business systems from Wang BASIC — as it was originally 
published — to CP/M CBASIC. which runs on many floppy disk-based microcomputer systems 
The disks for each book sell for $250. Once you buy the floppy disk you can copy il. resell it. change 
it or use it. We place no restriction on the magnetic surface; we copyright only the printed word in 
our books. 

We will only sell the CP/M magnetic surface to consultants, computer stores and systems houses 
Osborne & Associates prefers to write and sell books, not customize the programs or answer int- 
end users questions CBASIC PAYROLL should be available in August— contact us for exact 
availability and more policy information. 
If you are an end user, write or call us. We will put you in touch with your closest dealer. 



BASIC Business Program Conversions 

\lpha-Mierns>slem: 
Scon Brim. President 
COMPUTER sysii MS I or BUSINESS IN< 

i stm Sinus Avenue, las \.-ius \v x<)|ii? 

Digital (.roup svstem: 

John MusKt 

Ml SGROVI I S(,l\l ERING 

s>s.|7 Kindlelrec Drive hVwHOD. IX 77040 
Mils 4.1 B\M< : 

Willi.im K II 

\\M OM (.1 Nl KM CORPORAMflN 

1 160 East Ash Wnue. h'ulk-ilon. CA W6JI 
Microsoft disk B\SU 

Dan Kindred 

(,N \l ( OMIM'II RS 

I >mov ( ourl San DiefO. C "V **^ 1 1 1 
Want B\SI< . \ ininia lax svslein 

Kkh.inl M \rmour 

\ll win COMF1 lisi, ANDCONSUI IIV. 

1 MM Sparrow Rod) * V • ,,, 2 1 ' 

\ trior l.raphic. Polimorphic. Southwest. 
Cromemeo and \oval systems: 

I \IL-n Whedon President 

( OMPU1 \l 1 CORPORATION 

K V>ulh Harbor Blvd . Santa Ana. ( I 
( T/M (BASIC, and Vlann BASH' on cassette, 
hard disk, or t'P/M eompalible diskettes: 

Mai 

(ISBtlRNI A \SSIH IATI S IN< 
I'll Bos ?(>V Berk 
Dee (PI)P-lll: 

Oregon DeRovt 

Ml< Ro RAM \ssik. I MIS 

I7H Windward Way » 204. Columbus oil 4WM 

MIC'ROFII.E: 

Clarcnee M 

( OMPUTER II 1 ( IRoM< MODI S IV 

KNH S Mil - Suite .'ltd 

Wheeling. II NNtsH) 
Texas Instruments TV1S*°IMI 
MOB Teehiwl«f> UK: 

David Michael 

Till IP ASSOCIATI s 

PO Bos r. Iluahesvillc. MD -I*" 
Alpha BASH : 

Chariea Portwood 

PAN I'M II It COMPt II R < OMPAN1 

2270 Ahamele Place, Honolulu III %»?l 
IBM MM: 
M.irk Sherm.m 
DM \ WORKS 

ID WaCkCf Drue Suite JS 
CMcaap. II dOWII 



These prices effective July 1 . 1 978. 



6001 Volume — The Beginner' s Book 



2001 Volume I — Basic Concepts 



3001 A Volume « — Some Real Products 



4001 8080 Programming for Logic Design 



5001 6800 Programmaig for Logic Design 



7001 Z80 Programming for Logic Design 



31003 8080A/8085 Assembly Language Programming 



32003 6800 Assembly Language Programming 



21002 Some Common BASIC Programs 



22002 Payroll With Cost Accounting 



PRICE 



$ 7 95 



$ 8.50 



$15.00 



$ 8 50 



$ 8.50 



$ 8.50 



$ 850 



$ 8.50 



$ 8.50 



$15.00 



23002 Accounts Payable and Accounts Receivable 



$15.00 



QTY 



AMT 



f\ OSBORNE & ASSOCIATES. INC. 
^ J P.O. Box 2036 DEPT. L6 
Berkeley. California 94702 



1415) 548 2805 
TWX 910 366-7277 



STATE 

SHIPPING CHARGES: 



ZIP PHONE 

Shipping for large orders to be arranged 



TOTAL 



Sales Tax 
(Calif residents only) 



• 6Vt%. SF Bay Area residents only 
.6%. California residents outside SF Bay Area 

• Payment by check or money order 

must be enclosed for order* of Shippmg Charges 

10 books or toss. TOTAL AMOUNT ENCLOSED 



D AH foreign orders. $3.00 per book, for air shipment 

D 4th class $0.35 per book laeow 3-4 weeks within USA. not applicable to 

discounted orders) 
D $0.75 per book. UPS (stow 10 days) in the U.S. 
D $1.50 per book, special rush shipment by air in the U.S. 
Please send information on: 
O Becoming an O&A dealer 
Q School discounts 
O List of foreign distributors 

•This book is scheduled to be published during 1978 

Please notify me when it is available: 

Q 24002 General Ledger pg 



CIRCLE 117 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Simulation and Gaming 
References 

DIRECTORIES OF SIMULATIONS AND GAMES 

Directories contain descriptions and complete bibliographic Information 
for purchase. The three cited here are the most comprehsnelve. 

Belch, Jean. Contemporary Games. Detroit: Gale Research Company. 
1973. Descriptions of 900 gaming devices in a variety of subject areas 
at all levels of education. This 560 page directory sells for $35. 

Horn. Robert E. . The Guide to Simulation Games (third edition). Cran- 
ford. New Jersey: Didactic Systems. 1976. 

This directory is published in three versions: 
academic games only, 500 pages, $24 
business games only, 100 pages, $12 
combined academic and business games, 600 pages, $27 

It Includes user comments and other Information for selecting, using, 
and evaluating simulation and gaming materials. 

Stadsklev, Ron. Handbook of simulation Gaming In Social Education 
(Part IT: Directory). University. Alabama: The University of Ala- 
bama, Institute of Higher Education Research and Services, 1975. 

This 350 page directory describes 700 simulations and games In the 
area of social sciences and studies. In this area It Is the most com- 
plete directory available. It sells for $12. 

ORGANIZATIONS 

There are several organizations that, in addition to publishing gaming 
materials, offer services to game users. Three of these are listed below. 

North American Simulation and G.iming Association (NANAG \), formerly 
called the Nntion.il Gaming Council. This organization's membership la 
composed of Interested individuals representing all areas and disciplines 
in which g.iming i< used, both ednc.ition.il enuring nrrd noii-edric.itiorr.il 
gaming. Membership fees are $5. 00 per year. NASAGA c/o COMIX, 
University of Southern California, University Park, Lot Angeles, Cali- 
fornia 90007. 

Simulation and Gaming Association (SAGA). Membership is composed 
primnrily of teachers at all levels, but is open to anyone Interested in i d- 
ucntinnn! gaming. SAGA publishes ,r quarterly journal nrrd produces sev- 
eral simulations and instructional games. It also feature! a sharing and 
consulting service for teachers. Membership is $5.00 per year, simula- 
tion and Gaming Association, 48.13 Grccntree Road, Lebanon, Ohio 45036. 

Simulation Sharing Service (SSS). Membership is composed prlnrarily of 
those interested in tire use of gamirrg techniques in Christian education. 
Tire organisation publishes a newsletter as well as serving as a consultant 
for those interested in religious gaming. Membership is $5.00 per year. 
Simulation Sharing Service, 221 Wiley Street. Morgantown, West Virginia 
36505. 

Zcplryros I durational Exchange. This organization is composed of U achers 
and parents who write and print activity books and games. M< mbcrships 
arc $10.00 per year. For this fee members receive two 2-Boxcscach eon- 
Ulttblg books, magazines, and games; a real bargain. Their catalog ,,nd 
membership information may be obtained by writing to Zephyro- lUnea- 
tlonal Exchange, 1201 SCanyan street, San Francisco, California 0-1117. 

PERIODICALS 

Of the available journals, these cited here are among tin most useful. 



SAGA lonrnal. This periodical r> the quarterly publication of the Simula- 
tion and Gaming Associaiion cited in die previous section. Yearly mem- 
bership rate is $f>. 00 per year and this journal is part of the membership 
fei . For Information write to SAGA, 4833 Grccntree Road. Lebanon, Ohio 
•tr.O.'Vi. 



Simulation and Games: An International Journal of Theory, Design and 
Research. This quarterly journal emphasizes research studies and articles 
on gaming theory. The yearly subscription rate is $18. 00. Sage Publica- 
tion', 27.. South Bcvctly Drive. Beverly IBUs, California 90212. 

Simulation/Gaming. Tills is a bi-monthly publication dealing with nearly 
every aspect of simulations altd games. It fcatutes reviews, research, cur- 
rent issues, and a great variety of reports and articles. Subscription tate 
is $C. 00 per year. It is a must for anyone interested in gaming. Simula- 
tion/Gaming, P.O. Box 3039. University Station, Moscow. Idaho 83843. 

strategy and Tactics. This bi-monthly magazine deals exclusively with 
conflict simulations and features military history articles, game design 
articles, and a conflict simulation hi each issue. Cost is $14. 00 pet yeat. 
Available from Simulations Publications. 44 E. 23td Street, New York, 
New York 10010. 



COMPANIES AND CATALOGS 

Nearly every company In the publishing field offers some simulations or 
games in their respective catalogs. A complete listing is beyond die In- 
tent of this book. However, the several companies cited below are among 
the best and deal almost exclusively with gaming materials. 

Damon/Educational Division. This company distributes a number of ele- 
mentary and secondary simulations and games In the areas of mathematics, 
science, and ecology. You may obtain a free catalog of their materials 
by writing to Damon/Educational Division, 80 Wilson Way, Westwood, 
Massachusetts 02090. 

Educational Manpower, Inc. (EMI). This is a company that distributes 
simulations, games, and multi-media materials from a variety of publish- 
ers. You may write and obtain a free elementary school level catalog or 
their catalog of junior high to college level materials. This is an excel- 
lent source for seeing what gaming materials are available. EMI. Box 
4272-F, Madison, Wisconsin 53711. 

Fearon Publishers. This company produces and distributes a great variety 
of books containing games fot primary, intermediate, and junior high stu- 
dents. Some of their more popular titles include Games Students Like to 
Play, 30 Math Games for Elementary, and Science Games. You may ob- 
tain a free catalog of their publications by writing to Leaf sieglcr, Inc. , 
Fearon Publishers, 6 Davis Drive, Belmont, California 94002. 

Games Central. TWt company produces and distributes gaming materials 
as well as offering consulting services about gaming. You may obtain a 
free catalog of thelt materials by writing Games Central. 55 Wheeler 
Street, Cambridge. Massachusetts 02138. 

INTERACT. This company limits its activities to producing and distrl- 
butlngslmulations that are generally of the extended-play type. You may 
obtain a free catalog of their matetials by wtlting INTERACT, P.O. Box 
262, Lakeside, California 92040. 

Metagaming Concepts. This company produces and distributes a number 
of science fiction and fantasy simulations. These are discounted for those 
who subscribe to their publication entitled Space Gamer. You may obtain 
a free catalog of thelt simulations by writing Metagaming Concepts. Box 
15346. Austin. Texas 78761. 

Simile XL. This company produces and distribute- simulations and games 
as well as offering workshops and consulting services. You may obtain a 
free copy catalog of their materials by writing simile n, 218 12th Street. 
P.O. Box 910. Del Mar. California 92014. 

Social Studies School Service. This company distributes simulations, 
games, multi-media and print material from a variety of producen of so- 
cial science materials. You may write for a free elementary catalog or 
their catalog of junior high to college level materials. This is an excel- 
lent source for seeing what gaming materials ate available. Wtlte to So- 
cial Studies School Service, Dept. 87, 10, 000 Culver Boulevard. P.O. 
Box 802, Culver City, California 90230. 

Rcprinlcd from Oosjjn far Own Game. 2nd Edition by McLean and Raymond The 
Srmularion and Gamin| Assn . 4M.1 Grecnrree Rd.. Lebanon. OH 4J03«. 



82 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




Si 



Computer Stores 



BYTE SHOP 3 OF SAN JOSE 

COMPUTER STORE 

ft»5ttE-fl'hS!«M? 

mM&.tfi)mm'4>l£ (2626 Union Ave, a J. 

ca95i24) •m&mmfrffiiB'&tfimm » ,n-w*^ 

SifJf^^:*lt5lBe,i»1« f «408-377-4685«RAY LYN 
(#) PWNER ) >1fe3m#f*r— W^ft- • ^# 
Hardware. Software For Micro Computers. 
BHJSMSJf Oft-t) (Offer Classes) 
■IWTJlfcJim • *»«lt 5 % 



CIRCLE 175 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




COMPUTER 



HARDWARE 

STORE IMC. 

DtNilers for: 

APPLE II. IMSAI 

VECTOR GRAPHIC. KIM 1 

TECHNICO. OAE 

CYBERNEX, JIM PAK 

TERMINALS. PRINTERS 

BUSINESS SYSTEMS. BOOKS 

SOFTWARE AND MUCH MORE 



CATALOGUE AVAILABLE 



8 1 8 Franklin Street 9 West Cary Street 
Alexandria. Virginia Richmond Virginia 
(703) 548 8085 (804) 780 0348 



CIRCLE 176 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



I THE ELECTRONICS PLACE * 



• * * Vector Graphics 

***S WT PC 

* * * Cromemco 
# * • Kim-1 

* * * North Star 



! 

I 

• • * Tarbell 
i 
Sale* A Service, Magazines 4 Books i 

7250 McKmght Road 

Pittsburgh. Pa 15237 

(412) 367-2900 



K^fe^^^fei^^^^-^fe^fe^^^v^^j^^v^v^fe^v^fe^v^fe^^^^^v^v^fe^v^fe^ 



CIRCLE 177 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





VIRGINIA 


HOM 




CENTER 


DEC 


2927 Va Beach Blvd. 


Apple 


Va. Beach. VA 23452 


Vector Graphics (804) 340-1977 


TDL 




Polymorph 


ic 


RCA 




Processor Technology 


North Star 




Digital Systems „„ ,., , _, 
Persci 12588 Warwick Blvd 




Newport News. VA 23606 




(804) 595-1955 



COMPUTERS PLUS 
INC. 

678 S. Pickett St. 
Alexandria, VA 22304 




Ask for Bob or Dan. 
Northern Virginia's 
Newest and Finest 
Microcomputer Store 

(703) 751-5656 




tn A GtlAT M0 COMPtrrO WOtlD 

the 

COMPUTER COKNEt 

• MX. -<NmOmIiHM 



• WHY M 

•TDL 1*0 



• Computv took Sorwoa 

• Fui \.n a) Mtauna 

• Stmt Gama* b Pwutao 

• WwUtiopt b Club H<«n»tori 



Van TMt COWPUTin OONNIR lor •• row 

compular rtoodrj Slap m and brOMXO - roy'l BM) out 



THE COMPUTER CORNER 
Whit* Plain* Mall - Upper Laval 

200 Hamilton Avervua 
Whit* Plain., New York 10601 

T«4: 1114) WHY -DATA 

Ampit Parting 

KMOaiyftSMutawr 

10-a Thundiy 



CIRCLE 133 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



P Personal 
Computer 
Corporation 

We know EDUCATION 
We know COMPUTERS 
We have, on the premises 

• FULL TIME SERVICES. 

REPAIR 

• FULL TIME PROGRAMMING 

We Accept: 

Master Charge 
BankAmencard 
Purchase Orders 



ASK FOR 



EVERETT 

DAVE 

ED 



FOR ALL 

YOUR MICROCOMPUTER 

REQUIREMENTS 

Frazer Mall. Rtes 30 & 352 

Malvern, PA 19355 

Phone: (215)647-8463 



CIRCLE 178 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 179 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 180 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Personal Computers at the 
University of Michigan 

and An Assessment 

of Potential Impact 



At the University of Michigan's 
Center for Research on Learning and 
Teaching (CRLT) we are examining the 
impact of microcomputers and per- 
sonal computing on college learning 
and teaching activities. We define 
personal computing broadly to include 
all systems that personalize or in- 
dividualize in any useful way: portable 
hardware, task-oriented software, 
user-defined interface, and so on. 
However, we are particularly interested 
in the impact of inexpensive, single- 
user computer systems backed up by 
computer-to-computer com- 
munications. 

In the first part of this informal report 
we describe uses of single-user, per- 
sonalized systems at the University of 
Michigan. Simulations and instruc- 
tional games have been transferred 
from the central timesharing system to 
make them more accessible to 
students, including opportunities to 
modify programs and create new ones. 
A non-credit course providing literacy 
in personal and home computing has 
been designed. Word processing has 
been made available to selected 
students, and the impact on writing and 
communications activities has been 
examined. Although information 
management aids have not yet been 
transferred to the single-user 
microcomputer, problem-solving aids 
have been provided in desk-top 
machines for laboratory and special 
project activities. 

Then we discuss the implications of 
the new technologies for improving 
access to higher education. Inexpen- 
sive but capable computers will play a 
key role in extending and personal- 
izing access to higher education, 
especially for non-traditional learners. 

Personal computing is not new, but it 
does need reinterpretation and reas- 
sessment. For some years at Dart- 
mouth College all students have been 

Karl L. Zinn, Center for Research on Learning and 
Teaching, University of Michigan. Ann Arbor. Ml 
48104. 



Karl L. Zinn 



assumed to be computer users; the 
computing center ID is the same as the 
student ID and is valid from enroll- 
ment to graduation. At the University of 
California at Irvine computing exer- 
cises are part of many courses, and it is 
quite common for students not 
enrolled in a course also to use its 
computing exercises just as they 
borrow library books purchased by the 
library for other courses. At the Univer- 
sity of Michigan students have been 
given experience with software design- 
ed especially for handling personal- 
note files, problem-solving proced- 
ures, and class communications. 

In one sense the micro- 
computer is only a 
cheaper version of the 
minicomputer. 

The commercial push to sell per- 
sonal computers for home use (in- 
cluding education) is already evident. 
Ads are common on television and in 
popular magazines. They are directed 
at families as well as small businesses, 
appealing to personal interests as well 
as professional. Some approach per- 
sonal computing via games and enter- 
tainment, others via programmable 
calculators, and some as small- 
business systems. All these kinds of 
personal computers will very likely be 
purchased for a large number of 
homes. Such computers could be very 
helpful in educational and professional 
activities; at the University of Michigan 
we attempt to anticipate the machines 
yet to be designed which will serve well 
these multiple purposes. 

Microcomputers in Teaching at U-M 

Microprocessors and microcom- 
puter systems are popping up all over 
the campus in educational 
applications. We find this a natural 
evolution from the use of minicom- 



84 



puters in laboratories and teaching 
situations. In one sense the microcom- 
puter is only a cheaper version of the 
minicomputer, approximating all or 
most of its capabilities. But the 
microcomputers also appear in ter- 
minals called "intelligent'' because of 
the local computer logic and memory. 
This permits processing activities 
previously done entirely on the 
timesharing system to be done locally, 
in part. 

Word processing is a good instance 
of computing which is burdensome on 
the timesharing system, so is moving to 
an intelligent terminal. Early word- 
processing systems could not match 
the central computer system in power, 
particularly for preparation of 
proposals, reports and other lengthy 
documents. However, today's 
microcomputer-based systems can do 
as well in most areas and much better 
in some. Current equipment offers very 
much more than the central system in 
ease of formatting and in quality of and 
control over output. Some word- 
processing installations are using the 
timesharing system for text manipula- 
tion that might better be done on a 
stand alone or satellite system. On the 
other hand, an inexpensive, remote 
terminal which can do visual-mode 
editing (that is, is intelligent) will open 
up timesharing capabilities to many 
more users. 

Students report a number of benefits 
of computer-assisted text preparation. 
The following comment is typical. "I 
have been an extensive user of the 
word processor for everything from a 
thesis and legal briefs to poetry. It is an 
invaluable tool. It provides a visually 
attractive (and impressive) finished 
copy. It encourages me to polish my 
work (it takes the pain out of going 
back to get it just right). Also I am more 
likely to work further on a project after 
the teacher has critiqued it. This tool 
makes written work more fun! At a time 
of declining communications skills, 
this may be the major advantage." 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Microcomputers in the Lab 

Microcomputers are used by many 
labs as part of the instrumentation for 
research purposes. Students working 
with such equipment in the sciences 
and engineering gain important 
educational experience. In addition, 
the students enjoy increasing use of 
microcomputers in regular labs where 
they wouldn't be needed for instrumen- 
tation. Micros are also being used in 
Biophysics and Biochemistry. CRLT 
(the Center for Research on Learning 
and Teaching) is involved in planning 
activities for courses in Natural 
Resources, Biology, and Psychology. 
Virtually all of the sciences will be 
affected. 

For example, a program was 
prepared by William Powers to 
demonstrate the use of microcom- 
puters in a hospital. It models the 
effects of an anticoagulant drug used 
with surgery (warfarin dosage 
strategies and the prothrombin com- 
plex activity). The model fits easily in 
an 8K PET 2001 and reads patient 
data from cassette tape. Each 
(hypothetical) patient has a file con- 
taining full name and a listing of 
parameters associated with the kin- 
etics of warfarin in his or her system. 
These parameters, individual to each 
patient, are determined by another 
program which writes the data tape. 
Presently the program is used to 
simulate hospital data and dosage 
experience, as well as to explore 
models. Figure 1 shows a dosage 
strategy which does not bring the 
prothrombin complex activity down 
fast enough, and Figure 2 overdoes it. 
Prospects for use of many such aids in 
hospitals and clinics are very good. 

Another example comes from the 
psychology lab. Students are given a 
program on a TRS-80 or PET 2001 that 




1 *%&?** *»«*•«« •" 



want to v-w 



i «p.*ct««'» **• 



.-,«,« random •#4C^ 

•LlMt- or 'TOT*' r *"** ■*"""• , °'" L 




Figure 1 

SEPT/OCT 1978 



Figure 2 



Figure 3 

presents stimuli and records data for 
simple perception and reaction time 
experiments. They are encouraged to 
revise the program to vary the ex- 
periments beyond the limits of the 
preprogrammed logic and parameters. 
The cost of the microcomputer is 
equivalent to that for other lab equip- 
ment. Electricity and maintenance are 
about the same as that for an office 
typewriter. Economy in use is very 
important for lengthy studies and 
experimentation by undergraduates. 
The software of a general-purpose 
micro provides good control of the 
screen display and timing. Figure 3 
shows the appearance of one of the 
reaction time displays (programmed 
by Diane Sallade) with feedback to the 
subject in the experiment. 

The introductory chemistry lab now 
includes computer assistance through 
a dozen PETs and more will arrive 
before this article is printed. Our 
chemistry faculty have for a long time 
been interested in applications of the 
PLATO Computer-based Education 
System and others which provide 
useful graphics with lab simulations. 
However, until the cost was low 
enough to serve over a thousand 
students they were not interested. 
Micros make that possible. Half a 
dozen programs have been prepared 
by William Butler and Henry Griffin 
which make good use of graphics, 
simple animations, and interaction 
with the student users. A snapshot of 
the titration experiment is shown in 
Figure 4. Conversation between 
program and student takes place in a 
"window" with the animation con- 
tinuing elsewhere on the screen. 
Graphics on the PET are limited, but 
sufficient to this purpose. Control of 
when and where information appears 
on the screen is used well. 



85 



Simulation 

Simulations have even wider spread 
of application. The benefits are well 
known: cost saving, time saving, risk 
reducing, etc. In addition to 
simulations in each of the science 
laboratories listed above, CRLT is 
working with people in political 
science, sociology, education and 
history. The machine is available 
whenever its owner decides to use it 
since no telephone connection is 
necessary to obtain the computing 
power. The graphics are immediate 
and easily projected. These and other 
characteristics contribute to 
qualitative differences in the use of 
personal computers in simulation. 

Instructional Games 

Instructional games form a category 
separate from that of simulation. Well 
designed instructional games have a 
favorable history at the University of 
Michigan, particularly in business, 
sociology and education. Games 
become more interesting and potential- 
ly more valuable when they have a 
computer component. The computer 
handles complexity, control, conceal- 
ment, randomness, and records. 
Games on microcomputers today are 
mostly of the arcade variety. However, 
faculty members are working on en- 
joyable drills for improving language 
skills or fun games which stimulate use 
of encyclopedias and other reference 
works. In the meantime, adult learners 
are having a good time with games 
written for the Commodore PET for 
kids. 

In one interesting game program- 
med by Brad Compton, the student 
is given the task of moving his vehicle 
through a succession of hostile 
regions. The motion is in part random, 
and in part under the control of the 



.IBfcr* 



P?UoWSu„. 

Rill I ?3 SWAM-*™. 




Figure 4 



Michigan con't .... 

student. In one version of the game, the 
vehicle is an inert molecule which 
might be consumed by a reactive agent 
in any hostile region. The player needs 
to infer the behavior of the membranes 
between the regions (when the 
molecule will be permitted to pass) and 
the agent (when the reactive molecule 
will move toward the inert one). In this 
game, one student plays against the 
computer. To obtain discussion of the 
method, a second student is invited to 
tutor the first in how best to play the 
game. Each student has a chance to 
change the rules stored in the com- 
puter program, and test the ability of 
his or her friend to infer the new rules. 



Games become more in- 
teresting and poten- 
tially more valuable 
when they have a com- 
puter component. The 
computer handles com- 
plexity, control, con- 
cealment, randomness, 
and records. 



An electric game of tag (also by 
Brad Compton and adapted by CRLT 
for science education) gives two players 
control of spaceships moving about 
within a rather dense array of barriers. 
However, some points in the walls 
actually are "doors" providing instant 
access to other points in the array. In 
the complex version the players need 
to infer the rules of instantaneous 
transport via these "spacewarps" to 
move quickly and predictably about 
the space. Sometimes the warp factor 
changes a characteristic of the 
spaceship (direction, power, or 
reliability) as well as the location. The 
complexity of the game can be varied 
from simple, robot-like exploration to 
highly competitive games requiring 
quick learning of the hidden pattern of 
spacewarps and conversions. Again, 
the students are invited to change the 
rules as a further test of understanding 
and to challenge friends to play. All the 
games, although fanciful, are to be 
used by Carl Berger in science educa- 
tion to introduce and then probe basic 
concepts of theory, models and ex- 
perimentation. 

Tutorial Use - A New Possibility 

Tutorial use of computers, par- 
ticularly in the programmed instruction 
mode, has not been encouraged by 
CRLT for the University of Michigan. 
For most of the University students this 
approach does not give enough control 



over the pace and style of learning. 
Furthermore, the computer terminal, 
telephone line, processing and storage 
are better used for other kinds of 
computer-based learning activity. 
However, inexpensive and personal 
computers may change this. If students 
owning personal $300 computers can 
buy a cassette providing something 
equivalent to the old "College Outline 
Series," then the University and its 
faculty need to consider the use of 
microcomputers for tutorials, at least 
for remediation. One faculty member is 
already providing some math study 
aids through microcomputers. 

Many other ways of using computers 
would have to be listed if this were to be 
a complete list. At least one more must 
be mentioned, probably the most 
important of all. Training in computer 
use has been advanced in a significant 
way by the introduction of microcom- 
puters. CRLT is not at the moment 
concerned about Computer Science or 
Computer Engineering, but about 
education for applications in other 
areas: graphics in engineering, linear 
programming in business, information 
systems in law, patient records in 
medicine, class records in education, 
etc. These are only some of the places 
where faculty members are working on 
demonstration exercises or writing 
materials for computer education 
regarding micros in the professions or 
disciplines. In addition, CRLT has 
designed a non-credit course in com- 
puter use and programming built 
around an inexpensive, personal com- 
puter available through the local com- 
puter stores. 

Implications for Planning and 
Research 

CRLT is helping various units in the 
University plan for new uses of com- 
puting in teaching and learning. We 
describe four points of current plan- 
ning at the University of Michigan, and 
research implications for 
microprocessors and personal com- 
puting. 

1. We cannot extrapolate from 
(typical) computing in higher educa- 
tion. A revolution is going on that will 
put computing into everyone's home. 
Computing in higher education has 
been based on expensive equipment of 
rather limited scope. We are not willing 
to make simple extrapolations from 
experiences with equipment and 
procedures which led us to consider 
computer efficiency more important 
than learner convenience. Most 
research on CAI used systems that 
have been made obsolete by a revolu- 
tion in microelectronics. Restrictive 
terminals and slow data rates provided 
only a small window on the capabilities 
of computer aids to learning. New 
research will be done in a context that 



is different in qualitative and quan- 
titative ways. 

Computing equipment will be 
available in much larger numbers. 
Higher education will enjoy the use of 
1,000 times more personal computers 
than we now have timesharing ter- 
minals. Many of these personal devices 
will have a communicating option so 
that they can talk with other personal 
computers directly and with timeshar- 
ing computers. 

Computing equipment will be much 
more responsive. The design of per- 
sonal computers makes possible more 
rapid data rates, and this facilitates 
graphics and sound and other modes 
of communication between computer 
program and the user. 

Personal control of computing 
equipment will be a factor in increased 
use in education. Systems will be 
personalized for convenience, and also 
gain certain intangible characteristics 
associated with being owned and 
entirely under one's own control. 

Computing will be common in every- 
day life. Not only will people know 
about computers and their uses; 
access to timesharing systems and 
single-user machines will be common 
for personal use. Home entertainment 
and budget planning are certain to be 
among the applications; education and 
information retrieval applications are 
likely also if personal computers can be 
coupled with the large but inexpensive 
storage capabilities of videodiscs or 
their equivalent. 

2. Anticipating future capabilities and 
discontinuities is important. What will 
be the impact of new technologies on 
education? 

We are conducting an assessment of 
the impact of microcomputers and 
telecommunications on education. 
Interviews, scenario generation and 
interpretive modelling shed some light 
on what makes a good application of 
new technologies. 

A list of some of the questions of 
social implications for planners to 
consider is given below. 

Impact on the learner. What will be 
the impact of microcomputers and 
video information systems as tools for 
student learning? What new intellec- 
tual skills will students need to have in 
order to use the new technologies? 
Which skills will become much more 
important because of use of the new 
technologies? How will attitudes 
change regarding the technology 
employed, the topics studied, 
knowledge in general, sources of 
information, interaction with peers, 
etc.? 

Impact on the teacher. What will be 
the impact of satellite and optical-fibre 
communications on access to current 
information and resource people? 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



How will improved ac- 
cess to good informa- 
tion affect the role of 
educational institutions 
in society? 



What changes in the role of the 
professor will be appropriate to the 
new technologies? How will these 
changes for the professor be different 
in various disciplines or kinds of 
institutions? What will be the impact of 
improved access to excellent lectures 
on standards for educational materials, 
including live lectures as well as 
packaged materials? How will im- 
proved access to good information 
affect the role of educational in- 
stitutions in society? 

Impact on the scholar. What dif- 
ficulties will arise as telecom- 
munications replace or extend face-to- 
face communications? How will 
telecommunications change the 
professional meetings of scholars and 
teachers? What will be the impact on 
environments for scholarly work and 
professional training? How will the 
speed of information exchange and the 
pace of electronic publication affect 
the quality of scholarly work? 

Impact on the learning community. 
Will community centers assume more 
of the delivery of education, not only 
through community colleges perse but 
in regional centers of universities? 
How will telecommunications (and 
energy costs) change educational 
travel and campus life? In what ways 
can electronic storage and transmis- 
sion replace or extend vocal com- 
munication? 

The major directions of new 
technology in education are shaped by 
economic, social and political factors. 
However, the benefits of such changes 
can be enhanced through careful 
attention to desirable faculty roles, 
improved student preparation and 
more humane applications of tech- 
nology. Furthermore, if planners can 
successfully anticipate negative side 
effects of technology, they will help 
reduce the undesirable impact, for 
example, on values, on social ex- 
periences, and throughout a lifetime of 
learning. 

3. As computing becomes more 
available and personalized, it becomes 
increasingly useful to the student as a 
scholar. Using the computer as a 
scholarly tool, the student moves more 
easily into a community of scholars 
and learners. 

Initial uses of microcomputers at the 
University are simply extensions of 
what has been successful with the 

SEPT/OCT 1978 



timesharing system. Simulations 
become more available to students, 
and easier for them to modify. Earlier 
we listed examples from political 
science, sociology, history and educa- 
tion. Instructional games are being 
adapted for micros in the areas of 
business and natural resources. 
Remediation and other tutorial ac- 
tivities become practical for large 
numbers of students. Some work is in 
progress in math and language skills. 
Applications essential to the discipline 
or profession are becoming more 
popular: graphics in aerospace 
engineering, linear programming in 
business, information systems in law, 
patient records in medicine, class 
records in education, and so on. 

Dramatically lower costs lead to 
rethinking what is useful to do with 
computers. CRLT is providing access 
to readily used word processing 
through micros, and examining the 
impact on students, assignments, 
grading, job seeking, and other aspects 
of student and professional life. In- 
creased student research has been 
facilitated, and not just in computer 
science and computer engineering. 
Lab instrumentation and complex 
computation aids have been im- 
plemented for chemistry, biology, 
biochemistry and biophysics 
(medicine). Information handling and 
analysis is common in chemical 
engineering, economics and psy- 
chology. 

Many of these applications are self- 
justifying; professors and others mak- 
ing decisions about how to use 
resources need only see the positive 
changes in curriculum brought about 
through computer assistance. In some 
disciplines, equipment will be acquired 
as any other equipment is purchased 
for laboratories, or recommended for 
student purchase as are calculators 
(previously, slide rules) and dic- 
tionaries. However, some of the 
changes will be so dramatic as to 
require more careful attention: 
deliberation by curriculum panels, 
reviews by technical experts, and 
assessment by teams of social scien- 
tists. We expect adoption by students 
to continue regardless. 

4. The implications of personal com- 
puting for higher education will be 
dramatic, even to the extent of hasten- 
ing the demise of some institutions! 

A shift in the responsibility for 
learning will come about, in part as a 
result of improved access to informa- 
tion and information processing. 
Authors and course designers will set 
general guidelines, confident that 
students find considerable assistance 
in computer processing of text or 
models, as well as through improved 
learning skills apart from computers. 



87 



How can institutions sur- 
vive these changes, and 
which institutions 
should not survive? 



But what skills need to be improved, 
and what new skills will be required? 
The advantage which the professor 
holds over the student in terms of 
knowledge and skills as a result of 
many more years of study and direct 
contact with others expert in the 
discipline will be reduced. Students 
will access more information directly 
than has been possible with book 
formats for typical learners. Computer 
aids will assist where study skills are 
lacking, and even sharpen those skills 
and promote new ones. How will the 
roles of professor and student be 
altered? 

Impact of computing and telecom- 
munications on continuing and adult 
education will be considerable. Initially 
the professional person with a need for 
more information (and recertification) 
will find considerable assistance in 
computer-based media systems 
(videodisc is particularly attractive). 
Eventually this will extend to all of adult 
education. What will be the impact of 
colleges and universities of various 
kinds? How can institutions survive 
these changes, and which institutions 
should not survive? 

These and other changes are being 
explored in our study of the impact of 
microcomputers and telecom- 
munications. We welcome your par- 
ticipation. ■ 




•creative computing 












a = i o -e.9 



...» 



MM»«.. M 



^ 






^ 



• • • * 

cc 







Bumowski 

John Lansdown 

GUMOWSKI is written in BASICfora 
Tektronix 4051 which may be of 
interest to readers who have systems 
able to plot random points. The 
algorithm is based on work by J. 
Gumowski and C. Mira who, in fact, 
discovered the art potential by acci- 
dent during their work on control 
theory, and the interesting principles 
should be more widely known. This is 
described in their paper. "Point Se- 
quences Generated by Two-dimen- 
sional Recurrences." Information Pro- 
cessing 74. pages 851-855, North 
Holland Publishing Company. 

As you see from the examples, slight 
changes in the parameters make very 
great changes to the output 

The program should be fairly self- 
evident with the following notes: 
Line 

100 initializes the system 
110 clears the screen 
120-150 set the screen window with 0,0 

in the center 
160-180 set initial values of the 

variables 
190-210 call for and echo the input of 

parameters 
220 holds the temporary value of old X 
230 calculates the new X 
240 calculates the new Y (using the old 

and the new values of X, so don't 

be tempted to calculate the last 

part of the expressions in a 

different way) 



John Lansdown 
Computer Arts Society 
50-51 Russell Square 
London WC1B 4JX 
England 



»••••••»•«•• 



100 
110 
126 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
ISO 
190 
200 
202 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
290 
300 
310 
328 
330 
340 



INIT 

PAGE 

F-8 8 

READ U1,U2,U3.N4 

DATA -65,65,-50,58 

WINDOW W1*F,W2*F,W3*F,W4*F 

1 = 1 

X=l 

Y=l 

PRINT "INPUT A AND C :"; 

INPUT A,C 

PAGE 

PRINT "A = ";a; m C= ";c 

s«x 

X=A*Y+C*X*2*X*X*(1-C>'<1+X*X> 

Y=-S+C*X+2*X*X*<1-C>/(1+X*X> 

M0UE X.Y 

RH0UE 0,0.1 

RDRAW -0.1,-0.2 

RDRAW 0.2,0 

RDRAW -0.1,0.2 

1 = 1 + 1 

IF I > 1500 THEN 330 

GO TO 220 

HOME 

END 



m = Q.8 C= -8.9 



1 
* 



.* 



*••*• 3-*. 



;/-• 



/JV-w. "**• 
/ .y f x ^ 



-••.•>-• 



88 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 






O -0.925 



... \7v ,*! 
• -v. .* • ;••;> 






.** 



*f 






• •• .• 

% • • • 






• • • 



i • 

.in 



.i 



*» • 



• • • % 'f . • 



-;».♦ 

•» 



•*• • • 



• • ■ * 

V- J-.*" 



/ .' .. ft. 






6 



A = 1 O -0.89 

. r *-* •• . 



• 


• 


» 

• 


• 


.• 


• 


< 


1 • 

•• 


* 


• 


•V 


-.• 




• 


% 


* 


1 










. 


% 




• 


• 


i 

• 
• 




• •* 




• 


• 


•#*' 


V 


.-# 


• 
• 
* 


• « 


* •• 


^ 




i 


• 


». 

• 


• 


• 


« 

* • 


• 


>•• 

* • • 


«, •« 
« • • 

mm 


• 


•< 
• < 


:-... 


• 


• 


• 
* 

4 


• 


i 




• • *. 


4 


• 


• i 


1 












• 


;i 


. 


• • 


# 

# 


• 


• 


* 
• 


V 






.•* 



•m m* • .• • • . •»•••%• 

• '. . • * ' •> 






> • • 












« 






0.9 O -0-5 



250 moves the cursor to the calculated 

point 
260-290 draws a little triangle 
300 increments the count 
310 checks if the count exceeds 1500 
320 returns to line 220 if the plot isn't 

finished 

It isn't possible (for me. at least) to 
predict the form of output but varying A 
seems to change the basic shape of the 
plot whilst varying C seems to alter 
details. A should be kept less than or 
equal to 1 . F is used to scale the output. 

The more points plotted the better — 
try experimenting. ■ 











^^^^H 



Tiny, cheap computers and related electronic 
devices, all talking to each other, will have more uses in 
education than paper-and-ink, blackboard and chalk. 



Computers 

and 

Early 

Learning 



by Bernard Banet 

photos by Gary Easter 




A Prediction 

The technology of microelectronics 
will profoundly affect elementary and 
even preschool education in the 
decades ahead. We know that 
computers-on-chips will incorporate, 
integrate and transcend earlier 
technologies. But how can they be 
used by young children? Isn't it 
necessary to know a computer 
language and to use a typewriter-like 
computer terminal in order to talk with 
a computer? The answer, probably 
anticipated by the reader, is that as 
costs of computer systems tumble and 
capabilities advance, the barriers that 
impede computer use are rapidly being 
eliminated. The typical instructional 
computing configuration in schools 
will evolve toward microcomputer- 
based stand-alone systems. These will 
support a great variety of input and 
output modalities, replacing exclusive 
reliance on the familiar printing ter- 
minal and CRT. For home applications, 
too, microprocessor-based video 
game units and "personal" computers 
are being developed with emphasis on 
user accessibility and multiple I/O 
modes. 



Bernard Banet. Director of Planning and Develop- 
ment. High/Scope Educational Research Founda- 
tion. 600 North River Street, Ypsilanti. Michigan 
48197 
• 1978 High/Scope Foundation 



Spoken words, a touch on a display 
screen or digitizer pad, the beam of a 
light pen, a musical keyboard, a 
handwritten or typed symbol, the 
movement of a joystick, will all provide 
computer input. An interactive elec- 
tronic system can respond with letters 
and numbers, of course, but also by 
playing back an audiovisual recording, 
synthesizing speech, producing music, 
or even generating three-dimensional 
animated color graphics. 

It is not necessary to know a 
programming language in order for a 
child to interact with a computer, any 
more than it is necessary to be able to 
write a script in order to watch a 
television show. The powerful and 
convenient computer languages of the 
future, however, will be more accessi- 
ble to elementary school youngsters 
than BASIC and should become an 
important part of the curriculum. 

Replacing Paper, 
Not People 

When one mentions computers-in- 
education to most educators, a con- 
cept of programmed instruction, 
delivered step-by-step through the 
computer, comes to mind. This is 
indeed the classic "computer assisted 
instruction" (CAI) style, intended to 
capture the active interchange of a 
patient and skilled human tutor with a 



student. In practice, person/machine 
dialogue usually falls far short of this 
ideal. CAI approaches to computer use 
utilize a behavioristic paradigm of 
teaching/learning modeled on the 
"shaping" process, in which the 
teacher (or experimenter) "reinforces" 
the student for making successive 
approximations to the teacher's final 
objectives. A careful task analysis of 
the final desired performance is used to 
design the sequence of instructional 
"frames." To a student, though, the 
carefully developed sequence can be 
tedious or frustrating. There is no 
magic that assures success in a step- 
by-step format any more than there is 
in the textbook format. CAI of the pro- 
grammed variety remains a Teacher 
Initiates— Student Responds model. 

Let us not, however, make the mis- 
take of equating computer utilization in 
education with any single mode of 
learning, including the CAI format. 
Quite possibly, the initial experiments 
with computer-assisted instruction will 
be to all computer applications in edu- 
cation what programmed textbooks 
and workbooks are to the total universe 
of applications of paper in education! 
The computer will be such a ubiquitous 
tool that preparing students to master 
its many applications will probably 
become a major goal of education, just 
as students now must master the many 
uses of paper-based information 



90 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Learning Con't. 



systems: learning to read, write, type, 
and locate information in a library. 

Tiny, cheap computers and related 
electronic devices, all talking to each 
other, will have more uses in educa- 
tion than paper-and-ink, blackboard 
and chalk. Every current use of paper in 
education will be enhanced by elec- 
tronic systems. Look to the micro- 
computers in use in homes and schools 
in the years ahead to combine the fea- 
tures pioneered by systems such as 
PLATO, TICCIT, MIT's "turtles," and 
the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center's 
"dynabook." but in sizes and prices like 
the PET's and TRS-80's of today. RAM 
and mass storage will no longer be 
major constraints for the typical ap- 
plication, and the delays due to time- 
sharing will be a thing of the past. What 
will this mean for a child's first years of 
learning? 

Computers as Learning Aids 
for Young Children 

Interactive games. From the view- 
point of this author the mode of 
computer utilization that holds the 
most obvious promise for young 
children is the presentation of learning 
in gamelike situations with immediate 
feedback. In our preliminary investiga- 
tions of the applications of computer 
systems at the High/Scope Ele- 
mentary School and High/Scope Pre- 
school in Ypsilanti, Michigan, it is the 
fascination with the pinball-like 
response that stands out as one 
watches young children in front of a 
computer terminal, whether the child is 
interacting with PLATO, or with a mini- 
computer-based timesharing system, 
or with a Commodore PET, or with the 
University of Michigan's Amdahl main- 
frame and audio response unit speech 
synthesizer. 

In our work with preschool and ele- 
mentary children we are discovering 
that computer games can powerfully 
motivate the learning of basic skills and 
sophisticated concepts. If one builds 
into games an opportunity to increase 
skill systematically (such as by doing 
something faster each time) or to 
advance to a more complex or difficult 
task, it may not be necessary to 
"manage" the student's progress by 
maintaining elaborate student records 
in the computer. Each student's file can 
be in his or her own head, with teachers 
and parents looking at printouts of the 
actual games the student has been 
playing to get an idea of the child's level 
of achievement. Rather than prescribe 
the child's learning experience, the 
computer can present an inviting menu 
from which the child can choose, 



freeing him or her from adults' limited 
ability to prescribe optimal educa- 
tional experiences. Computer games 
can simultaneously incorporate fan- 
tasy elements, systematic feedback, 
and competition as well as foster team- 
work, cooperation, and cross-age 
helping. 

The power of interactive systems to 
attract users, including young 
children, to invite them to "play," and to 
give them feedback, approximates the 
sort of learning process that occurs 
when a child learns to talk, walk, play 
an instrument, ride a bicycle, perfect 
athletic skills. O.K. Moore impres- 
sively demonstrated the power of inter- 
active systems to teach reading and 
writing skills to very young children 
over a decade ago, but the systems on 
which the "talking typewriter" were 
based were too expensive for 
widespread use. New technology 
changes the cost factor, and makes the 
systems more fun to use. 

Of course interactive systems can 
get boring, like any new toy. Variety 
and increasing challenge must be built 
into interactive computer-based ac- 
tivities, or they may become tedious. 
Apparently such electronic games as 
pinball and Star Trek are sufficiently 
challenging to become addictive to 
thousands of people, from high-school 
students to computer scientists. Surely 
elements of these successfully de- 
signed programs can be incorporated 
into electronic games for school and 
home use. 



Computer games can 
simultaneously incor- 
porate fantasy elements, 
systematic feedback, 
and competition as well 
as foster teamwork, 
cooperation, and cross- 
age helping. 



The computer can present the 
"board" on which human opponents 
play, or the computer can become the 
opponent. Several people at different 
locations can play each other through 
a central computer. Games of chance, 
games of skill, instructional games, 
classic board games, mathematical 
recreations are already available on 
school computer systems (and on 
micros; see David Ahl's Basic Com- 
puter Games), although many have not 
yet been adapted for young children. 
This should be an interesting challenge 
for educators, programmers, and hob- 
byists. 



Drill and practice systems. One 

major reason for the widespread 
resistance to "open" educational 
environments that invite student in- 
itiative and do not prescribe specific 
learning experiences for most of the 
day is that they often appear to leave 
mastery of basic skills to chance. 
Teachers in such classrooms are often 
overwhelmed with logistical problems 
as they try to interact with diverse 
groups of learners on an individualized 
basis. Electronic systems offer an ideal 
method of giving students interesting 
and challenging opportunities to con- 
solidate skills and concepts they have 
acquired through concrete and active 
learning, and to drill rote information 
once the conceptual bases are under- 
stood. Examples are practicing reading 
skills and mathematical algorithms, 
learning vocabulary in a foreign 
language, memorizing the multiplica- 
tion table. The rote information and the 
number of "overlearned" skills that we 
expect children to master in elemen- 
tary school is quite finite. Surely these 
basic skills and concepts will be easily 
mastered in the future through elec- 
tronic systems, perhaps even mostly at 
home, leaving schools to provide much 
more stimulating "concrete" ex- 
periences. 

The elementary-grades math and 
reading exercises distributed by the 
Computer Curriculum Corporation 
provide an example of a first genera- 
tion of computer-managed drill and 
practice materials. Future materials for 
elementary students will probably be 
more gamelike, more like the ingenious 
math games developed by the Urbana 
PLATO group, and they may be 
delivered on microcomputers or hand- 
held calculator drill/practice devices 
such as the Texas Instruments 
Dataman'" or Speak & Spell*". 

In a game we have developed on the 
PET, for example, children learn to 
identify letters of the alphabet and to 
match them with the appropriate keys 
on the keyboard by "shooting" letters 
as they bounce around the screen by 
"firing" the key corresponding to the 
target letter. Proper timing, estimation 
of ricochet angles, etc. enter into the 
activity, making it an interesting 
challenge to the entire age range from 
kindergarten to adults. "DART," 
another clever game (developed by 
Brad Compton, a high school student 
from Ann Arbor) involves practicing 
the arithmetic computation skills, from 
the "2+2" level on up through rapid esti- 
mation of products and dividends. 
Feedback is given as distance from the 
bullseye of a target, with points scored 
for accuracy, and an increasingly 
tough time limit is imposed for each 
"throw." The game can be played as a 
two person or one person activity. 
The mass storage and file-handling 



SEPT/CCT 1978 



91 





capabilities of the systems to which 
children have access will improve. This 
will make it possible to generate 
games and practice activities based on 
data from individual students or from 
large data bases provided by diction- 
aries, thesauruses, etc. For example, 
we have used a list of 20,000 words to 
provide entries for Hangman-type 
word games. We can also generate 
alphabetical lists of an individual stu- 
dent's own sight vocabulary, as it 
grows, and use these files to provide 
data for word games. The same files 
can be used to check student text 
entries for spelling; student text files 
can be scanned to identify new 
vocabulary which may be added to the 
student's individual list, after checking 
for spelling against the master dic- 
tionary list. 

Tutorial systems. More ambitious 
and complex than games, whole 
tutorial "courses" are of course possi- 
ble on interactive computer systems. 
To avoid the "brick wall" phenomenon 
of trapping the student in a sequence of 
steps, features can be built in that give 
the student the option of proceeding in 
certain directions rather than leaving 
the "flow" entirely to the determina- 
tion of the course author and the 
computer. Students in curricula 
already developed for systems such as 
PLATO and TICCIT can choose to 
explore reference materials, to request 
more information about the organiza- 
tion of a particular discipline or domain 
(a "map"), request a review, a quiz, 
examples, easier or more difficult 
material, and so forth. Tutorial 
programs incorporated into the home 
or in open classrooms could permit 
children to master skills (such as 
reading music or speaking a foreign 
language) when they choose to do so 
rather than as part of a group progress- 
ing toward the same goals. A challenge 
to curriculum developers in early 
education is to relate tutorials to the 
concrete experiences of the child. 



A tool for creative activity. Some of 
the most impressive work with com- 
puters and young children has been 
done from the perspective of making 
the computer into a tool for creative 
activity rather than a presenter of ques- 
tions and answers. Alan Kay and Adele 
Goldberg at the Xerox Palo Alto 
Research Center have perhaps taken 
this approach the furthest, as describ- 
ed in Kay's September 1977 article in 
Scientific American. The Xerox group 
has shown that junior-high-school 
children can compose music, create 
animated cartoons, and write stories, 
given a powerful programming 
language such as their SMALLTALK 
language, and a computer oriented to 
color animations, music, and text. 



The ability to edit a 
computer - composed 
product makes the com- 
puter an ideal medium 
for playfully creating, 
revising, and reshaping 
anything, as one would 
play with playdough. 



Already preschool children are 
"doodling" electronically in color on 
their home TV sets with videogame joy- 
sticks. Music synthesizers have 
become inexpensive additions to home 
computer systems, musical devices 
useful for active exploration by young 
children of the principles of music 
theory and notation. The ability to edit 
a computer-composed product makes 
the computer an ideal medium for play- 
fully creating, revising, and reshaping 
anything, as one would play with 
playdough. The work of Kay and 
Goldberg suggests the scope of what is 



possible. Electronic Lego blocks, i.e. 
computer-screen representations of 
three-dimensional objects and 
environments built up from basic 
geometric shapes, are being used by 
engineers and artists. Young children 
will have access to such systems, too, 
and new creative energies will be 
unleashed. 

Learning the basic concepts of 
computer programming is in itself an 
exercise in creative problem-solving, in 
both analysis and synthesis. Seymour 
Papert's LOGO language, developed at 
MIT, is designed to introduce pro- 
gramming and the larger world of 
mathematics to children. Commands 
in LOGO, which can be com- 
municated via a button box, move a 
"turtle" across the floor. Specific 
instructions may be combined into 
macros which can be named and called 
later on. The turtle leaves a physical 
trace as it moves. Simulations of the 
turtle's movements can also be done on 
computer screens, even on the PET in a 
kind of "tiny LOGO." Sophisticated 
programming concepts, and important 
mathematical ideas, are thus explored 
by figuring out how to get the turtle to 
trace certain kinds of paths. 

Although not designed for young 
children, BASIC, the universal 
language of the "dinky" computer 
world, has been introduced to 
youngsters in the elementary grades in 
a number of settings; Bob Albrecht and 
others have had wide experience 
teaching BASIC to this age group in 
California, in schools and "community 
computing centers." The popularity of 
hobby and home microcomputers is 
obviously increasing the number of 
elementary school students who can 
modify programs or learn to write their 
own in BASIC. Despite objections from 
some quarters to BASIC'S lack of 
power, structure, and elegance, this 
trend will continue until "better" 
languages are available on inexpensive 
systems. 



92 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Learning Con't. 



Computers will be used in elemen- 
tary classrooms to create personal and 
collective information retrieval 
systems, as in the "computer conferen- 
cing" now done by adults. In this way 
computers will help children learn to be 
involved in collective problem-solving. 
High/Scope is planning to evaluate a 
system in which students will share 
thoughts and experiences they have 
had during their pursuit of a plan or an 
idea. A computer-based activity file, 
fed by teachers and students, will 
present a rich array of suggestions for 
things to do and questions to in- 
vestigate in the various interest centers 
of the room. Students will be able to 
share their activity files with students in 
other classes and even in other cities 
through a computer-conferencing 
system. Teachers will also be able to 
share ideas in particular areas with 
other teachers using similar curricular 
approaches. Text editor software will 
make it easy to revise or update a file 
entry, and will encourage active 
rewriting of rough drafts of student 
compositions. 

As inexpensive computer systems 
become more capable, they will not 
only store activity files for classrooms 
or catalogs, and indexes of available 
print and media information for 
libraries; they will eventually store 
millions of books and periodicals, films 
and television programs, for instant 
retrieval. Computers will be super- 
libraries, jukeboxes for accessing the 
archives of civilization — unlimited 
resources for learning and decision- 
making. 

Representing complex processes. 
Computers, even for elementary 
students, will provide a means for 
representing complex processes in 
order to help students discover 
relationships and isolate variables. 
Modes of representing processes in- 
clude building and revising 
mathematical models, writing com- 
puter programs, planning a sequence 
of steps involved in any classroom 
project, simulating physical and social 
systems, analyzing data quantitatively. 
Social studies simulations, for exam- 
ple, will introduce geographic and 
historical information, plus allowing 
students to encounter economic and 
political processes in game-like for- 
mat. The logic of buying, selling, 
producing, investing, insuring, lend- 
ing, borrowing, advertising, taxing, 
voting, bargaining, mediating, judging, 
planning transportation systems and 
land use, or making personal career 
decisions could be explored in this 
way. 

Students at the High/Scope Elemen- 
tary School are fascinated by 

SEPT/OCT 1978 



simulated journeys across the Oregon 
Trails (a program developed by Dan 
Rawitsch of the Minnesota Educa- 
tional Computing Consortium— see 
Creative Computing, May/Jun 1978). 
They are getting a sense of some 
simple economic principles by 
operating a computer-simulated 
lemonade stand (also a MECC 
program), and are even able to ex- 
perience vicariously the process of 
making a soft landing on the moon 
while conserving a limited amount of 
fuel! 

Not surprisingly, most of the 
simulations developed for school com- 
puters are designed, at this point, for 
use by students of high-school age or 
older (e.g., Ludwig Braun's Huntington 
simulations of physical and ecological 
and social systems). Given computer 
systems that can represent processes 
graphically and in "real time" rather 
than with successive printouts, it is just 
a matter of time before young children 
can experience systematically the 
operations of universes not directly 
accessible in the nonelectronic school 
environment. 

Student assessment. Assessment of 
student progress and goals can be 
accomplished in open educational 
environments by interactive computer 
systems. Student writing, for example, 
can be entered into the computer files 
and analyzed for a variety of dimen- 
sions. Computers will be used to 
construct self-assessment quizzes for 
elementary-school students, just as 
item pools are sampled by computers 
at the university level now. The advan- 
tage of constructing quizzes and tests 
from large item pools is that it prevents 
the evaluation procedure from 
dangerously narrowing the curriculum 
to only those items that will be on the 
exam. 

Since computers can keep track of 
student responses and modes of com- 
puter utilization, they can be enor- 
mously useful as research and evalua- 
tion tools. Learning activities that have 
computer-based elements may be 
easier to improve systematically than 
activities in which both processes and 
outcomes are less well documented. 

Three Views of the 
Near Future 

Will these various uses of computer 
systems change the learning and 
teaching process as we know it? What 
are the implications for families, for 
schools, for teachers, for students? 
Here are three contrasting views: 

A golden age of learning. Home and 
school learning, according to this view 
of the future, will be revolutionized by 
the many uses of computer systems. 
Teachers will become liberated from 
uncreative tasks such as repetitious 



93 



lectures and recitations, correcting 
tests, grading, checking workbooks 
and homework assignments. Teachers 
will welcome computers as indispen- 
sable tools of their trade, just as 
farmers have come to regard tractors. 
Students, stimulated by the power of 
interactive electronic systems, will 
master basic skills easily and joyfully. 
Interactive electronic systems will 
invite students to explore many 
domains of human knowledge and 
endeavor. Because of their interactive 
nature, electronic systems based on 
microelectronic components will ad- 
vance the cause of progressive educa- 
tion in the Dewey and Piaget traditions, 
rather than remain the tools of those, 
often of behavioristic orientation, who 
believe that the ideal learning environ- 
ment has goals explicitly stated by the 
instructor and not by the student. The 
individualization of learning goals, 
content, and methods made possible 
by computers will make the flexibility 
inherent in "open" alternative learning 
settings more attractive to teachers, 
parents, and students than at present. 
The widespread availability of "basic 
skills" programs and other educational 
software for home computer systems 
will redefine the public's expectations 
of school learning. 

Will electronic de- 
vices replace teachers, 
and will classrooms be 
replaced by cubicles in 
which students interact 
only with machines? 

Optimists see computers-on-chips 
making it possible through mass 
education for most students to achieve 
broad competence actively and in a 
developmentally appropriate manner. 
Inquiry, problem-solving skills, and 
representation will be integrated with 
concrete experiences via the com- 
puter. Diverse student interests, 
abilities, and goals will be supported. 
The computer will become an 
equalizer, in the sense that it will give 
previously disadvantaged youngsters 
access to a wide range of skills and 
information, plus the motivational 
elements (i.e., computers give im- 
mediate feedback, are nonthreatening, 
fun, challenging but not frustrating) to 
use these resources. Lifelong learning 
will become a reality for millions 
through the combination of print and 
video media with an interactive compo- 
nent which can be accessed at home as 
easily as anywhere else in a community 
or the country. 

Learning that stresses student in- 
itiative and breadth of experience will 





blossom, because the logistical 
problems confronting teachers with 
large classes will be solved through 
increased use of interactive electronic 
systems. One version of the golden- 
age scenario sees schools as in- 
stitutions so substantially altered in 
their function by new technologies that 
they are ultimately transformed into 
learning centers operating more like 
libraries or museums than classrooms. 
All students will have access to tools 
and learning aids of all kinds, much as 
they do in the open-classroom en- 
vironments of today. 

An age of dehumanization. Perhaps 
a unified information/education/com- 
munications network is merely the final 
step toward a nightmare world of 
thought control. At the very least, 
pessimists suggest, computers will do 
for thinking what the automobile did 
for walking and television did for 
reading. Perhaps schools will undergo 
great strife over the issue of "capital 
intensive" vs. "labor intensive" techni- 
ques and will come to repeat the sad 
history of American passenger 
railroads, in which fights over job 
security and technological innovation 
distracted attention from the fact that 
the entire system was dying because of 
its inability to compete with alter- 
natives. 

Will electronic devices replace 
teachers, and will classrooms be 
replaced by cubicles in which students 
interact only with machines? Are we 
sure that technology will support 
humanistic values when so often it 
seems to undermine them? Will com- 
puters be used in place of experience 
with real people, places, and materials? 
television, and computers themselves 
and "seatwork" in schools have 
probably already replaced many real, 
direct experiences. Will computers 
exacerbate this trend? Will drill-and- 
practice and programmed CAI become 



the dominant formats, rather than the 
more open-ended applications of in- 
teractive electronic systems? Will 
learners be trapped in step-by-step 
strands, blocks, and levels, unable to 
pursue their own paths to their own 
objectives? 

Instead of becoming an equalizer of 
class differences, electronic systems, 
say the pessimists, will widen class and 
caste barriers by giving children of 
affluent families access to learning 
resources that others cannot afford. 
Will children who have access to 
computers from the time they can sit up 
become a computer priesthood, leav- 
ing the computer illiterates doomed to 
low-prestige roles in society? 

Schools as institu- 
tions have been remark- 
ably impervious to 
technological change. 



Business as usual. In addition to the 
optimists and pessimists, one comes 
across many educators who simply do 
not believe that interactive microelec- 
tronic systems will change teaching 
and learning significantly one way or 
another. They point out that computer 
technology and telecommunications 
have been around for years. Radio, 
Television, and computers themselves 
have been a fact of life for North 
Americans for quite a while, but so far 
they have brought about neither a 
golden age nor a 1984/Brave New 
World-style dystopia. Just because a 
new technology could be used to 
change the way people learn doesn't 
mean that it will be directly employed 
by the educational establishment in 
imaginative ways. Television is the 
prime case in point. 



Schools as institutions have been 
remarkably impervious to 
technological change. Transportation 
and communications technologies 
have certainly affected schools, but 
indirectly, rather than by changing the 
nature of classroom learning. Even 
some individuals deeply involved in 
instructional computing believe that 
the computer's function in schools is to 
teach children to use existing com- 
puter languages and to perform 
calculations in science and math 
courses. In their view, computers are 
too expensive and "technical" for 
young children to employ, except 
perhaps for drill-and-practice exer- 
cises. This view accounts for the 
priority given to secondary schools 
rather than elementary schools 
applications in many districts. 

Individuals working in the computer 
industry often point out that cor- 
porations and individuals with the 
talent and resources to produce 
software for educational applications 
will find other markets more profitable 
than schools. Commercial television's 
lack of educationally oriented 
programming is cited as evidence that 
the home market, also, is interested in 
entertainment rather than learning. 
Given instantaneous access to any 
page in any book in the Library of 
Congress, or access to any college 
course in the country, will the average 
citizen prefer to watch Celebrity Bionic 
Football on television? Will computers 
married to videodisc simply permit 
seven-year-olds to retrieve instantly 
works from the "Brady Bunch" corpus? 
In the 1960's several large cor- 
porations lost gobs of money trying to 
market educational technology 
products; they may be reluctant to re- 
enter this market. Are the costs of 
computer-based systems now so much 
less that the wave of first attempts can 
now bear fruit, or are there problems 



94 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Learning Con't 

more fundamental than economic 
ones? Certainly the home or personal 
microcomputer of today will not in- 
stantly usher in the millennium. For 
one thing, the microcomputer industry 
has major hardware and software 
compatibility problems. It is possible 
that no one will buy the hardware 
because of lack of applications 
software, and conversely no 
applications software will be produced 
because the market is too fragmented 
among owners of different machines 
speaking different computer 
languages and accepting different 
kinds of input/output devices and 
storage media. 

Shaping the 
Future 

Given both optimistic and 
pessimistic predictions about the im- 
pact of microelectronic technologies, 
as well as the prediction of negligible 
effects, how can those of us concerned 
with the education of young children 
come to terms with the potential of 
microelectronic systems? The 
assumption that makes most sense to 
us at the High/Scope Foundation is 
that the potential of these systems is as 
great as those promising a golden age 
say it is, BUT we must very purposeful- 



ly work toward utilization of that 
potential in education. 

The golden age of learning will not 
automatically come about. We need 
good R&D work among groups 
seeking to marry computer systems 
and student-initiated learning. We 
need to evaluate the utilization of 
computer systems in learning settings 
other than school classrooms, settings 
such as homes and community 
computer-learning centers. And we 
need to establish information networks 
to keep one another informed about 
the computer applications being 
developed all over the world. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Ah I. D. Basic Computer Games: Microcomputer 
Edition. Morristown. New Jersey: Creative 
Computing Press. 1978. 

Ahl. D. What's wrong with the little red school 
house? in D. Ahl (Ed). The Best of Creative 
Computing, (Vol. 1). Morristown. New Jersey: 
Creative Computing Press. 1976. 

Braun, L. Microcomputers: Magic for educators. 
Personal Computing, January 1978, pp. 30-40. 

Brumbaugh, K. Minnesota, computers, and 
elementary education. Proceedings of the Sixth 
Annual Conference of the National Association 
of Users of Computer Applications to Learning, 
1977. 

Dugdale, S . & Kibbey. D Elementary 
Mathematics with PLATO (2nd ed). University 
of Illinois, Urbana Computer-based Education 
Research Laboratory, 1977. 

Dwyer, T. The art of education: Blueprint for a 
renaissance. In D. Ahl (Ed.), The Best of 
Creative Computing (Vol. 2), Morristown, New 
Jersey: Creative Computing Press. 1977. 



Felsenstein, L. Computer country: An electronic 
jungle gym for Kids. ROM, December 1977, pp. 
30-33. 

Kay, A Microelectronics and the personal com- 
puter. Scientific American, September 1977,237 
(3). 230-234. 

Kay, A . & Goldberg, A. Personal dynamic media. 
Computer, 1977, 10 (3). 31-41. 

Koetke. W. Supertoys: A new approach to learning 
mathematics. The Mathematics Teacher, 
December 1973. 

Luehrmann. AW Should the computer teach the 
student, or vice-versa? In D. Ahl (Ed), The Best 
of Creative Computing (Vol. 2). Morristown, 
New Jersey: Creative Computing Press. 1977. 

Moore, O.K. The preschool child learns to read 
and write in the autotelic responsive environ- 
ment. In Y. Brackbill & G.G. Thompson (Eds.). 
Behavior in Infancy and Early Childhood. New 
York: The Free Press, 1967. 

Nelson. T. Computer Lib/Dream Machines. South 
Bend. Indiana, The Distributors: Author, 1974. 

Nelson. T. The Home Computer Revolution. South 
Bend. Indiana. The Distributors: Author, 1977. 

Noyce. R.N. Microelectronics, Scientific 
American, September. 1977, 237 (3). 63-69. 

Obertino. P.. et al. Elementary Reading on PLA TO 
IV. University of Illinois. Urbana: Computer- 
based Education Research Laboratory, 1977. 

Papert. Seymour. Teaching Children Thinking. 
Cambridge. Mass.: MIT Artificial Intelligence 
Laboratory, LOGO Memo No. 2, Al Memo No. 
247, 1971. 

Seidel. R.J., & Hunter, B.C. Academic Computing 
Directory. Alexandria. Virginia: Human 
Resources Research Organization. 1977. 

Solomon, C. Lending a child to computer culture. 
Cambridge. Mass.: MIT Artificial Intelligence 
Laboratory, LOGO Memo No. 20, Al Memo 343, 
1975. 

Zinn, K. Computer aided instruction. In Belzer. 
Holzmann and Kent (Eds), Encyclopedia of 
Computer Science and Technology, (Vol. 1): 
Marcel Dekker, 1976. 



MEET THE SORCERER COMPUTER 

AT THE 

SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY PRICE $ 895. 



STANDARD FEATURES 

• Z80 

• 4KOF ROM MEMORY 

• 8KOF RAM MEMORY 

• DUAL CASSETTE I/O 

• 30 LINES OF 64 CHARACTERS 

• 64 DEFINED CHARACTERS AND 64 
USER DEFINED CHARACTERS 

• 512 X 240 GRAPHIC RESOLUTION 

• EDGE CARD CONNECTION 
TOS100BUS 

• SERIAL AND PARALLEL I/O 








COMPUTER MART 



OPTIONS 

• EXPANDABLE TO 32K RAM 

• 8-SLOTS100BUS 

• PRINTER 

• DISKSTORAGE 
•TELEPHONE 

• VOICE 

• HOME CONTROLLER 



COMPUTER MART 
OF NEW YORK 

118 Madison Ave. New York, NY 10016 
(212) 686-7923 



CIRCLE 136 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A Drop-In Computer Center 
For High-School Students 



Ed Herstein, interviewed here by 
Karl Zinn, teaches math and 
computer studies at Community 
High School in Ann Arbor, 
Michigan. 

The interview was sparked by 
Ed's paper at the November 1977 
NAUCAL conference, "Microcom- 
puters Put More 'Byte' Into 
Teaching. " One of the predictions 
in Ed's presentation: "The time is 
not far off when highly 
sophisticated software will make it 
possible for personal microcom- 
puters to be sensitive to many of an 
individual's educational needs and 
to provide the resources necessary 
to meet them. " 



Karl: I enjoyed your speech at the 
NAUCAL Conference last Fall. I was 
particularly intrigued with your 
description of a drop-in computer 
center for elementary and junior high- 
school students. Creative Computing 
readers will be interested in the 
specifics of that program. 
Ed: Basically, we have two types of 
activities. We have a series of eight- 
week computer courses that meet one 
afternoon a week from 4:00 to 5:30 P.M. 
Then we have a drop-in time from 5:30 
to 9:30 P.M. when kids can sign up to 
use the computer hardware on their 
own. 




Karl: Your primary objective is to teach 

students to program? 

Ed: In a narrow sense, yes. Most of the 

class time is spent teaching the kids 

Basic. This gives the classes a goal, 

and the students are highly motivated 

by looking forward to doing their own 

programming. 

Karl: Do kids as young as 12 and 13 

become competent programmers? 

Karl Zinn. Center (or Research on Learning and 
Teaching, University of Michigan, 109 E.Madison, 
Ann Arbor, Ml 48109. 



Karl Zinn 

Ed: That was probably the biggest 
surprise I got when I began to teach the 
course. I've had seventh and eighth 
graders who within a year not only had 
become excellent Basic programmers 
but had also learned Fortran and 
assembly language. Programs written 
by former students have been added to 
the utility libraries on systems in our 
area. My youngest student took the 
course when he was in third grade. He 
was certainly an exceptional kid, but 
I've become convinced that if the 
interest level is high enough, age and 
educational experience aren't major 
factors in teaching programming fun- 
damentals. 

Karl: I notice that a number of your 
students have gotten jobs as 
programmers. 

Ed: The University of Michigan and a 
few area computer businesses have 
provided part-time and summer 
employment for several former 
students. Generally both parties 
benefit. The students gain income and 
experience; the companies get very 
sharp programmers for much less than 
they would have to pay comparably 
talented professionals. 
It's very satisfying to feel that these kids 
are acquiring marketable skills, but I 
don't expect that every student will 
become a professional programmer. I 
see teaching a computer language 
primarily as a means to reaching a 
broader goal: computer literacy. 



Too many adults believe 
that computers are huge, 
intricate, very expensive 
pieces of machinery 
understood only by an 
elite few. 



Karl: Define that more specifically for 
us. 

Ed: I feel it is vitally important that kids 
— who are going to be surrounded by 
computers in the very near future — 
have an opportunity to interact with 
them in a friendly, supportive environ- 
ment. I hope my course will teach kids 
enough so that they can feel comfor- 
table around computers, so they can 
feel that computers are tools that they 
can control. Too many adults believe 




that computers are huge, intricate, very 
expensive pieces of machinery un- 
derstood only by an elite few. The kids 
in my courses don't have these fears. If 
some of them also benefit directly from 
their programming skills, that's 
frosting on the cake. 
Karl: Did you have some help starting 
these after school activities? 
Ed: Yes. The program began in 
November 1975 when Nan Hodges, 
then vice president of the Ann Arbor 
Association for Gifted Children, came 
to my school seeking help in es- 
tablishing intellectually challenging 
activities for early adolescents. We 
came up with the idea of the after 
school computer program. 
Karl: Who paid the costs of the 
program? 

Ed: The first class had a $15 tuition 
charge that was used to pay my salary. 
The hardware the same equipment I 
used for my regular high-school 
classes. The association paid my 
school for paper and other supplies. 
We originally anticipated just one 
eight-week class so we expected that 
the expenses would be fairly small. 
Karl: And now you're in your third year 
of the program with kids of all kinds. 
What happened? 

Ed: We found that we had a tiger by the 
tail. As people learned about the 
course we started getting calls re- 
questing enrollment in a second ses- 
sion. When the first course neared 
completion most of the kids wanted to 




96 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Drop-In Center Con't... 

do mere. By the beginning of the 
second year we had convinced the 
public-school administration that we 
were fulfilling an important function 
and they began to cover all the ex- 
penses. 

Karl: Has the administration also 
purchased all the hardware for the 
drop-in center? 
Ed: They've purchased some of it. Our 
two CRTs and two hardcopy terminals 
were purchased for the high school, 
but we've earned most of the 
microcomputer equipment ourselves. 





Karl: Tell us how you earned equip- 
ment. 

Ed: Much of it has been donated by 
parents or companies who wanted to 
support and improve our program. 
We've also earned some memory 
boards and other components by 
assembling microcomputer kits for 
area firms. This has really worked out 
well for us since it gives the kids a lot of 
direct experience with hardware that 
would not otherwise be available. 
Finally, we've raised money to 
purchase equipment through a variety 
of means including selling dinners 
during drop-in, selling computer 
generated posters and biorhythm 
charts at school fairs, and renting out 
terminals. 

Since microcomputers 
are going to be far more 
prevalent than big com- 
puters, especially for 
home use, they're more 
relevant to study. 

Karl: Students take terminals home? 
Ed: Yes. I think it's very important that 
people who are learning about com- 
puters spend enough time on terminals 
so that they can get comfortable, try 
out new things, explore the system, 
and have sufficient opportunity to 
overcome the occasional failures they 
will experience. Computer hardware is 
too scarce a resource to lock up 
whenever schools are closed. We try to 
buy reasonably portable equipment, 

SEPT/OCT 1978 



and we've never had a problem with 
kids abusing the hardware. Sometimes 
parents will complain when their home 
phone is tied up with an acoustic 
coupler for hours at a time, but I'd like 
to think that it doesn't hurt to promote a 
little computer literacy among the 
parents anyway. 

Karl: What timesharing systems are 
available to your students? 
Ed: The only system for which we have 
a formal arrangement is the HP-2000F 
at the Washtenaw Intermediate School 
District. Since this system is limited to 
Basic, we've worked out temporary 
access to a number of much more 
powerful computers in the area. We've 
had good success giving kids ex- 
perience with many different 
languages and systems. 
Karl: How would you compare 
timesharing with microcomputers for 
teaching a class such as yours? 
Ed: I'm very enthused about micros. 
With a classroom microcomputer I can 
actually show students what a com- 
puter looks like. I can point out the CPU 
and memory, even teach binary, octal, 
and hex arithmetic using the front 
panel. The kids have a chance to learn 
something about hardware and elec- 
tronics. Since microcomputers are 
going to be far more prevalent than big 
computers, especially for home use, 
they're more relevant to study. They're 
also more versatile. We've got 
joysticks, a music board, and a couple 
of exciting video display boards plug- 
ged into our micros. 
Karl: But aren't many of these 
peripherals primarily game-playing 
devices? 

Ed: That's one of the best things about 
them. Computer games are great 
educational tools. They teach kids a lot 
about computers. For example, a 
sophisticated Star Trek game can 
make a computer appear very smart, 




ut if it can't process a command that 
misspelled, a kid immediately realizes 
there are serious limitations on the 
nature of its intelligence. Most games 
are educational to play, and they 
generate a great deal of motivation to 
program. In fact most of the program- 
ming problems we discuss in the 
afterschool course are related to 
games. 

Karl: With the introduction of the $600 
personal computers I expect interest in 
computers to accelerate rapidly. How 
would you recommend a person ap- 
proach starting a program like yours? 
Ed: The most important attributes are 
enthusiasm and a willingness to ex- 
plore and experiment in terms of both 
hardware and classroom technique. 
Second, I think the role of the teacher 
in an introductory computer course is 
basically that of a facilitator, one who 
provides resources, ideas, answers to 
questions, and encouragement. 
There's very little need for the more 
traditional tasks of lecturing, testing, 
assigning, and grading. Finally, the 
teacher must be comfortable with the 
idea that he or she will often know 
much less about a given aspect of 
computing than his or her students do. 
It's neither necessary nor desirable to 
limit students' areas of exploration and 
knowledge to those of the teacher. 




Karl: I think it's safe to say that many of 
your views — game-playing, renting 
out terminals, avoiding traditional 
teaching techniques — would not be 
accepted in most public schools. How 
can one demonstrate success? 
Ed: The success of my courses and 
drop-in center has been recognized by 
some rather traditional people. Some 
quantitative measures include the 
number of useful programs my 
students have developed, the many 
students who have found employment 
in the computer field, and the con- 
tinuing growth of enrollments in the 
afterschool classes. But the measure 
that means the most to me is the 
intensity of interest, concentration, 
and often delight on the faces of the 
students in the program. Visitors see 
that at the drop-in center. Ninety 
percent of the problems of education 
would be solved if we could do as well 
throughout the curriculum; and some- 
day soon, using computers, I hope we 
will. ■ 



97 



10 New Books From The 
Creative Computing 
Bookservice 



BASIC and the 
Personal Computer 

Dwyer and Critchfield. This 
book will get you involved 
with personal computing, 
writing programs and ex- 
panding the use of your com- 
puter by showing the great 
diversity of applications pos- 
sible on any microcom- 
puter. One of the most com- 
prehensive presentations of 
BASIC ever. As a text or ad- 
dition to your personal li- 
brary, this book will tell you 
all you ever wanted to know 
about BASIC. 350 pp. 
$12.95 [9F]. 

My Computer Likes 
Me 

This entertaining self- 
teaching workbook intro- 
duces the BASIC language 
to young or old. Problems 
and examples are drawn 
from population problems 
and demographic data A 
nice, easy start into BASIC. 
Large format. 60 pp. 
$2.00 [8K]. 

Computers, 

Computers, 

Computers 

In Fiction And In 

Verse 

D. Van Tassel, Editor. This 
collection of stories, com- 
mentaries and poems pro- 
ject the reader into a world 
where lifestyles are dom- 
inated by the computer to an 
extent far greater than they 
are by the telephone today. 
By revealing reactions and 
effects, the stories offer the 
reader insight into what is a 
potential reality. Cleverly- 
written, this book should en- 
tertain anyone who is aware 
of the computer's impact on 
society. Includes work by 
such distinguished writers as 
Gordon R. Dickson, Art 
Buchwald, Michael Shaara 
and Bob and Ray. 192 pp. 
$6.95 [9X]. 



Sixty Challenging 
Problems with BASIC 
Solution 

Donald Spencer. This book 
is a vehicle for computer pro- 
grammers to measure their 
skills against some interest- 
ing problems that lend them- 
selves to computer solution. 
It includes games, puzzles, 
mathematical recreations 
and science and business 
problems — some hard, 
some easy. The book will 
compliment any computer- 
oriented course in second- 
ary school or college. BASIC 
program solutions in- 
cluded. 80 pp. $6.95 [9W] 

Modern Digital 
Communications 

E.J. Ross. This volume 
thoroughly explains how 
mass communications sys- 
tems used by banks, busi- 
nesses, airlines, news serv- 
ices, hotels and others 
operate. A must for anyone 
interested in computerized 
communications, including 
computer hobbyists and 
amateur radio operators. 304 
pp. $6.95 [7V]. 

Problems For 
Computer Solution 

Steve Rogowski. The Stu- 
dent Edition is designed to 
encourage research and pre- 
liminary investigation on the 
part of the student. The prob- 
lems are ordered by subject 
and can be expanded or 
shortened. Mathematical 
problems that have never 
been solved are also posed 
to challenge and sharpen the 
student's awareness. 98 pp. 
$3.95 [9Z] Also available is 
the Teacher's Edition which 
contains solutions, pro- 
grams and analysis of the 
problems. 271 pp. $9.95 [9YJ. 
Both books are highly 
recommended for any high 
school or college computer- 
oriented course. 



Games With The 
Pocket Calculator 

Sivasailam Thiagarajan and 
Harold Stolovitch. A big step 
beyond tricks and puzzles 
with the hand calculator, the 
two dozen games of chance 
and strategy in this clever 
new book involve two or 
more players in conflict and 
competition. A single inex- 
pensive four-banger is all 
you need to play. Large 
format. 55 pp. $2.00 [8H]. 

Beginner's Guide To 
Microprocessors 

Charles M. Gilmore. No 
background in electronics is 
necessary to understand this 
book. It was written for those 
with no prior knowledge 
whatsoever of microproc- 
essors or personal comput- 
ing. Gilmore takes you from 
what a microprocessor is, 
how it works and what it's 
used for to how they're pro- 
grammed to perform de- 
sired functions in micro- 
wave ovens, TV games, 
calculators, etc. 175 pp 
$5.95 [7U], 



The Little Book of 
BASIC Style: How To 
Write a Program You 
Can Read 

John M. Nevison. Learn how 
to write better, easy-to- 
follow programs with Nevi- 
son's rules of style and turn 
out legible, correct pro- 
grams. Two hours of BASIC 
programming is all that is ne- 
cessary to profit by this 
book. Concepts of problem- 
solving and structured pro- 
gramming are included. 160 
pp. $5.95 (9V). 

The Home Computer 
Revolution 

Ted Nelson. Here is one of 
the most controversial books 
on home computers. Nelson 
takes a look at how the 
"dinky" computers got here, 
where they are, where they're 
going and what will become 
of the big boys like IBM. This 
thought-provoking and 
highly opinionated book 
picks up where Computer 
Lib/Dream Machine left off. 
224 pp. $2.00 [9U]. 



To Order... 

Use the bound-in order card or send your check for books 
plus $1 .00 shipping and handling per order ($2.00 foreign) 
to Creative Computing, P.O. Box 789-M, Morristown, NJ 
07960. NJ residents add 5% sales tax. Visa or 
MasterCharge are acceptable also. For faster service, call 
in your bank card order toll free to: 

800-631-8112 

(in NJ call 201-540-0445) 

creative computing 



96 




Did you miss any issues of 

creative computing 

in 1977?? 



Well, don't fret. For a limited time (as 
long as the supply lasts), you can order 
all six 1977 issues for only $8.00 plus 
$1 .00 shipping — $9.00 total! Any three 
issues are $5.00 postpaid! And any 
single issue is only $2.00 postpaid. 
1978 issues are also available for $2.50 
each postpaid, regardless of quantity. 

Vol. 3, No. 1 - Jan/Feb 1977 

Profiles of the IMSAI 8080. SWTPC6800. 
TTY 43. All about EFTS. Computational 
unsolvability. Four new games. 
Gruenberger: "Learning by Doing." 
Catastrophic theory. A microcomputer 
software course. 

Vol. 3. No. 2 - Mar/Apr 1977 

Special music features: music instruc- 
tion, computer music performed by 
dance. "Bottom-Up Bizet." transporta- 
tion and composition of music by 
computer, how to use a CPU with a 
simple peripheral to play music. Piele & 
Wood: "Thinking Strategies- Part 1." 

Vol. 3. No. 3 - May/June 1977 

Ahl: "Computer Power to the People," 
Nelson: "A Dream for Irving Snerd." 
Arthur C. Clarke: "Future Com- 
munications." Dynabook revealed All 
about PILOT Profiles: Wave Mate Jupiter 
II. SOL-20 CAI in depth 



Vol. 3, No. 4 - Jul/Aug 1977 

Guide to selecting a microcomputer 
Write your own CAI, Part 2. Computers 
in medicine and health care. Dwyer: "8- 
Hour Course in Basic- Part 1 ." "Thinking 
Strategies- Part 3." Sherlock Holmes and 
Charles Babbage. Four new games 

Vol. 3, No. 5 - Sept /Oct 1977 
Radio Shack computer profile, visit to 
Polymorphic, music synthesis for an 
8080. Three views to computer conferen- 
cing. In-depth comparison of five BASIC 
interpreters. Fiction, computer and 
calculator games. 

Vol. 3. No. 6 - Nov/Dec 1977 
Programming techniques- Part 1. CAI. 
Topics in Logic Three 8080 8K BASIC 
evaluations. Smart electronic game 
reviews How computers can write final 
exams. Mastermind II and Otherllo 
computer games. Profile of the Alpha 1 
and Alpha 2 for the TDL Xitan 

Vol. 4, No. 1 — Jan/Feb 1978 

File structures, 16-bit computers. 
LOGO language, Murphy's laws, 
review of Radio Shack TRS-80 and 
Heath H8, World model, biorythms, 
how to write a simulation, Hart sort 
algorithm, 3 games, 8-Hour Basic 
Course - Part 4. 



Vol. 4, No. 2 - Mar/Apr 1978 
Parody of Datamation, Business Com- 
puting: 5 inventory control systems, 
ABCs of microcomputers, structured 
software for micros, four computer 
music systems, reviews of 2 Basic 
interpreters and micro-APL, CAI-Part 
4, puzzles and games. 

Vol. 4, No. 3 - May/Jun 1978 

Art and animation section: 8 articles, 
color graphics. SAM76, binary search, 
a real budget in Basic, business com- 
puting: 4 payroll systems, Oregon 
Trail, Black Box, reviews of 
VideoBruin. MSI floppy, OSI 
Challenger, Ai speech synthesizer. 

Vol. 4, No. 4 - Jul/Aug 1978 

Reviews of Commodore PET, Apple II, 
Atari computer. Video games, inter- 
facing to the real world: 5 articles, 
business computing: 4 word process- 
ing systems, ROM section: 7 articles, 
backgammon game, bar code. 



For faster service, use your Visa or 
Master Charge and call our toll-free 
order line: 

800-631-8112 

(In NJ. call 201-540-0445) 



r 
i 

i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 
i 



Please send me: 


$2/each. 3 for $5, 6 for $9 


O 


Jan/Feb 1977 


□ 


Mar/Apr 1977 


□ 


May/Jun 1977 


□ 


Jul/Aug 1977 


D 


Sep/Oct 1977 


D 


Nov/Dec 1977 


$2 50/each, no quan. discount 


D 


Jan/Feb 1978 


D 


Mar/Apr 1978 


D 


May/Jun 1978 


□ 


Jul/Aug 1978 



D Volume 1 bound, $10 
D Volume 2 bound. $10 



Total amount 



a visa 



D Cash, check, 
or MO. enclosed 



U 



MASTER 
CHARGK 



Card No. 



Expiration date 



Name 



Address 



City 



State 



Zip. 



Return form to: CREATIVE COMPUTING. P.O. Box 789 M, Morristown, New Jersey 07960 



Conference on Intelligent Videodiscs 



Watsonville, CA. — The first days of 
December were beautiful and balmy 
among the sand dunes of Monterey 
Bay, but there were 48 men and women 
there who barely had time to notice; 
they were attending an invitation-only 
conference, sponsored by the National 
Science Foundation, to assess the 
educational prospects for a device that 
may do for electronic signals what 
Gutenberg's press did for text. 

The device under discussion com- 
bines the talents of the computer and 
the videodisc. The videodisc is an 
extension of long-playing audio disc 
technology into the domain of televi- 
sion and digital computers. A number 
of videodisc systems have been 
demonstrated, but the ones of greatest 
interest to this group use a low-power 
laser to read information from a plastic 
disc, spinning at 1,800 revolutions per 
minute. Such an optically-read disc 
can be made to "freeze" on any frame, 
and it can show motion sequences in 
slow motion, either forward or 
backward. 

Only a fourth of the conferees were 
videodisc specialists; the remainder 
were experts in computer hardware, 
computer programming, graphics dis- 
plays and instructional technology. 
The other disciplines were there 
because of the very attractive 
educational prospects for a marriage of 
videodisc and computer technologies. 
Any of the 54,000 video frames on a 
half-hour disc can be quickly access- 
ed. Computer programs can also be 
stored on the videodisc and transferred 
into the computer's memory. The 
computer can quickly change from one 
segment to another, reducing the need 
for very large amounts of expensive 
memory. 

An intelligent videodisc of this type, 
combining computer and videodisc 



capabilities, has a large number of 
potential applications; it could aug- 
ment present day computer-assisted 
learning systems that do not offer full 
multimedia capabilities. It could rapid- 
ly retrieve information from large 
stable databases. 

The conference began with three 
background papers given by the 
codirectors: "Trends in Personal Com- 
puting" by Arthur Luehrmann of 
Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley; 
"Requirements for Educational Com- 
puting" by Alfred Bork of University of 
California, Irvine; and "Videodiscs 
Beyond Entertainment" by Edward W. 
Schneider of Brigham Young Universi- 
ty. Subsequent general discussion of 
costs, time-frames and potential 
markets led to the formation of small 
study groups, to develop plausible 
strategies for the development of both 
the technologies and the markets. 

The study groups did not see 
educational applications as dependent 
on the mass marketing of home 
videodisc players. Instead, the groups 
saw a gradually evolving market, 
pioneered by government-funded 
development and demonstration pro- 
jects. These projects would enhance 
this new system's penetration of 
traditionally high-cost areas of training 
and education, such as military, in- 
dustrial, and medical applications, as 
well as courses in technical schools 
and universities. 

Other strategies were proposed; for 
example, piggy-backing on related 
special applications such as informa- 
tion retrieval in laboratories or devel- 
oping new organizational mechan- 
isms to share the development costs 
and to promote the effective use of 
such materials. 

After three days of probing, most 
conferees, bolstered by the converging 



opinions of their colleagues; became 
"guardedly optimistic" about the 
market prospects of intelligent 
videodiscs, but they were uniformly 
enthusiastic about the capabilities that 
emerge when video and digital 
technologies are combined. 

For more information, write: Alfred 
Bork, Physics Department, University 
of California, Irvine, California 92717, 
(714) 833-6911. 

IBM Videodisc? 

This item from the June 1978 issue of 
Consumer Electronics: 

Is IBM getting set to enter the 
consumer video disc market? Or is all 
the apparent developmental disc work 
going on at the giant computer 
manufacturer just one of numerous 
projects it undertakes to cover all 
conceivable bases. "We don't disclose 
any information on products that are 
still in development," a spokesman 
said. That response seems to indicate 
something is going on, though in the 
past IBM has responded similarly to 
questions on other products (home 
VTR and personal computer systems, 
to name two), and it may simply 
indicate that IBM is working on just 
about everything electronic. The latest 
IBM disc rumors erupted early last 
month, and many in the industry are 
convinced the firm has stepped up 
developmental work over the past six 
months., "They seem to be working on 
just about every conceivable consumer 
electronic product," one observer 
noted, "so it may mean nothing." But 
he added: "I am getting a lot of 
telephone calls all of a sudden asking 
me what's going on. I wish I knew." 
[The possibilities of the video disc as a 
digital storage medium have been 
discussed at length in Creative Com- 
puting (March/April 1976) so IBM may 
well be looking at this aspect of the 
medium. I wish I knew too. - DHA] 





Philips/MCA Videodisc Player. 



The master videodisc is cut by laser. 



100 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The Best 
Science Fiction 

Magazine... 




.is also one of the newest. It's the fastest 
growing publication of its kind, and that's almost 
all by subscription. The reason is clear: we publish 
more of the best stories, articles, interviews, and 
book reviews. Our large format permits more 
exciting illustration and photography. Our com- 
plete listing of all new science fiction keeps readers 
up-to-date. Our controversial science articles 
examine such areas as the private exploration of 
space, genetic research, and extraterrestrial 
communications by scientists like Carl Sagan, 
Arthur C. Clarke, and Justin Leiber. Special 
Features give you a time-machine glimpse of what 
our future cars, homes, and even fashions will be 
like. But it's the science fiction that makes the 
difference, by authors like Brian Aldiss, Harlan 
Ellison, and Jack Williamson. From fuzzy-minded 
professors to fuzzy aliens, there's a whole universe 
of adventure awaiting you. Join us. . . 
The new standard of quality in Science Fiction. 
Named "one of the best among SF mags" by 
LIBRARY JOURNAL in our very first year! 



Wonderful! Sign me up for the special subscription 
rate marked below. My payment is enclosed. 

[Foreign subscribers add 50 cents per issue.] 

D6 issues for $7.50 (saving $1.50) 
□ 12 issues for $12.00 (saving $6.00) 

Name 

Street Zip 

Town State 

Send to: GAL/LEO MAGAZINE, Dept. C2 
339 Newbury Street, Boston MA 02115 



Available only by subscription and through select bookshops. 



CIRCLE 140 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Considerations in Buying A 
Personal Computer 



What, Which, When, 
How Much? 

by Karl L. Zinn 

Many people ask me for advice on 
whether to buy a personal computer 
now or wait for the price to go down. 
Some are asking which one to buy. A 
few recognize that the inexpensive 
machines available today won't do 
everything one might be led to believe 
from the advertising. But then, these 
portable, low-cost, convenient, and 
personal computers will do a lot of 
things for which we presently turn to 
very expensive machines. This outline 
is a first attempt to assemble a checklist 
of considerations. Of course, the 
entries need elaboration, and they tend 
to interact. 

(I would appreciate questions, com- 
ments and suggestions which will help 
elaborate this checklist for use by 
teachers. Call (313) 763-4410 or write 
me at CRLT, Univ. of Michigan, 109 
East Madison Street, Ann Arbor, Ml 
48104.) 

1 ) For what purposes? Priorities? Distribution of uses? 

entertainment (Who are the users?) 

ages 

interests 
education (What kind of learning?) 

general literacy about computers 

computer programming 

computer applications 

incidental aid in study of other subjects 

other? 
scientific and creative work (How serious?) 

modeling a process 

simulation 

literary 

graphics 

music 

other? 
personal or professional or small business 

information handling (records, correspondence) 

finances (checking, budgeting, . . .) 

other 
other uses? 

2) With what capabilities? Options? Peripherals? 

processor speed 

storage size and access 

programming languages 

application packages 

keyboards 

printer quality and speed 

printer quality and speed 

graphics display 

graphics input 

audio input 

speech output 

music output 

communication 

other small machines 

large machines (systems) 



A Note to Educators 



With the prices of microcomputer 
systems coming down so rapidly, and 
with the availability of integrated, high- 
quality system software, it is now 
possible for many educators to con- 
sider the use of micros to supplement 
or to replace the use of a larger 
timesharing system. Nevertheless 
many educators who would like to 
begin using microcomputers find 
themselves in a quandary, not having 
the technical expertise to select a 
complete microcomputer system. The 
following list, compiled by Karl Zinn, 
should at least help these educators 
get an idea of what to look for. My own 
experience in talking to educators who 
want to use microcomputers in high 
school indicates that three otherthings 
are of special importance: 
1. Compatibility between BASIC used 
on the microcomputer and the time- 
sharing system. Obviously if the 
BASICS are similar, it won't be 



necessary to develop new cours 
materials, programs, etc. 

2. The microcomputer should havear 
integrated package of system software 
which can be used by novices, not just 
computer freaks. In other words, 
should be very easy to bring up BASK 
(possibly by typing "BASIC," or just] 
turning the power on). If the system has 
several different peripherals (such as < 
CRT, printer, etc.) it should be possible 
to direct output to a particular device 
without going into the assembly 
language I/O routines. One should alsc 
be aware that programming special- 
purpose I/O devices such as music 
boards, speech synthesis and recogni 
tion units, and some graphics inter- 
faces often requires linking BASIC 
assembly language subroutines. 

3. Quality of the construction of thel 
microcomputer is very important.! 
Fewer components are better. — Steve| 
North 



3) Which kind or type or style? 

kits 

components 

peripherals 

portability 

expandability 

other 

4) When, and for what period of use? 

watch for predicted and dramatic changes in: 

price 

capability 

other? 
begin now to gain experience 

trade up later 

early experience worthwhile 
other considerations 

5) How much? 

total outlay 

initial 

later additions 
amortization 

actual life 

period of preferred use 

on service contract 

carry in service as needed 

by individual 
maintenance 
tax deduction 

professional 

educational 

gift 

other 
other considerations? 



102 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Is persona 
computing 
worth it? 



We want your answers at the NCC '79 
Personal Computing Festival. 
New York City, June 4—7 



Has personal computing been worthwhile for 
you? Every aspect of this fast-growing field is 
being questioned. ..from the effort to generalize a 
subroutine to the cost of the latest hardware. What 
are your views? 

Some key questions about personal computing 
need answers. How is personal computing en- 
riching our lives and those of our families and 
associates? What is its potential? What are we 
getting for our investments in this field? Is it worth 
the time, effort, cost., even the criticism? 

JOIN THE PERSONAL COMPUTING FESTIVAL 

You can answer these and other questions by 
participating in the Personal Computing Festival 
of the 1979 National Computer Conference, the 



most comprehensive computer show on earth. 
Here's how you can participate: 

• Present a paper 

• Give a talk 

• Organize a panel 

• Deliver a tutorial 

• Demonstrate your application and equipment 
The deadline for receipt of letters of intent to 

participate is February 1 , 1 979. Accepted 
papers will be published in the 1979 NCC 
Personal Computing Proceedings. Honors and 
prizes will be awarded for the best papers and 
application demonstrations. 

For more details, fill in and return this coupon. 



I 4NCC '79 

I 
I 
I 

L 



Personal Computing Festival 
c/o American Federation of Information 
Processing Societies, Inc. 

210 Summit Avenue. Montvale, New Jersey 07645 
201/391-9810 
Send me more details on: 

□ Participating in a Personal Computing Festival session. 

□ Demonstrating my personal computing application. 

□ Keeping me up-to-date on the Personal Computing Festival. 

□ Exhibiting my company s products and services at the Personal 
Computing Festival. 



Name 

Company. 

Street 

City 



_State_ 



-Zip- 



i 
i 
i 
i 



A Computer Activity for Bui/ding 
a Linear Model of Data 



by Kenneth J. Travers 



Let us suppose that in mathematics class we wish to build a model of 
the relationship between two sets of data, for example, between the 
height and weight of the members of the school football team. Hypothet- 
ical data will do for purposes of illustration, but students will undoubt- 
edly prefer to gather their own, "real live" data. 

Suppose further that we want a linear model of the data. This paper 
will describe such an activity in mathematical model building. While the 
techniques of fitting a line to a set of data (techniques known formally as 
"regression analysis") are commonplace in college level courses, what is 
described here is easily accessible, with the help of a computer to take 
care of the messy computation involved, to freshman algebra classes in 
high school. One natural place for considering this topic is when the class 
is studying the slope-intercept form of an equation for a straight line. 

A linear model for a set of data 

A linear model may be expressed algebraically as: 
Y - mX + b 
In terms of our original problem, the model is interpreted, "Given a stu- 
dent with height X, what is his weight Y?" 

We have" already encountered a fundamental problem. The real world 
does not conform to this mathematical rule! But, we are not dismayed to 
find that we cannot exactly predict a person's weight, given his height. 
We will be satisfied with a "good" prediction. (A very important part of 
this entire activity is the consideration of what "good" means. More 
about that later.) A more usual (and realistic) way to express a linear 
model is therefore: 

Y'-mX + b (I) 

where Y ' indicates an estimated value of Y. The coefficient m is the slope 
of the line and b is the Y -value when the line crosses the Y-axis. 

Searching for the "best" model 

Let us assume that the data for which we are trying to build a model 
are graphed in Figure I . But as Figure I suggests, there are many linear 
models which could be chosen. However, recalling that a straight line is 
determined by one point on the line, and the slope at that point, if we lo- 
cate one point on the desired line, we can vary the slope as we search for 
the "best" line. 
Fkmim I : Which Line is the Best Model fo> the Data? 



It. 

1*0 

T: u.l t ht "° 

ito 
lit 

MO 



Tame 



SLOPE 



Predicted Values (v ') ano Eaaoa or Prediction (Y - V '( fon Lines having 
Various Slotes and Passing Through (X. Y) - (52.3). 154.67). 

Mean RMS 
X Y Y' Y-V (Y-YT Error Error 




■: tal|ht 

Now let us see if we can locate one point on the line. If we knew noth- 
ing about the relationship between the height and weight, what would be 
a reasonable way to estimate how they relate? We do this informally 
when we describe the school football team with the remark, "They're 
about five-foot-ten and weigh 190 pounds." What we are saying is that 
for a mean (average) height there corresponds a mean weight. Algebra- 
ically, we are saying that 

Y - mX + b (II) 





SO 


140 


152.) 


-12.3 


132.1 






1.0 


45 


132 


147.3 


4.6 


21.7 


1.17 


• II 




62 


172 


164.3 


7.6 


51.7 








50 


140 


131.2 


-11.2 


124.7 






1.5 


45 


152 


143.6 


1.3 


69.4 


7.44 


1.21 




62 


172 


169.2 


2.1 


■ 








50 


140 


1500 


-10.0 


1000 






2.0 


45 


152 


140.0 


12.0 


144.0 


1.00 


9.09 




62 


172 


1740 


-2.0 


4.0 







Note Only three pain of data art med in order lo simplify ihe method. 

To illustrate the idea of "best fit" we will use the simplified set of data 
in Table I. We assume that the line we are looking for goes through 
(X,Y) which we see from Table I is the point (52.33, 154.67). Now sup- 
pose we have a line with slope m = 1.0. By equation (II). we can find b, 
the Y intercept. 

b = V - mX = 154.67 - <1)(52.33) = 102.34 
and the equation of this particular line is Y,' - I X + 102.34 (111) 
where the subscript of Y ' indicates this is our first prediction line at- 
tempted. 

Using (III), for each of the three X values given in Table 3. a Y ' value 
can be calculated. Also, the "error of prediction," the difference be- 
tween each predicted Y ' and the corresponding actual value of Y can be 
found as shown in Table I . 

What is meant by "best model"? 

A criterion for the "best" model now emerges. The best model is the 
one which minimizes the error of prediction of the Y values. 

Table I is of help in locating the best model for our trial data. Notice, 
for example, that for a line with a slope of 1 .0, the mean error of predic 
tion (ignoring signs) is |- 12.31 + 14.61 + 17.61 = 24.5 = 8.2. (Also no- 

3 3 

lice, that within rounding error, the sum of the errors, taking account of 
signs, is zero.) 

Another way of viewing the goodness of fit of a linear model to the 
data is to take the square root of the mean of the squared errors. That is, 

for slope = 1 .0 ^__ 

Error - V (-12.3)' + (4.6)' + Q~W = 8.81 
3 
This quantity is very important in more advanced statistical work, and 
has the name "root mean square error" or more simply. "RMS error". 

Table 2 summarizes both the mean error and the root mean square er- 
ror for values of the slope of the linear model in the interval from 1 .0 to 
2.0. Notice that as the slope of Ihe line increases from 1.0 to 2.0, the er- 
ror measures first decrease, then increase again, indicating that the slope 
of the "best" linear model for the data is somewhere between 1.0 and 
2.0. 

Tame 2: Summary, or I ««.i«s ,.i Par dm tin* m I inisoe Vtmt Si oris (Stun died 
DaIAOI Ta»u I) 
Stone Mean Error RMS Error 



Kenneth J. travers. University of Illinois. Drbana. II. 61801. 



10 
1.2 
1.4 
16 
I.I 
2.0 



1.22 
7.91 
760 

729 
7 02 
1.00 



I II 
139 

• 21 
1.27 

• <7 
909 



104 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Although we have a choice as to whether we use mean error or RMS 
| error as our criterion of goodness of fit, advanced statistics points clearly 
to the desirability of using RMS error and the result is called a "least 
squares best fit" model. 

Table 2 magnifies the interval from 1 .0 to 2.0 arid points to values be- 
tween 1 .2 and 1 .6 as containing the desired slope. A further magnifica- 
tion as given in Table 3 produces a slope of 1 .45 having a corresponding 
RMS error of 



T»tlf J: 



•Tiappino" the Si ope or ihi Best Mooti (SiMPiiriEoDATAOE Take I) 
Slope RMS Error 



I 20 
I 25 
I JO 
1.35 
I 40 
1.45 
1.50 
1.55 
1.60 



S.39 
1.32 
127 
«23 
121 
R.20 
S.2I 
1.2) 
1.27 



8.20. Actually, by a formula from more advanced statistics, the slope of 
the "least squares best fit" line is found to be 1.44979 for the data of 
Table I (See footnote on following page for formula). All of the calcula- 
tions needed for this "trap and magnify" procedure are provided by the 
BASIC computer program in the appendix. 

Tahe 4: Suwma«» Statistics and Ennuis or Pur diction ro« Lints or Vamous Slows 
kir 17 Pairs cm Data 
IX. V) - lH7t. 1*5*5) 
Slope RMS Error 



1.0 
20 
3.0 
340 
3 42 
3.44 
3.5 
4.0 



10.54 

765 

5.76 

3.5436 

55430 

5.5434 

5.55 

5.94 



We now repeat the procedure for the 17 pairs of data plotted in Figure 
I . Table 4 gives the summary statistics and the RMS error associated with 
slopes from m = 1 .0 to m = 4.0. The least squares best fit Hne has a 
slope close to 3 .42 ' . Using equation 1 1 and the values for X and Y , we ob- 
tain the "best" linear model as 
Y' = 3.42 X - 69.54. 
Finally, we apply the model. Suppose a male high school senior is 65 
inches tall. What is his predicted weight? 
Y' - 3.42 X - 69.54 

- (3.42) (65) -69.54 
■ 152.8 pounds 

I The ItMooila. -** to .CM-puif "•* u»ii«m\ i.coi«4«*f .la-dotd 4r*i»iMMV ■-* w> '""M "»* be totnd M .taooa.4 
>iii>.iMi(iHiuihiild*ndM, ltr«n<J INoM Oui liMMMtetlot »«fHW *Ad to— .wore 4.c h- w l wmwion I 
I he tlopr o4 the Iw* **oatr. hoc "I fern f.i lot 1 o>«oh «rd (tool X moo ot conpoioi f.oot the lotmnhi 

uMIMMtlVtl 4h»l4 

slope- fSmamtaTiSSBm ■ ilW •"" 
■rxr 

lot the eote. ol leMe 4 Heore. the «ee.*ch ptoteoWe. -h*h M >e ■ Uope of Ml. •»« »cmortt*N orctMOM 

REFERENCES 

ClWlRlia. All in L Statistical Methods Stcond Edition Hotl. RinthaM •nd Wimlon. 

Ne» York. 1967 
t «n si., it »is E Mathematical Slatalla Prrniin-Hall. Enikrwood Clifh. Nrw Jersey. 

1971. 



BASIC Prik.ham to Find Best Menu i 



10 DIM xcso>.yiso> 

20 LET SI»Sa-S5-5»oS7-0 
30 AEAD M 
«0 DATA IT 

so ran 1-1 T* h 

60 1EAD XtO.YI I > 
TO LET Sl-SI-Xd > 

ao let s2osa-v<i> 

90 LET SS'SS-XC I >«Xll > 

100 LET S6-S6-YCI 1*YC I I 

110 LET ST»ST-Xll)oY< l> 

120 NEXT I 

I JO »AI»T "Y»'l HAVE "TNI-PAIJS »T DATA" 

1*0 l»»,INT "MEAN VAL'JE r«A X- "III/H 

ISO MINT -MEAN VALVE F1A Y" "IS2/N 

160 LET E>S5/N-SI«SI/<NoN> 

IT0 PAINT "STANDARD DEVIATION IT X Irilllljl 

160 PUNT "STANDARD DEVIATION *T Y IS" IS9K S6/H-S2«S2/IN«N > > 

190 LET C-S7/N-SI-S2/IN-N1 

200 PAINT "CaVAAIANCE FM X AMD Y 1J"IC 

210 PAINT •••••••••SEAT.CH FIA BEST H»DELooooooooo" 

220 PAINT "WHAT 1L6PE 06 Y6"J WANT T» T1Y ". 

2)0 INPUT n 

240 LET B-S2/N-H»SI/N 

2S0 PAINT "THIS LINE HAS EO.TN Y'o-INI-X •"!• 

260 LET SJ-0 

270 LET S4-0 

260 PAINT "X"."r , ."Y , "."Y-Y , ".-(Y-Y>i2" 

290 r«A l-l T» N 

300 LET YI-M-xc I )-0 

310 LET 01-YCD-YI 

320 PAINT XII ).Y< D.YI .01 .01 -Dl 

330 LET S)-SJ»A»S<DI 1 

J40 LET S«-S««DI-DI 

JS0 NEXT I 

360 PAINT "MEAN EAA1A- "JSJ/N 

JT0 PAINT "AKS EA16T "ISIACSA/N > 

360 PAINT 

390 06T6 220 

400 DATA 61 .140.64. 141 .6*. 144.66. 156.67. 166 

410 DATA 67. 174.66. 160.66. 164.66. 170.69. I 72 

420 DATA 70. I 70.71. 175. 72. 170. 72. I 74. I). 176 

430 DATA 74,160.76.192 

440 END 



Sample Output 

yhj kavt it paias 6p data 

MEAN VAL'lt Ttn X- 61.7647 
MEAN VALUE F6A Y- 165-64 7 
STANDAAD 0CVIATI6N 6P X IS ). 70261 
STANDARD 0CVIATI6N 6P Y IS 11.6107 
CIVAAIAIece ran X AND Y If 44.9IT 
...... . 5t ., CM P»A 6EST M60CL-O4OO4O.O 

WHAT SL6PE 06 Y6U VANT T6 TAT 

THIS LINE MAS E-1TM T'- I X • *«.*S24 



X 


V 


V 


Y-V 


CV-VM2 


61 


140 


1ST. 6*2 


-17.661* 


1I9.TT9 


64 


141 


160.662 


-16.112* 


J96.101 


6A 


144 


160.662 


-16-662* 


215.01* 


66 


IS6 


162.662 


4. 1*2 IS 


l)-l)7« 


67 


ISA 


I6J-662 


•T.662JS 


62 - 1 J 1 5 


6T 


IT* 


161-662 


10-117* 


I02-16T 


66 


160 


16*. 662 


-•■■IDS 


23.1)7* 


66 


16* 


164.662 


-0.111JS) 


0.7 785*7 


66 


170 


16* .6*2 


5.11765 


16.190) 


69 


ITI 


1 65 . 662 


6.1 17*5 


17.425* 


TO 


IT0 


166.162 


1.1 1766 


9. 71 172 


Tl 


ITS 


1 67 . 662 


7.1 1765 


SO. 6609 


Tt 


IT0 


166.662 


1 • 1 1 T6S 


1.2*91* 


Tt 


IT* 


169-662 


6-117*6 


26.190) 


T) 


IT6 


169.661 


6.117*5 


17.4256 


T4 


160 


170-111 


1.IIT6S 


6) . 1 ) 1 5 


TS 


I9f 


ITI. 161 


20.117* 


•0* • 71 


MEAN CA44A- 


(.609 








AMS EAA1A" 


10.5414 









Reprinted with permiuion from School Sctrmt ami Mathemaius. December 1977 Copyright 
1977 by the School Science and Mathcnuiic. Association, Inc. 




J \ 




L wtiDt 167 ; 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



105 



short programs 



Subscripts 



If you have a version of BASIC which 
does not allow double subscripts, have 
you looked wistfully at all the in- 
teresting games and programs that 
contain lines like: 

100 A(I,J) = I + J/10...? 

Well, the situation really is far from 
hopeless. As a simple example, sup- 
pose you wanted to create and print a 
table of numbers. You want the table to 
have five rows and seven columns, and 
each entry in the table is to be a decimal 
number with the row number on the left 
of the decimal point and the column 
number on the right. Here is one way to 
do it with double subscripts: 

20 FOR I = 1 TO 5 

30 FOR J = 1 TO 7 

40 A(I.J) = I + J/10 

50 PRINT A(I,J); 

60 NEXT 

70 PRINT 

80 NEXT I 

90 END 



20 FOR I»l TO S 








30 FOR J«1 TO 7 








40 6(1, J>=I+j/io 








SO PRINT Ad, J); 








40 NEXT J 








70 PRINT 








00 NEXT I 








90 ENI 








run 








1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 


1.3 


1.6 


1.7 


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 


2.5 


2.6 


2.7 


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 


3.5 


3.6 


3.7 


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 


4.5 


4.6 


4.7 


S.t 3.2 5.3 S.4 


5.5 


5.6 


5.7 


10 DIN fl(35) 








20 FOR 1=1 TO 3 








30 FOR J-1 TO 7 








35 N • 7*(I-1>+J 








40 ft(N) - I ♦ J/10 








30 PRINT A(N>; 








60 NEXT J 








70 mm 








80 NEXT I 








90 END 








run 








1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 


1.5 


1.6 


1.7 


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 


2.5 


2.6 


2.7 


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 


3.5 


3.6 


3.7 


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 


4.5 


4.6 


4.7 



Can we achieve the same result 
without the use of double subscripts? 
Happily, the answer is yes. Add the 
following line: 

35 N = 7*(I-1)+J 
and change lines 40 and 50 to: 

40 A(N)=1 + J/10 

50 PRINT A(N); 

The secret is at line 35. In general, to 
imitate the variable A(I,J), use A(C*(I- 
1)+J) where C is the number of 
columns in your array. 

It's that simple. 



With this technique, for instance, I 
have been able to translate Gregory 
Yobs "HUNT THE WUMPUS" into 
Radio Shack's Level I BASIC, which 
allows only single subscripts. 

Well, what are you waiting for? Get 
out those back issues of Creative 
Computing that had all the games you 
thought you couldn't program. 

Now you can. 

James Garon 

Math Dept 

Calif. State University 

Fullerton. CA 92634 



5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5. 5 3.6 3.7 



Common Birthdays 



10 PRINT "NUMBFfi OF PROBABILITY THAT AT LEAST" 

SO PRINT "PEOPLE TWO HAVE SAME BIRTHDAY" 

30 PRINT " ---• ........... ........ « 

40 4I-364/36S 

60 FOR N-8 TO 40 

70 P-100»(i-B> 

60 PRINT " ">NlTA8(SO)ilNTCP*IOO».S>/I00ITAB(e8>l"t M 

90 C-0*<365-N>/365 

tOO NEXT II 

110 END RUN 

NUMBER OF PROBABILITY THAT AT LEAST 
PEOPLE TV0 HAVE SANE BIRTHDAY 



In a group of ten randomly 
selected people, there is 
about a 12% chance that 
two of them share a com- 
mon birthday. 

With 23 people, the 
probability is slightly 
greater than 50%. 

With 40 people, the 
probability is about 89%. 



Consider the set of all 
Presidents of the United 
States. Two of them, 
James Polk and Warren 
G. Harding were born on 
November 2. 

It is interesting to note 
that John Adams, James 
Monroe, and Thomas 
Jefferson all died on July 
4. Millard Fillmore and 
William Taft both died on 
March 8. 



Sanderson M Smith 

Cate School 

Carpinteria. CA 



106 



8 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 



9 

10 

11 

ie 
i? 

14 

is 

16 
17 
IB 
19 
SO 
SI 
88 
S3 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 
30 
31 
38 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
36 
39 



.87 


t 


.68 


X 


1.64 


X 


8.71 


X 


4.05 


X 


5.68 


X 


7.43 


X 


9.46 


X 


11.69 


X 


14.11 


X 


16.7 


X 


19.44 


X 


88.31 


X 


85.89 


X 


86.36 


X 


31.5 


X 


34.69 


X 


37.91 


X 


41.14 


X 


44.37 


X 


47.57 


X 


50.73 


X 


53.63 


X 


56.67 


X 


59.88 


X 


68.69 


X 


65.45 


X 


68.1 


X 


70.63 


X 


73.05 


X 


75.33 


X 


77.5 


X 


79.53 


I 


61.44 


1 


63.88 


1 


84.67 


X 


86.41 


X 


67.68 


X 


69.18 


X 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



IT ISN'T SCIENCE FICTION! 



It's fact! THE FUTURIST is your 
I front line report from the exciting new 
I field of futuristics— the systematic 
I scientific study of the future. 

THE FUTURIST, published bi- 
I monthly by the World Future Society, 
I brings you the latest facts, analyses 
land informed projections about the fu- 
I ture of technology, resources, life-styles, 
I economics, health, population, environ- 
|ment, education, communications . . . 

Explore in depth the major issues 
I of today that will shape the world of 
I tomorrow. 

Evaluate controversial opinions on 
I current trends and policies, and where 
I they are leading us— informed opin- 
ions, openly and fearlessly expressed 
by some of the most innovative thinkers 
| of our decade. 

Keep abreast of the latest discov- 
eries and developments in every area 
| that touches on the future. 

Read about new books on futuristic 

I topics, as they are published— and 

order them by mail, at a 10% discount, 

from the Society's Book Service, your 

| "Future Bookstore." 

Your subscription to THE FUTUR- 
1 1ST entitles you to all the benefits of 
membership in the World Future Soci- 
ety, a non-political, non-profit organiza- 
tion for the study of alternative futures. 
As a Society member, you may attend 
lectures and seminars on futurist topics 
at any of 20 local chapters throughout 
the U.S.. purchase audio tapes on is- 
sues of the future for low member 
prices, and meet the world's leading 
futurists at large, multi-discipline gath- 
| erings. 

"It has been many years since I have received 
such positive stimulation as has occurred 
| from recent reading ... of THE FUTURIST. 
I find it sensible, clear and timely." 

— P. H Aykroyd. Privy Council Office. Ottawa 

"Excellent!" 

— Buckminster Fuller. Comprehensive Desiflner 



Recent Articles from THE FUTURIST: 



An Atomized Society in the 1980s?, Jib 

Fowles. Chairman. Studies of the Future De- 
partment. University of Houston. Clear Lake 
City. 

Helping Congress to Cope With Tomorrow, 

Anne Cheatham. Director. Congressional 
Clearinghouse on the Future. 

An Educator Looks Back From 1996. Ronald 
E. Barnes. President, Transitions. Inc. 

The Automated Office. Hollis Vail. Manage- 
ment Consultant to U.S. Department of the 
Interior. 

Special Introductory Offer 

Subscribe today and receive one full year of THE 
FUTURIST at the special low introductory rate of just 
$12. You save $3 off the regular subscription price! 



Towards a Philosophy ol Futurism, Edward 
Cornish. President, the World Future Society. 
Global Economic Ills, Lester R. Brown. Presi- 
dent. WorldWatch Institute. 
Mass Transit and Appropriate Technology, 
Larry Bell. Professor. Industrial Design. Uni- 
versity of Illinois. 

An International Decade of Energy Alterna- 
tives, Neil P. Ruzic, Scientist-Entrepreneur. 
Recycling People: Work-Sharing Through 
Flexible Life Scheduling, Fred Best. Research 
Associate. National Commission for Man- 



power Policy 



Start Your Futurist Library FREE! 

Enclose payment for your subscription and receive 
a free copy of 1999: The World of Tomorrow— a 160- 
page anthology of choice articles from past issues 
of THE FUTURIST. Explore the future in 22 articles, 
illustrated in over 100 black and white photographs 
and renderings. 



® 




World Future Society 
4916 St. Elmo Avenue 
Washington. D.C. 20014 • U.S.A. 

Enter my subscription to THE FUTURIST today, at the special introductory rate of just $12 
for a full year. I want a free copy of 1999: The World ol Tomorrow, so I'm enclosing payment 
or credit card information. 

Enclosed is my check or money order. 

Charge my credit card. Card Number . 

Master Charge Visa Expiration Date 

I'd rather be billed, even though I won't receive 1999: The World ol Tomorrow free. 



City 



State or 
Province 



Zip or 
Country 



D Enroll me as a member of the World Future Society, with all privileges, at no extra charge. 

Full Money Back Guarantee: You must be completely satisfied with THE FUTURIST or your money will be 
refunded, in full, at any time during the entire lite of your subscription You may keep your free copy of 
»999 The World of Tomorrow, and any copies of THE FUTURIST you have received to date 

CIRCLE 171 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Freedom 
and 
the 
Computer 



Jon R. Welton 

[Pub. note: The author presents a 
picture of a regimented society that 
many believe could be brought about 
by computers and other currently 
available machinery. Although he 
states that "Americans' compulsive 
desire for freedom will continue to 
frustrate any plan to substitute efficien- 
cy for liberty," nevertheless many of 
the people who make our laws, form 
our opinions and publish our news- 
papers, also believe in many or all of 
the facets of such regimentation. As 
"insiders, " we ought to be aware that 
such views are much more widely held 
than our own.] 

Is it now possible to control the lives 
of a group of people through the use of 
computers and related technology that 
is currently available or will be 
available in the foreseeable future? 
Certainly. Today there are scientific 
marvels that were undreamed of a 
generation ago. These present day 
miracles can be used for the good of us 
all or for the power and aggrandize- 
ment of a privileged few. 

Technological Advances 

Science and technology have ex- 
ploded in the last seventy-five years, 
taking man from the back of a horse to 
the surface of the moon. This is 
especially dramatic in the fields of 
communications and computer 
technology. Human speech was first 
radioed across the Atlantic in 1915 
from the U.S. navy station at Arlington, 
Virginia to U.S. radio-telephone 
engineers atop the Eiffel Tower in 
Paris, France. Today one hundred and 
seven countries, territories and 
possessions on six continents are 
using communication satellite ser- 
vices, enabling more than one billion 
people — one of every four persons on 
earth — to see an international event on 
television as it happens. And they can 
view these events on their own per- 
sonal pocket size television sets which 
are currently available on the market. 

About thirty years ago, J. Presper 

Jon R. Welton. 3521 Winifred. Ft. Worth, TX 76133. 



S2B 










i^^^^^"' 


i 1_ ''— - 

■ MB 1^ ■■■ 

t r *" - 





J**** 3 ^ 



%F$ 




Eckert, Jr., and John W. Mauchly built 
the world's first electronic digital 
computer, ENIAC (Electronic 
Numerical Integrator and Computer) 
which weighed thirty tons and ran on 
19,000 vacuum tubes. Today a com- 
puter on a chip about .16 inches by .12 
inches can just about match ENIAC's 
computational power. ENIAC could 
perform three hundred multiplications 
per second. Today's computers are 
learning to talk, read commands direct- 
ly from the human brain, play good 
chess — although not Grand Master 
level — compose music and control 
complex business, scientific and 
governmental processes. Furthermore, 
computers owned by insurance com- 
panies, credit businesses, government 
agencies and marketing firms contain 
all sorts of information on practically 
every man, woman and child in the 
United States. The computer has 
invaded the fields of science, 
technology, business and government 
to the point that it is meaningless to 
describe an activity as computerized. 
In 1972 there was one computer for 
every 2400 people in the U.S. and the 
computer population explosion has 
not yet abated. 

Scientific developments and dis- 
coveries continue to increase the 
capabilities of computers and com- 
munications equipment. Out of the 
new field of fiber optics, for example, 
comes the development of special 
glass fibers that will be used to enable 

108 



computers to operate ten times faster 
than they do now. These fibers also will 
make it possible to transmit the entire 
thirty volume Encyclopedia Britannica \ 
in a tenth of a second. 

For Good or Evil? 

Man can use this technology to help I 
cure the ills of the world. But man's! 
recorded history is an endless parade! 
of cruelty, barbarism and selfishness! 
with an occasional good deed thrown 
in to relieve the monotony. Of course, 
man has advanced over the centuries. 
No longer is it state pol icy to break men 
on the rack, boil them in oil or feed 
them to the lions. It wasn't long ago, 
however, that people were burned in 
ovens as a matter of state policy. For 
whatever reasons, real or imagined, 
there apparently will always be those 
who know the "truth," whatever that is, 
and in pursuit of this "truth" will stop at | 
nothing to bend others to their will. 

Is it now possible to con- 
trol the lives of a group of 
people through the use 
of computers and re- 
lated technology that is 
currently available or will ] 
be available in the fore- 
seeable future? 
Certainly. 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The Corporate Model 

What kind of control could be used to 
manipulate the destinies of the 
masses? Given the tools at hand, it 
seems that a society and its people 
might be managed much like a giant 
corporation with budgets and perfor- 
mance standards and with attendant 
rewards and punishments. 

Personnel files could be maintained 
on everyone from birth to death. Such 
files might contain records of personal 
health, military service, criminal activi- 
ty, education, financial transactions, 
licenses, psychological tests, 
membership in organizations, and 
physical identification characteristics 
such as scars, abnormalities, finger 
prints and voice patterns. 

Virtually all human activity could be 
touched by the computer. Food could 
be ordered through a computer ter- 
minal in the home. Reading material 
such as newspapers, magazines, and 
books could be fed from the library 
through the computer to the home 
terminal where copies would be made 
merely by pressing a button on the TV 
set and reproducing those pages of 
interest. If one wished to travel outside 
of his city, he could be required to 
register his location with the computer. 
Of course his eating, reading and travel 
habits would then be a matter of record 
in the computer. 

Houses and apartments could be 
assigned by the state based upon one's 
position in the society, family size and 
length of time one has waited for a 
home. But a home is more than a roof 
held up by walls; it is a mate and often 
children. The state could help in 
finding a mate through a computerized 
dating service. Even though there 
might be little state influence regarding 
mate selection other than com- 
puterized introduction, there quite 
possibly would be state control of 
reproduction. Genetic and health 
profiles of individuals and theirfamilies 
might be used to determine if couples 
should be authorized to produce 
children. Perhaps selective steriliza- 
tion would be performed prior to 
puberty, precluding the need to seek 
such authorization. 

Improved Health Care 

Computerized health history has its 
good side in that doctors could have 
instantaneous access to a patient's 
records. Furthermore, personal health 
transmitters may be carried by those 
who require them and vital data could 
then be monitored by the computer. 
Menus can be printed by the computer 
for diabetics and others who must have 
special diets. Nutrition needs can be 
matched to locally available foods to 
present choices for the patient. 

Since good health is enhanced by 
exercise, the state might require exer- 
cise programs that would be closely 



watched by the computer. Reser- 
vations for tennis, handball, racquet 
ball, squash, golf, etc. could be com- 
puterized. Demands for courts, alleys, 
diamonds, greens and fields might also 
be computer monitored and construc- 
tion programs could be scheduled to 
meet those demands. 

Sports would not be the only form of 
recreation. Present research and 
development in holography makes 3D 
movies a reality, and work with liquid 
crystals sensitive to electricity make 
wall-size TV a coming reality. 
Vacations at parks and seashores may 
be computer scheduled. Facilities 
would not be overcrowded or overused 
because access to them could be 
managed. Vacations might be 
scheduled much like airlines presently 
schedule passenger travel. 

Little Personal Privacy 

Travel in general would not be overly 
restricted as long as the computer 
knows where an individual is located. If 
the computer has received no input 
within a week regarding at least one 
activity such as work, mandatory 
sports, vacation, etc. a search could be 
conducted. All family members, work 
associates and exercise companions 
could be contacted. Also, the missing 
person's voice pattern may be fed into 
the communications system and if that 
pattern appears, its source could be 
pinpointed. 

Where it may be virtually impossible 
to hide one's identity and location from 
the computer, it may be difficult to lie to 
it as well. The same device that is used 
to monitor vital signs could also serve 
as a lie detector. In that task it may be 
aided by a voice-stress analyzer that 
could determine when a lie is spoken. 

From School to the Job 

Speaking to the computer may be 
commonplace. There are computers 
now able to handle limited discourse. 
Particularly in education and training, 
the computer could interact verbally 
with the students in programmed 
learning. Of course an individual's 
speed and ability to learn becomes a 
permanent record. Lectures, reading 
assignments and even experiments 
might be carried on by and with the 
computer. Children sitting in front of 
TV screens could travel with their eyes 
and ears anywhere in the world. They 
may learn such new skills as three- 
dimensional drawing through the use 
of computer graphics. 

Sometime before completing 
schooling, the computer could help the 
student choose a career. The student 
would talk to the computer, feeding in 
important details about his or her 
goals, needs and values. The computer 
would then weigh the information it 
receives from the student with personal 
information already on file and with the 



needs of the state. Then it could 
present the student with sets of alter- 
natives compatible with his or her own 
requirements and the requirements of 
the state. When the student finishes 
school, the job awaits. 

Performance on the job may be 
watched and recorded by the com- 
puter. The worker's home, pay, vaca- 
tion and life style in general could be 
influenced by job performance as 
recorded. In case a job is lost because 
of obsolescence, automation or even 
incompetence, the computer may 
assist in retraining and, if necessary, in 
relocating the displaced worker. 

From the job, to the home, in the 
school, on the playing field, into the 
grave and practically everywhere else, 
the individual could be guided, 
monitored, scheduled, programmed, 
trained and helped by and through the 
computer. Also, people could be 
collectively controlled. 

Performance of the whole economy 
may be computer guided. Economic 
activity could be determined and 
directed by a state budget. The 
preparation of this budget would be 
based upon timely information which 
would be vast in volume and detail. 
Presently, large corporations such as 
International Telephone and 
Telegraph Corporation (ITT) budget 
and direct the activities of vast inter- 
national organizations that are larger 
and more complex than many small 
nations. For example, ITT's revenues in 
1975 were $14 billion. Ireland's Gross 
National Product was $7.8 billion that 
same year. 

Americans Distrust Computer Control 

Will a computer controlled society 
emerge in the U.S.? Recent events in 
the last decade or so point to a 
reluctance on the part of conservatives 
and liberals alike to trust computerized 
government. 

The first attempt to use a com- 
puterized system for more efficient 
government was in 1965, when the 
Social Science Research Council 
recommended that the Federal Bureau 
of the Budget create a national center 
for socioeconomic data. After all, 
important new Federal responsibilities 
for urban renewal, health, anti-poverty, 
education and civil rights made 
amalgamation of statistical data essen- 
tial. These data could be drawn from 
the Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor 
Statistics, Social Security Administra- 
tion and the Internal Revenue Service. 

From 1966 to 1968 two congressional 
subcommittees studied the proposal 
and concluded that there was always 
the possibility that those managing the 
center or those obtaining access to it 
could connect it with an intelligence 
system and obtain a comprehensive 
print-out of all information stored 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



109 



lieu 'PiocLictf 

6ofcerer 
Com 



orily 6695 



on af f ordable computer 

This is a complete, self-contained com- 
puter. Just plug into a monitor and a 
cassette tape recorder and you have a 
fully functioning computer system. 
Now you can handle: 

■ Personal data management 

■ Business applications 

■ Learning math, languages and 
programming. 

■ Engineering 

■ Games 

Oorcerer Includes: 

■ Z-80 processor 

■ High resolution graphics 

■ S-1 00 bus connector 

■ 8K RAM and 4K ROM 

■ Extended BASIC in ROM 

■ Dual cassette I/O 

■ Serial and parallel I/O ports 

■ Video I/O port 

programs now available: 

■ Personal finance and investment 
planning 

■ Computer aided instruction 

■ "Personal Physician" with diets 
and biorythm chart 

■ Las Vegas-style games 

■ Business management aids 

■ Advanced engineering & statistics 



expand to: 



Many S-1 00 bus components 
32K RAM 

ROM PAC* cartridges for word 
processing and development soft- 



*Trademark of Exidy, Inc. 

. available today at 



Sunshine Computer Company 

20710 S<xxh lecyxuood Ave Ccuion. CoBwmo 90706 



CIRCLE 118 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



about a target individual. Moreover, 
they believed that such a system could 
have enormous detrimental effects on 
the citizens' privacy and could lead to a 
concentration of power in the hands of 
Federal officials who might use the 
data for intelligence purposes. 

Meanwhile, publications such as the 
liberal Washington Post and the con- 
servative U.S. News and World Report 
were warning their readers of the "Big 
Brother" possibilities of the center. The 
data center was debated at national 
meetings of groups from the American 
Bar Association to the Joint Computer 
Conference. The center was short- 
circuited before it was even plugged in. 

Government Amasses Information 

The Federal government today does 
have, however, files containing varied 
information about many U.S. citizens. 
For example: the Internal Revenue 
Service and the Social Security Ad- 
ministration carry income and employ- 
ment data; the Veterans Administration 
has military service data; the Bureau of 
Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms has 
data on gun collections; the Clerk of 
Congress or the Federal Elections 
Commission records political con- 
tributions over $100; the Coast Guard 
maintains boat registrations; the 
Defense Intelligence Agency has data 
on executives in companies with 

Where it may be virtual- 
ly impossible to hide 
one's identity and loca- 
tion from the computer, 
it may be difficult to lie to 
it as well. 

military contracts; the Federal Aviation 
Agency has data on applicants for and 
holders of private-plane licenses; the 
Federal Communications Commission 
has files on ham operators and boat- 
radio license holders; the Federal 
Trade Commission has files on many 
top executives; the Health, Education 
and Welfare Department has financial 
records of parents whose children are 
seeking student loans; the Justice 
Department has data on families of 
juveniles facing drug or similar charges 
in court; the Securities and Exchange 
Commission has information on cor- 
porate insiders; the Small Business 
Administration maintains loan 
applications; the State Department 
keeps data regarding passports and 
the Treasury Department records 
banking transactions involving more 
than $10,000. 

Legal Safeguards 

With the proliferation of government 
files, there is an accompanying growth 

110 



of legal safeguards. The Freedom of 
Information Act, as amended in 1974, 
and the Privacy Act of 1974 permit 
individuals to write for copies of 
personal records collected by federal 
agencies, to correct any inaccuracies 
in those records and, within limits, to 
control disclosure of them to other 
agencies. The Tax Reform Act of 1976 
prohibits the Internal Revenue Service 
from disclosing personal files to the 
White House and the rest of govern- 
ment unless the requests are in writing 
and signed by the President, his 
delegate or the top official of the 
requesting agency. Additionally, IRS 
must give notice to an individual prior 
to getting personal records held by that 
person's bank, accountant, lawyer, 
stockbroker, credit union, credit card 
issuer or savings and loan company. 
The taxpayer can direct that his 
records not be disclosed except by 
court order. 

Freedom Before Efficiency 

Along with increased computer 
sophistication and data handling 
capacity and with rapid growth of 
communication networks, there is a 
growing paranoia about government 
abuse of individual freedom. 
Americans' compulsive desire for 
freedom will continue to frustrate any 
plan to substitute efficiency for liberty. 




TANK! 



JUST&NiAE 
THE I6G/MES 
YOU CAN PLKY WITH OUR NEW 
INCRE06LE HAND HELD ELEC- 
TRONIC GAMt. SPECIAL 

INTRODUCTORY .QAP 

PRK€ ONLY : 'O.v/O 

SATISFACTION GUARANTEED 

WTERFAB. 27963 CABOT Hp. 

unm rffifti in. lit 721 



CIRCLE 114 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TIS 



Documentation and sothwar* application! 
package! lor Ihe COMMODORE PET 2001. 
Workbooks from S3 95; aoltware Irom $4.95. 
For a (Iyer descrl bin g all our products, please 
sand a sell-addressed stamped envelope to 
TIS, P.O. Box 921. Los Alamos. NM 87544. 



CIRCLE 147 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 










***** 



EXCITING 

That's the word that sums up the dynamic small computer show in New 
York that was established last year at the Coliseum. The lecture areas were 
filled by interested people, the exhibits were great, the attendance was the 
highest of any small computer show in the country. 
The big point is that everyone who came went away happy. Accountants, 
hobbyists, lawyers, doctors, brokers, retailers, business people, program- 
mers, research scientists and just plain homeowners. 
The second big point is that we're doing it again. This time, bigger and 
better. Top seminars, top exhibits. 



Small computers from $500 up, 
software and kits. 



NAME 



Save time. 

Get your tickets 

in advance by mail. 



►i 



(please print) 



ADDRESS 



State 



-Zip 




PERSONAL & BUSINESS 
SMALL COMPUTER SHOW 

78 East 56th Street, New York, N.Y. 10022 



I 
I 



City 

Send me tickets in advance for Personal & Business Small 
Computer Show, Sept. 15-17, 1978. in the New York Coliseum. 

(Check One) One Day ($5)_Two Days ($9)_ Three Days ($13). 

Send check or money order (US dollars) payable to 
Personal & Business Small Computer Show to 78 E. 56th St., 
New York, N.Y. 10022 





DYNflMlTEJ 



James C. Meehan, Jr. 

The system-design form widely 
referred to as "distributed processing" 
is fast becoming state-of-the-art 
design in many data-processing 
circles. For purposes of discussion 
here, we can define the concept as 
follows: 

"Distributed processing is the 
removing of some functions from 
the traditional large-scale host' 
processor, and distributing those 
functions into a network of mini- 
and micro-processors. These 
functions include data-base 
management, data manipulation 
and communications control." 
Distributed processing is one of the 
results of successful manufacture of 
multi-function, mini- and micro- 
processors. It allows many 
applications to become economically 
and operationally feasible where they 
previously would have expired on the 
drawing board. No longer are "mega- 
buck" investments necessary to sup- 
port on-line, user-oriented systems. 
Reduced communication-line costs, 
speedy response, improved reliability 
and recovery, are all very real benefits 
of distributed processing. The end 
result of all this is to allow us to bring 
the power of data processing back 
under the control of the end-user. 
Because of this very reason, if suf- 
ficient attention is not paid to the role of 
that user, we are apt to construct 
sophisticated, reliable, instant- 
response failures! 

The End-User in Mind 

It is fairly evident that an on-line 
system has to be designed and im- 
plemented with the end-user in mind in 
order to be successful. The user's role 
as a provider and recipient of data is 
well accepted; less widely accepted is 
the concept that the user is also a 
processor. As a processor, the user is 
an integral node in the system and all 

James C. Meehan. Jr.. 245 State St.. Room 701 
Boston. MA 02109 









. Not Necessarily!! 



user functions must be designed and 
tested as part of the total system. The 
system (or more accurately the com- 
puter subsystem) must not be com- 
pleted and presented to the user as a 
fait accompli. In parallel to the machine 
subsystem development, a personnel 
subsystem must be developed. This 
personnel subsystem must be 
developed in the same manner as the 
computer subsystem; defined, design- 
ed, implemented, tested and con- 
verted. The personnel subsystem that 
is no more than final documentation of 
the machine subsystem is a sign of a 
successful failure. Many times the 
developers of machine subsystems are 
the same persons charged with 
development of the personnel sub- 
systems. While this is not inherently 
bad, nor are the skills mutually ex- 
clusive, it is indeed rare to find a person 
who can switch between two such 
demanding tasks and do both well. 
Personnel subsystem development has 
lagged behind computer subsystem 
development as a discipline, and still 
needs to be recognized as being at 
least equally important. 

Tomorrow's Job 

Another concept of per- 
sonnel/machine interface design that 
is often overlooked is that the person 
doing the user job today is not 
automatically qualified to do the job 
tomorrow with an on-line system. 
Ability to read and write English (or any 
language) and the ability to discern the 
difference between symbols is nor 
sufficient. Persons dealing with a new 
machine subsystem may need varying 
levels of skills and knowledge before 
they are really qualified to interface 



successfully with the machine sub- 
system. It is part of the personnel 
subsystem developers charge to define 
and provide for any training necessary 
for successful system implementation. 
Again, computer experts may not be 
qualified in designing and developing 
this training, even though they may 
have very detailed knowledge of the 
workings of the computer subsystem. 

Test and Evaluate 

A third concept of development of 
adequate personnel subsystems in 
distributed networks is that they must 
be tested and evaluated as much as the 
machine subsystem. This means 
following much the same steps as for a 
machine subsystem; developing a test 
plan, defining test criteria, providing 
test data, conducting and evaluating 
the test, etc. However, the problems 
encountered in adequately testing a 
personnel subsystem are different and 
more complex than a machine sub- 
system. It is costly, for starters; not only 
do you have to find and schedule 

The personnel subsys- 
tem that is no more than 
final documentation of 
the machine subsystem 
is a sign of a successful 
failure. 



people in a large enough sample, but 
you are usually faced with maintaining 
an acceptable level of output in their 
normal assignments. Testing on an off- 
shift or on weekends, a technique used 



112 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



in machine testing, can't be used here 
for obvious reasons. Another problem 
is establishing a base level of 
knowledge to train from; some in- 
correct conclusions drawn here could 
result in over- or undertrained people. 
Other problems arise in evaluation, 
subjective criteria, preconditioning of 
test subjects, and a great many more 
complications not found in machine 
testing. Personnel subsystem testing is 
time-consuming, costly and difficult to 
evaluate, which may be why it is so 
often neglected. However, it is the only 
way to have some assurance the 
system will work as designed from a 
"total system" point of view. 



Distributed processing is 
a viable and powerful de- 
sign alternative, and a 
major vehicle to taking 
advantage of the recent 
leaps in mini- and micro- 
processor develop- 
ment. 



Unique Pitfalls? 

Are all these pitfalls unique to 
systems designed for distributed 
processing? Are these not present in all 
systems, especially on-line systems? 
They are not unique to distributed 
processing, they are present in all 
system development efforts. The point 
of this article is that they have become 
much more crucial because via dis- 
tributed processing, we are able to 
implement user-oriented systems on a 
significantly broader base than ever 
before, at greatly reduced hardware 
and software development cost. Some 
specific reasons why this personnel 
subsystem attention is more critical 
are: 

• The terminal operator is likely to 
be located some distance from system 
support staff. 

• The terminal operator is more apt 
to be a non-computer oriented person, 
as opposed to a keypunch operator or a 
payroll clerk. 

• The terminal operators main-line 
responsibility may be far greater than 
simply terminal functions. 

• The operator may have to interface 
with customers simultaneously with 
the machine subsystem. 



Because distributed processing 
enables bringing computer resources 
back into the hands of the system user 
in an interactive mode, it also puts 
increased pressure on the total system 
developer to ensure that the user can in 
fact use the system. In companies with 
small to medium size (10 to 50 persons 
permanent systems development staff) 
data systems organizations, it may be 
more difficult to maintain qualified 
personnel subsystem developers. For 
these companies, it may be less costly 
in the long run to contract out for 
personnel subsystem services and 
maintain a minimal staff for changes 
and on-going training. Companies with 
larger data systems development staff 
should have resident personnel sub- 
system expertise to develop and sup- 
port the manual part of the systems. 

Distributed processing is indeed a 
viable and powerful design alternative, 
and a major vehicle to taking advan- 
tage of the recent leaps in mini- and 
micro-processor development. 
However, it is most important that we 
recognize the danger in installing user- 
oriented systems via distributed 
processing if we do not focus sufficient 
attention on the role of that user. ■ 



•NEW BESTSELLERS- 





MtCKOTOCtSSO* 

(NtEBfACINC 

TECHWOOfS 





STftl 



M.CBO^oJSs" 



INTRODUCTION TO PERSONAL AND BUSINESS COMPUTING PROGRAMMING MICROCOMPUTERS:6502 
ByRodnayZaks, 250 pp, ref C200 $6.95 By Rodnay Zaks, 250 pp, ref C202, 



S9.95 



new. For the beginner. How to use and purchase a system, from 
the microcomputer box to the peripherals. Why. Business reauire- 
ments. How to fail. Programming. Which BASIC? 

NOW ALSO AVAILABLE ON CASSETTES - 3 hrs, ref S1Q $1495 



new. How to program microprocessors, with 6502 examples: 
arithmetic, input-output, peripherals. Interrupts. An educational 
text requiring no prior programming knowledge, yet useful to 
those wanting to learn about specific programming techniques. 
Applicable to PET, KIM, VIM, APPLE. 



MICROPROCESSORS: from chips to systems 
By Rodnay Zaks, 416 pp. ref C2Q1 



S9.95 



MICROPROCESSOR INTERFACING TECHNIQUES 

By Austin Lesea and Rodnay Zaks. 416 pp, ref C207, 



$9.95 



used worldwide AS UNIVERSITY TEXT. A comprehensive, yet 
detailed and clear introduction to all aspects of microprocessors. 
How they work. The ROM, RAM, PIO, UART. How to interconnect. 
System development. 



ALSO USED WORLDWIDE AS UNIVERSITY TEXT. HOW to connect to 

all the usual peripherals, from keyboard to floppy disk, including 
A/D, displays, standard busses (RS232, SlOO, IEEE 488) and 
dynamic RAMs. 



TO ORDER 



•BY PHONE: call (415)848-8233 
BankAmericard/Mastercharge accepted 
• SHIPPING: no charge when payment 

included. 

ADO: $1. SO/book for fast shipping. 
•TAX: in California, add sales tax. 
•OVERSEAS: 

SYBEX-EUROPE,313 rue Lecourbe. 
75015 • PARIS. France Tel:! 1)8282502 




NAME 

COMPANY 
ADDRESS 
CITY 



POSITION 



STATE/ZIP 



2020 Milvia St. 
Berkeley, 
Calif 94704 



DC201 OC207 OC200 DC202 DOTHER 

Payment enclosed Bill company ! Bill me 
ADD $1 50/BOOK FOR FAST SHIPPING 
charge my Visa Master charge 

Number Exp date 

Signature Send catalog. 

□ FREE CATALOG/ ORDER FORM D 




CIRCLE 123 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



YOU CAN'T 
YOU CAN'T 
THINK IN TWO 
THINK IN TWO 
PLACES AT 
PLACES AT 
ONCE 
ONCE 



Sam Crowe 



Everybody puts out vibrations, man. I 
mean everybody. Most people radiate 
confused vibes, full of rejection and fear. 
Catonic people radiate vibes that are ice 
cold. A few, very few, people radiate 
good happy vibes that make people want 
to be around them. Some actors can 
throw those good vibes out even when 
they are on film. They call it 'presence' 
but it's the same thing. 

The thing I'm getting at, what I'm 
trying to really put down is the absolute 
inevitable truth, everybody has vibes. 
Everybody, no exceptions. 

Yet, here was a man, seemingly 
human, who had no vibes. Standing there 
and talking to me and the rest of the class 
and no vibes were coming across. It 
made goose pimples on me. Everybody 
in class was uneasy even if they didn't 
know why. Me, I was a senior, but I was 
old for my years. I'd come to this school 
from poverty so deep that I could read 
vibes. When you're a little kid and you 
go places a little kid isn't supposed to go 
and are up when you aren't supposed to 
be up, you learn to read people's vibes or 
you don't survive. 




Mr. Nielsen was our business teacher 
and up until today he'd had vibes like 
everybody else. Now he stood like a 
piece of stone in front of the class and 
his mouth moved and words came out 
but nobody was catching what he was 
putting down. It was like a T.V. set talk- 
ing with no pictures. You hear the words 
but you keep looking for the picture and 
losing track of the words. 

Donna Dee Folsom stood up and 
grabbed her books. I could see her hands 
trembling. She told Mr. Nielsen that she 
was sick and had to go see the nurse. He 
nodded and Donna went through the 
door like a scared cat and every girl in 
the class got up and followed her. 

Mr. Nielsen sagged back and sat on 
the front of his desk and ran his hand 
across his forehead. He looked at me and 
the boys that were left and his eyes lost 
their blankness for an instant and cold 
sweat broke out on his face and he was 
sending vibes out like a person with a 
nervous breakdown. Then his eyes shut 
down again. Everybody shuffled around 
in their seats waiting for somebody to 
make a break. 



Binky Jones started the exodus. He 
just got up and walked out real cool. 
Binky was always a cool guy. He didn't 
know what was going on but he knew he 
wasn't having any part of it. 

Mr. Nielsen watched them file out. Not 
a single emotion crossed his face. It was 
as if he were watching a bug crawl across 
the floor not because he had any interest 
in the bug but because it just happened 
to be handy for his eyes to focus on. 

I stayed in my seat, fidgeting under 
the stare of those blank eyes. I stayed 
because those crazy vibes he'd sent out 
for a second had been screaming for 
help. Like the school psycho-man had 
told me, I had empathy. Something was 
eating Mr. Nielsen's soul. 

"That's the third class, today, that's 
walked out on me." Mr. Nielsen said, 
"Why did you stay, Byran? Better yet, 
why did the rest go?" 

I got up and walked up close to 
Nielsen. It wasn't easy. Like the feeling 
you get when you are going swimming 
for the first time in the year and your 
toes touch the cold water. Your body 
says stop, don't go in. Your mind says 
everything will be all right once you get 
into the water. Getting close to a person 
without vibes was like that. It was like 
being close to a dead person. But under- 
takers get used to that, I suppose. Any- 
how, the longer I stayed around Nielsen, 
the less bothered I was. 

"Mr. Nielsen, You've always been 
straight with me and you helped me get 
that job last summer, so I couldn't walk 
away from you. I don't turn my back on 
people unless they turn theirs on me." I 
said. 

"That doesn't tell me why I'm sud- 
denly so bad a teacher that the students 
walk out of my classes, Bryan." 

Up real close to him, I could almost 
feel his vibes. It was like they were there 
but buried under ice. Somewhere deep 
inside him, his soul was still kicking. It 
was fighting whatever was eating it. His 
soul did not want to die. 

"Mr. Nielsen, my mother always told 
me that my grandfather back in Louis- 
ana, was a Mojo man. She said the big- 
gest white men in the parrish took off 
their hats to my grandfather. The school 
psychiatrist here, told me I had empathy. 
My mother says it's the Mojo in me. I 
never told anybody this before because 
they would just laugh. I know what's 
wrong with you, Mr. Nielsen. Something 
or somebody is eating your soul. They're 
making a zombie out of you. All the 
stories are wrong. The old witchmen 
didn't make zombies out of dead people, 
they made them out of living people." 

Mr. Nielsen passed a shaking hand 
across his grey tinted forehead. "That 
sounds like a lot of trash, Bryan." He 
clumsily thumped his chest and an ex- 
pression of agony crossed his face. "But 



114 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



something in here tells me you are right." 

He turned his agonized face to me 
again, "Can you help me?" 

His vibes screamed at me with the 
words, Help me, help me. 

It was almost time for the bell to 
change classes. 

"Y\\ try to help you, Mr. Nielsen. I 
don't know much but I'll try. Is there 
someplace we can go? It's almost time 
for the bell and we've got to do a lot of 
rapping because right now I have no 
idea what to do or tell you." 

"Let's go to my office in the data 
center. Only the computer operator will 
be there now and hell be out by the con- 
sole." 

We walked through the empty halls to 
his office. I wondered where all my 
classmates had gone without hall passes. 
The monitors must have busted some of 
them. I felt like I was walking along by a 
robot and when we sat down in his office 
it seemed like he was remoter than be- 
fore. He didn't seem to have much time 
left. 

He sat looking through the glass into 
the computer room for a long moment. 
We heard the bells ringing. Mrs. Thorpe 
was going to be angry with me for miss- 
ing biology but it couldn't be helped. I 
shuffled my shoes on the floor until 
Neilsen looked at me, his face was very 
strained. 

"This seems sillier and sillier, but I 
know there's something basically wrong 
with me. Somehow I know that a doctor 
couldn't help me. So do your Mojo thing, 
Bryan." He said, without hope. 

"Sir, you were okay yesterday, so 
whatever or whoever got to you did it last 
night or yesterday after school. Did you 
make a Mojo man or a witch mad last 
night or yesterday after school? Did you 
insult a gypsy or call on the devil?" I 
asked, "Did you disappoint someone in 
love or laugh at someone's far out be- 
liefs?" 



"I didn't do any of those things yester- 
day, Bryan. I don't understand why I'm 
letting you do this either, such questions. 
Yesterday I stayed here, right here and 
in the computer room until late at night." 

"Where were you at midnight, Mr. 
Nielsen? It isn't called the witching hour 
for nothing." 

"I was here until one o'clock in the 
morning." 

"When was the last time that you had 
your hair cut, Mr. Nielsen?" 

"I haven't had it cut in months. I've 
been getting it styled. You know I try to 
maintain a rapport with my students." 

"What do you do with the parings 
when you cut your toenails or your 
fingernails?" 

"Rush them down the garbage dis- 
posal." 

"Man, we're not getting anywhere." I 
said unhappily. I sat and stared out the 
window at the computer. The little lights 
on the console flashed at me. The thing 
almost seemed like it was sending out 
vibes at me. I began talking mostly for 
my own benefit, trying to think out loud. 

"There has to be a pattern. A ju-ju 
doll with your hair and your nails, or a 
photograph of you. A good one that has 
some of your vibes. There has to be 
something that is a pattern of you." 

I stared in silence at the computer for 
a while. It blinked and blinked. 

"They ever shut that thing off?" I 
asked. 

"No, we use it sixteen hours a day and 
a service bureau uses it from midnight 
to eight and on weekends. That's how the 
school was able to afford such a modern 
system, by sharing the cost." He 
answered. 

"What were you working on last 
night?" 

"On a software interruptions pro- 
cedure for the supervisor of the operat- 
ing system." 

"What is that in, everyday English?" 



"Well, the supervisor program is on- 
line, that is, it is running all the time. It 
handles all of the other work. It loads in 
programs and handles interruptions to 
the job stream. It assigns input-output 
functions and a great many other things. 
I didn't like the way it handled things so 
I patched it to do it my way." 
"So now it thinks like you do?" 
"More or less." 

I got up and went into the computer 
room. Mr. Nielsen just sat behind his 
desk and followed me with his blank 
eyes. I stopped by the man who was 
running the machine. 

"Is this the brains of the thing?" I 
asked and pointed at the unit with the 
typewriter thing attached and with all 
the little blinking lights. 

He said, "Yes, that's the CPU, the 
central processing unit." 

"What does that red pull knob do?" I 
asked, pointing to a knob marked emer- 
gency. 

"That shuts everything down at once 
and scrambles the machines brains." 
The guy laughed, "Take about two days 
to get it running again." 

I reached out and yanked the knob. 
The guy running things just sat in 
stunned silence, watching the lights go 
out. 

Mr. Nielsen came out of his office 
shouting mad. He was putting out a ton 
of good old human vibes. I figured that 
once I got him calmed down, I'd have 
two days to convince him that the ma- 
chine was eating his soul. It was going to 
be rough but I would do it somehow. 

"Why in the world did you do that, 
Bryan!" Mr. Nielsen yelled. 

"Welcome back, Mr. Nielsen." I said 
quietly. 

He stopped shouting and gave me a 
strange look. Then he pointed at the 
machine. "That did it?" 

"Yes sir." I said, "International Bus- 
iness Mojo." ■ 




" I REACHED OUT At* YANKB> 1H£ KW©* M 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



115 



COMPUTER MYTHS EXPLAINED 









M«^. 



Hit the deck in shorts and 
a tee shirt. Or your bikini if 
you want. 

You're on a leisurely cruise 
to remote islands. With names 
like Martinique, Grenada, 
Guadeloupe. Those are the 
ones you've heard of. 

A big, beautiful sailing vessel 
glides from one breathtaking 
Caribbean jewel to another. 
And you're aboard, having 
the time of your life with an 
\ intimate group of lively, fun- 
loving people. Singles and 
couples, too. There's good food, 
^-^ "grog',' and a few pleasant 
comforts... but there's little 

H resemblance to a stay at a 

fancy hotel, and you'll be 
happy about that. 
Spend six days exploring 
paradise and getting to know 
congenial people. There's no 
~"- , - _ » . other vacation like it. 

Your share from $265. A new cruise is forming now. 
Write Cap'n Mike for your free adventure 
booklet in full color. 



CIRCLE 141 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



@ Windjammer Cruises. 



P.O. Box 120, Dept 581 Miami Beach. Florida 33139 



SMAL/80 



SMAL/80 is a new structured 
assembly language with macro 
capabilities for the 8080 processor 
(and also the 8085 and Z-80). SMAL/80 
could be called a "high-level 
assembler" and uses an indented, 
symbolic notation and structured con- 
structs such as DO-END, IF-THEN- 
ELSE, and LOOP-REPEAT. These may 
be combined or nested to any depth. 
The compiler and macro processor 
both reside in 7K of memory. The 
intention in writing this language was 
to provide a means to write complex 
assembly-language programs with the 
ease of using a high-level structured 
language (similar to ALGOL or PL/M). 
SMAL/80 and its predecessor, SMAL, 
were developed by Dr. Charles Popper 
at Bell Labs. The language is expected 
to be released in the first half of 1978 
after testing. The expected price for the 
CP/M version, on diskette, is $75; 
cassette versions will be offered later. 



Below is an example of a bubble-sort 
program, coded in SMAL/80. 



/* NO MORE PAIRS LBPT •/ 



A SMAL/81 BUBBLESORT 



SHE EQU 255; 
• 1» 
LOOP) 

D - I, 

HL - N| 

B • M(HL) t 

HL • ARRAY; 

LOOP; 

IF — B ZERO 

BREAK) 
A - N(HL) ) 
♦♦HL) 
IF A t H(HL) NBC THEN 

DO /• DO AN INTERCHANGE •/) 

C - M(HL| , 
M(HL) - A) 
— HL) 

H(HL) - C) 
♦ ♦HL) 
D - 1) 
END) 
REPEAT) 
REPEAT WHILE (A - B) A • A OR A] NOT lEROl 



Nl 
ARRAY: 



BYTE 
RESERVE 



SHE) 
SHE) 



END PROGRAM) 



?ay:s_pay 

ENTER. 

DISPLAY ID. 

PROCEED. 

PRESS BUTTON. 

RIDE ELEVATOR. 

SIT AT DESK. 

READ. 

URITE. 

DISPLAY KNOULEDGE. 

IF NOON, 

EAT LUNCH, 

RETURN TO DESK. 
IF END OF DAY, 

LEAVE OFFICE, 

EAT, 

PLAY, 

REST. 

GOTO DAr§_PAY. 

— Art Suanson 
2? Sapphire St. 
Enfield, CT 06082 



o 
«9 

<r uj 

t- a. 



Everything you always wanted 

to plug into your PET, 

APPLE or TRS-80* 



i 



% HARDWARE 

PRINTERS 



Centronics 150 Ipm, of 20, 40 
or 80 char. (Upper/lower case). 
PI Parallel Model (cable, soft- 
ware, add $50) $395. 

SI Serial Model (cable, soft- 
ware add $50) $549. 

Anderson- JacoDsen I/O Selectric, 

Bidirectional $995. 

PET Graphics Ball . . . $200. 

RS 232C Serial Option. $200. 

TRS Graphics Ball . . . $100. 

Expandor 123P impact with 

tractor feed $495. 

Integral Data IP-125 impact 

Upper/lower case $795. 

PET, TRS-80 graphics option 
with 4 char, sizes, tractor feed 
$1195, Pet Modem, $320, Ser- 
ial Int. $98, (Apple $62), 

Apple Modem $120 

MEMORY (Save $100 or more) 
16K Dynamic RAM (TRS-80 
Specify keybd. or exp. int. $200 
16K RAM - 



Board, opttons$435 

Additional 8K .S200 

CONNECTORS, ETC. 
TRS-80 40 oln edge. $9.95, 
Int. ext. cord, $19.95*$2 # (F t-2) 
IEEE or User Port w/cover $9.95 

Cassette w/cover $4.95 

Dual Stereo Cassette Deck Ideal 
for micro tapes w/prompting$250 
C-10 Blank cassettes . . . $1.49 



SOFTWARE 
('but were afraid you couldn't afford) ™=p& og £%"£?«%*%£%: 

TT"^C^2 S^fet $200; Disk System: $300. Give your 

TRS-80 the editing featuros of a 
$4000+ Bu rrough's TD800 series ter- 
minal. Automatic data entry and cus- 
tom reports. Generate complete 
screen graphics with full cursor con- 
trol. 2. MICROCHESS (LI or II-4K) 
$19.95. 3 difficulty levels. 3. State 
ment ren umbering and cross reference. 
IPET: ] 1. Joystick Microchess- 
(needs dual joystick package) $19.95 
Play against an opponent while your 
PETchecks and saves moves. Options: 
Play by phone, play against your PET. 
2. Astrology:$14.95. 3. Statement re- 
numbering and cross reference: $9.95. 
lAffLh iTTI l. 3 Dimensional Maze(16K) 
$14.95. 2. Hi-Res Graphics 
Editor (16K) $17.95 
3. Statement renum- 
bering $9.95 (8K) 

TOLL FREE 

MICROLINE for: 
Orders, TRS-80 
Tech. Newsletter 




Exclusive JOYSTICK package (shown with PET 
MICROCHESS). Uses Fairchild's unique 8-way joy- 
sticks for true user interaction. Perfect for screen 
cursor control in games, education and text editing. 
PET 1 Joystick Kit with Maze & Breakout: $39.95 
Extra Joystick Kit with Two Player Game: $19.95 
Assembled Add $10/ Joystick. TRS 80/ Apple II Kits avail. 



Call or write for free brochure. 
Meet us at Phila.'s P.C'78. 



microtronix 



I Info., free catalogue 

80(J 523-4550 
I In PA & CAN 
(215)665-1112 



rjcei shown. Major credit cards accepted. 
jn shipping $2.50. Pa. residents add 6%. 



Post Office Box Q, Dept Philadelphia, PA 19105 



CIRCLE 185 ON READER 8ERVICE CARD 



118 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




"PET" 

IMMEDIATE DELIVERY 

Advanced 8K Model 

-only $795 

No computer know-how itMdcd! Ut*» »xt«ndtd "BASIC". S»lf 
contained with iu own 9" vidoo diiplty. built-in kayboard. and 
digitally controlled catsatta racordar. Complata with 14K oparat 
ing system and 8K mamory built-in (axpandabla to 32K). 



APPLE II 

In stock from $970 
Apple II Is a complete- 
ly contained computer 
system, with BASIC In 
ROM. full ASCII keyboard In 
a lightweight molded carrying 
case. Expandable to 48K. 
Apple II. the personal computer 
with color! 



s 



^ 



PERIPHERALS 
For PET 

PET 2020 Impact Printar $595 

32K Mamory Expansion - $595 

Sarial Intarfaca* from S169 



PERIPHERALS 

For APPLE 

Expandor Printer - $425 

Cention.cs 799 

Printar $995 

Appla II Disk $495 



Plus hundreds of software programs too numerous to list! 

THE COMPUTER FACTORT 

790 Madison Ave. (cor. 67th St.) 

New York, NY 10021 2 12-PET 2001 
Open 10-6 pm Tuesday Saturday 212-249-1666 



CIRCLE 1S1 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SpecialsTT 

Specials!! 





LIST 
PRICE 


SPECIAL 
PRICE 


Apple II Computer 
with 16k of RAM 


M195 00 


M095 00 


Imsai 8080 kit 


751 00 


675 00 


Meca Dual Drive 
Cassette System 
(Assembled & Tested) 

Solid State Music 
Video Interface kit 


845 00 
149 95 


765 00 
125" 



ALL XITAN PRODUCTS 10% OFF LIST! 

COMPUTER LAB 
OF NEW JERSEY 

141 Route 46 

Budd Lake, New Jersey 07828 

(201) 691-1984 

Mail and phone orders accepted, subject to available 
quantities. Shipping charges extra. N.J. Residents add 5% 
Sales Tax. 



THINK 




*CMCATiVE COMPVJT.NO 




16K RAM 

kit $350 



FULLY 
STATIC 



CIRCLE 149 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



119 



10 SLOT TABLE TOP 

MICROCOMPUTERS 

TT-8080 KIT $440 

SYSTEM W/16K & I/O 
TT-8080-S KIT $1050 

10-SLOT MAIN FRAME 
TT-10 KIT $325 

CARD CAGE & 

MOTHER BOARD 

ECT-100 KIT $100 

CCMB-10 KIT $75 

WITH CONNECTORS 

& GUIDES 
ECT-100-F KIT $200 
CCMB-10-F KIT $125 

CPUS, MEMORY 

MOTHER BOARDS 

PROTOTYPING BOARDS 

EXTENDER CARDS 

POWER SUPPLIES 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED SHIPPING EXTRA 

ELECTRONIC CONTROL TECHNOLOGY 

FACTORY ADDRESS MAILING ADDRESS 

763 Ramsey Avenue P.O. Box 6 

Hillside, NJ 07205 Union, NJ 07083 

(201)686-8080 

■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■ 
CIRCLE 120 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




• Over 250 Exhibit Spaces 



• Internationally Recognized Speakers 



• Held in the VAST Dallas Convention Center 



• Special Programs for Dealers Only 



Dallas -Sept. 2S-30-Oct.1,137S 



EXHIBITORS 
(AS OF JUNE 101 

ADVANCED COMPUTER PRODUCTS 
ALPHA MICRO SYSTEMS. APPLE. AP- 
PLIED DATA COMMUNICATIONS. AXIOM 
CORP . BYTE SHOP OF OALLAS. CAPITAL 
EQUIPMENT BROKERS. CENTRONICS 
COMPUCOLOR CORP . COMPUTER HEAD- 
WARE. COMPUTER ROOMERS 
COMPUTER SHOP. DALLAS COMPUTER 
CENTER. OATA GENERAL CORP . DE- 
CISION DATA COMPUTER CORP . DIGITAL 
EQUIPMENT CORP , DIGITAL RESEARCH 
CORP . DILITHIUM PRESS. DIVERSIFIED 
TECHNOLOGY. D P SERVICES ELEC 
TRONIC DATA SYSTEMS (EDS). FINAN 
CIAL COMPUTER CORP . FOUNDATION 
FOR QUALITY EOUCATION. GENERAL 
ELECTRIC. GIMIX. INC GOOBOUT ELEC- 
TRONICS. HOBBY WORLD ELECTRONICS 
IMSAI. ITHACA AUDIO. JADE COMPUTER 
PRODUCTS. K A ELECTRONICS. METRO 
PLEX OATA SYSTEMS. INC . MICRO AGE. 
MICRO DIVERSION. INC MICROPOLIS 
CORP , MIDWEST SCIENTIFIC INST , MITS. 
MOSTEK. MOTOROLA SEMICONDUCTOR. 
NOAKES DATA COMMUNICATIONS 
NORTH TEXAS COMPUTER CLUB. K 
MACHINE & TOOL. OSBORNE & ASSOCI- 
ATES. PAGE DIGITAL ELECTRONICS. PER- 
TEC MICRO SYSTEMS. PERCOM DATA 
CORP . PRIME SUPPLY INC . PROBLEM 
SOLVER SYSTEMS. Q M OATA SERVICE 
QUALITY COMPONENTS. QUEST ELEC 
TRONICS. RADIO HUT. S D SYSTEMS. 
SCHWEBER ELECTRONICS CORP . SEALS 
ELECTRONICS. INC SMOKE SIGNAL 
BROADCASTING. SOUTHWEST FEDER- 
ATION OF COMPUTER CLUBS. SOUTH 
WEST TECHNICAL PRODUCTS. SPACE 
BYTE. SUMMAGRAPHICS CORP . SYBEX 
INC . SYNERTEK. TANDY CORP . TECHNO 
CORP . TEKTRONIX INDUSTRIES TELPAR. 
INC . TEXAS INSTRUMENTS 3M COM- 
PANY. V R I.VANGUARD SYSTEMS CORP 
VECTOR GRAPHICS. INC . WEST & AS- 
SOCIATES. XEROX CORP . ZITEX CORP 



SEE TOMORROW 

— TODAY ! 



International 
Microcomputer 
Exposition 



SPEAKERS 

CAROL OCOIN (SOFTWARE TECH- 
NIQUES). DR. ADAM OSBORNE (OS- 
BORNE & ASSOCIATES). WAYNE GREEN, 
(KILOBAUD MAGAZINE). CHRIS MORGAN 
(BYTE MAGAZINE) BOB JONES (INTER- 
FACE AGE). ZACN BOVINETTE (INTER 
FACE AGEI. STEVE MURTHA (D/A 
ASSOCIATES) ELLIOT MAC LENNAN 
(MAC LENNAN & LILLIEI ASTRONAUT 
(NASA). HAROLD MAUCH (PERCOM 
DATA). ELIZABETH JACKSON (SOFT- 
WARE TECHNIQUES). BOB ELDRIOGE 
(DIGITAL EQUIPMENT CORP ). RODNEY 
ZAKS (SYBEX). DM. EMERSON BROOKS. 
(E SYSTEMS). R. NEIL FERGUSON 
(MOORE BUSINESS FORMS). GEORGE 
NELSON (MOTOROLA) BEN PEEK (BEN 
PEEK. INC ). STEVE EDELMAN (ITHACA 
AUDIO). BILL GOOBOUT (GODBOUT 
ELECTRONICS). JOHN E. HOWLANO 
(VANGUARD SYSTEMS CORP ) MITCH 
GOOZE' (MOTOROLA SEMICONDUCTOR 
PRODUCTS. INC ) BOB FULLER (TEXAS 
INSTRUMENTS) PHILUPE Ja MARCHIN 
IFAIRCHILD). OAVID AHL (CREATIVE 
COMPUTING) S. PAL ASMA (ASIJA LAW 
OFFICE). DR. THOMAS J. BLACK (SOLAR 
STATE SYSTEMS). DANIEL O. HAMMOND 
(SD SYSTEMS) JOHN P. SMITH (SCHWE 
BER ELECTRONICS) GEORGE MORROW 
(THINKER TOYS). HOWARD FULMER 
(PARASITIC ENGINEERING). DR. RICHARD 
HOOGES IU T D I. NORMAN REITZEL 
(FORMERLY OATAPOINT) OR. AARON H. 
KONSTAM (TRINITY UNIVERSITY). O.C. 
OEFFENBAUGH I HOME COMPUTER CEN- 
TER. INC ). HOWARD J. HILTON. 

MAGAZINES 
EXHIBITING 

COMPUTER DEALER. COMPUTER RE- 
TAILING. CREATIVE COMPUTING. INTER- 
FACE AGE. KILOBAUD. POPULAR ELEC- 
TRONICS. RADIO ELECTRONICS. SMALL 
BUSINESS COMPUTER 



Keynote Address By Dr. Portia Isaacson 



Special Dealer Program 



Featured Seminar Speakers 



Name 



Title 



Company 



Advance Registration 



Address 



City 



State 



Zip 



Telephone 



One Day Admission $4 (at door $6) 
Three Oay Admission $6 (at door S 1 0) 

Seminar Admission $15 



Make Checks payable to I ME — 4 1 3 Cannon Tower — 1 360 1 Preston Road — Dallas. Te»as 75240214/271-931 1 



Evaluating Stock Options 

or 
How to Lose it a Little Slower 



Allen C. Hagelberg 



It seems to me that when investing in the stock-option 
market, we continually need to know and do the following 
things: 

1. Know our current stock-option positions. 

2. Find and evaluate the best stock-option transactions. 

3. Determine the "return on investment," "cash flow," 
and "total impact for each transaction." 

Knowledge of the stock-option positions and determining 
the total impact for each transaction follow standard 
accounting practices, but finding a good stock-option 
transaction is a problem. Many stock-option strategies are 
available, but selling options against stock that we buy is 
the least risky and the consistently most profitable 
venture' . Evaluating this investment strategy is the subject 
of this computer program. 

In this strategy, 100 shares of stock are bought and used 
as collateral for each call option sold. This call option is 
sold at a premium, giving the buyer of the option the right 
to purchase the stock at a set price (known as the strike 
point) for a given length of time (the life of the options). A 
detailed definition of option trading is given in references 
1 and 2. The parameters of this strategy are: 

1. Price of the stock 

2. Strike point 

3. Life of the option 

4. Value of the premium. 

In this computer program, we will input this data and 
vary the projected value of the stock from 40% to 160% of 
its current value. This program will then calculate the 
projected return on investment for the life of the option. By 
analyses of these data with other stock-option com- 
binations, we can find the best transactions. 

For example— from the Los Angeles Times' listing of the 
Chicago Board Option Exchange (CBOE) transactions of 
January 20, 1976, we can evaluate the Brunswick options 
of April 15 at 7/16 and July 15 at 3/4. The previous day 
closing stock price was 12-3/4. At the start of the program, 
the following questions are asked: 



NAME OF THE ST0CK= 

PRICE OF THE STOCK = 

STRIKE P0INT= 

TODAYS DATE-MO . DRY » YERR= 

JflN < APR I L > JULY , OCT PREM I UM= 



As the data is input, the printout takes the following form: 



NftME OF THt 

fpilf of the . 73 

TODAYS DfiTE-MOi DAYiYEflR' 

•f RIL. JULY.. XT PREMIUM*' 
MONTH OF THE Cfl 
EFFECTIVE Ml 
INITIAL INVESTMENT* 1254.41 TOTAL 



-1..VHL 
17.85 60. 

16.38 60. 

15.30 60. 

14.03 -09 

-2.53 

11.48 .64 -36. 

10.20 -57 -73. 

6.93 

7.65 «.18 

6.38 -180.74 

3.10 



Line by line we have: 



Input 



Allen C. Hagelberg. 23711 Prospect Valley Dr.. Diamond Bar. CA 91765. 



Line 2. Name of stock = Brunswick 

Line 3. Price =$12.75 

Line 4. Strike point = 15 

Line5. Date = 1, 20, 76 

Line 6. Jan premium (Jan 76, expiration date 
has passed) 

April premium .4375 (0.4375 = 7/16) 
July premium .75 (0.75 = 3/4) 
Oct premium (Oct 76, Brunswick 
option, not open) 

Output Line 7. Jan is zero, thus disregard. April has a 
premium and is designated as the 4th 
month; so month of call = 4. 

Line 8. Writing ratio is set to 1 (forget this term 
for now; more about this later.) 

Line 9. Initial investment = $1254.41 
Total investment = $1284.12 

The remainder of the tabulation shows how the Return, 
Return on Investment (ROI). and ROI annualized vary as a 
function of stock price from $5.10 to $17.85 per share. 
Thus, if the stock remains at $12.75 for the life of the 
option, we would lose $9.12. However, if the stock moves 
to more than $15, we make $215.88 or 16.8% ROI or 60% 
per year, annualized. Likewise, we can evaluate the 
downside or loss potential. 

Let's say we do not like that transaction. Suppose we sell 
2 options for every 100 shares of stock to see if we can 
improve our profit. 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



121 



In the following printout, the writing ratio in line 2 is 2. 
This is accomplished through the "For L = 1 to 2," in line 
280 of the program. We then have the following: 



OF THE CflLI_= • 
INITImL INVESTMENT! 



S . VflL 

14.83 
12.75 

11.48 

10.20 

5.16 









-7.32 
-17.88 



INVESTMENT" U40.86 



-35*. 
-358.93 
-35S. 
46.76 
9.88 
-.08 
-63.89 
-10C-. 

174. 
-211.41 



Tabulation shows that if the stock remains at $12.75, then 
we make $34.14 for the life of the option. If it goes to 
$14.03, we make $161.64 or 14%, which is more than the 
9.2% we had with a writing ratio = 1 . But if the stock moves 
above the strike point of $15.00, we may lose. How much 
we lose depends on where and how we cover the call, but 
that's another point in time and another transaction. This 
program is limited up to the strike point, and the $1 240 loss 
is meaningless. 

Again, let's say we would like to keep looking for a better 
opportunity. Because of the way we have inputted the 
data, this program continues by evaluating the July option 
at 0.75. This is accomplished through "For K = 1 to 10 step 
3" of line 180 of the program. We then have: 



EFFECTIVE WRITING RATIO 
INITIAL IN 



S.VAL 

u. e : 

11.48 

10.28 

7.65 

6.38 
5.18 



RET 

71.47 






-4.6b 



TOTAL INVESTMENT 



-8.81 
-28.85 
-48.89 
-68.92 
-88.96 

109.00 



Analyzing this stock-option transaction, we have a 5.9% 
ROI for a six-month period. Also, we have a maximum 
return of $296.47 at 24.6% ROI and some downside 
protection if the stock price falls. This kind of analysis can 
continue with myriad possible combinations. 



MONTH OF 1h 

EFFECTIVE WRITING I- AT 10= 2.00 

INITIAL INVESTMENT" 1006.88 



TOTAL INVESTME'.' 



S.VAL 


PET 






17.85 




.00 


-189.16 


16.58 




.00 


-189 


15.38 




.00 


-189.16 


14.83 




.30 


63.08 


12.75 




.18 


40.07 


11.46 




9.07 


17.15 


10.20 






-5.77 






- 1 5 . 1 7 


-28.70 








-51. 


6.38 


-414 


-39.41 


-74.54 


5.18 


-54; 


-51.53 


-97.47 


I 0NC TERM 









The program is written in BASIC on an HP 9830 and has 
a file size of 557 words. As with most programs, certain 
simplifying assumptions lead to limitations and a margin 
of error. In the program listing, line 200 assumes 30.4225 
days per month. The April option will expire on the 17th, 
but the program used 4x30.4225 less the number of days 
we were into the year 1976, thus a 13-day error. Line 310 
uses 1.7% as stock commission and 3.4% option commis- 
sion, whereas commissions are not the same throughout 
the industry. Also, we have not accounted for the closing 
transaction costs. 

Line 330 uses 8.5% interest on the margin account, but 
interest rates will change from time to time. Line 430 uses 



10 DIM G*C20I 
20 DIM EI 10] 
30 FIXEB 2 

40 P3=P4«P5=0 

50 Bl=fl«Dl«D2=B3=B4«D5=L-0 

60 N=M-Y=C1=I1-I2=R8=P9«Z1- 

70 N1>N2*188 

80 PRINT "NAME OF THE 

90 INPUT C« 

100 PPINT "PRICE OF THE 8T0CI 

110 INPUT PI 

120 PPINT "STRIKE R0IHT 

130 INPUT SI 

140 PRINT HTE-M0.DH 

150 INPUT I 

\H ?5iuJ : r J *» ll « p KH--J"l MIUM="S 

170 INPUT EI I J.EC4],Et7J,E[ In J 

130 FOR 1=1 TO 18 STEP 3 

190 IF Elk 3-0 THEN 376 

200 D1«K*30.4 

210 P2=EH ] 

220 IF Y-77 THEN 250 

230 L4.0 

240 GOTO 260 

258 D4»365 

268 D5»Dl*Ii4 ■ h 

270 P3«P1»N1 

288 FOR L»l TO 2 

290 N2»N2*L 

308 P4«PJ- 

310 C1»(P> 

320 Il=P3-r 

338 I2«Ii»0.0&' - 

348 I3-I1+I2 

350 PRINT "MOUTH OF THE CALL 

?-! IZWl "f FF ECTlVE WRITING I 

:?i2 E PINT " INITIAL INVESTMENT 

3 !2 PRINT "TOTfiL INVESTMENT. 

400 PRINT " REr 

410 FOR A=-4 I 

420 P5»PS-- 1 fit! i 

Jilw-S-J! THEH48e 

458 21«0 

460 U0T0 50O 

470 I3-I3+P5- : 

488 R8»S1*N1-! M00 

til SnmJ&iJS 

518 S2»P5'N1 

320 M1»R9/<D5 365 > 

338 FORMAT 6F11.2 

we nextY 1 *' 33 " : - ,R8lR9 ' M1 

560 NEXT L 

570 NEXT k 

588 IF D3M80 THEN (88 

398 GOTO 618 

600 PRINT "LONG TERM 

610 END 









(S1+0.25) as the point where the option is exercised 
However, this could be as low as 0.0625 above the strike 
point. Finally, if we work down the listing to line 580 and 
D5>180, then we can possibly use this transaction in 
long-term" tax benefits, depending on how and when we 
close out the transaction (ref. 6). 

Of course, several other program expansions can be 
added and other possible costs and benefits analyses are 
possible, but this run gives us a good indication of which 
stock-option combinations are better than others. 

References 

I.Gary L. Gastineau, "The Stock Option Manual," 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, pp. 39-91, 1975. 

2. The Option Clearing Corporation, Prospectus, January 
Di ly/o. _ 



122 




Announcing . . . 
mall Business 



>$$S» 







Magazine 

The magazine for 
users and potential users 
of small business computer 
products and services 



Small Business Computers Magazine (SBC) is the monthly magazine for businessmen who are in 
the process of purchasing or installing their first computers. It is the bridge between the world of 
business and the world of small computers. 

Small Business Computers Magazine is a practical how-to publication . . . written in non-technical 
language . . . and stressing business applications for small computer systems. Each monthly issue 
includes: 

FEATURE SURVEY REPORTS on particular areas of current interest, such as Software Packages 
for Small Business Applications, Small Manufacturing Systems, Inventory Control Systems, Micro- 
computer Business Applications, and so on. 

APPLICATION STORIES: Real-life examples of computer applications in the small business en- 
vironment — articles which stress computer capabilities and benefits, and what to watch for when 
purchasing and installing a computer. 

COMPUTER PROFILES: Spotlight reviews of new computer systems for the small businessman. 

IDEAS AND INNOVATIONS: Helpful items which enable more effective utilization of small busi- 
ness systems. 

INFORMATIVE ADVERTISING: The leading mini and microcomputer companies are regular 
advertisers, and Small Business Computers Magazine is a showcase of small systems for the busi- 
nessman. 



Receive the next 12 issues of Small Business Computers Magazine 
at 50% off the cover price by entering your charter subscription today. 
Send your check along with the coupon to: 

SMALL BUSINESS COMPUTERS 
Magazine 

33 Watchung Plaza • Montclair, NJ 07042 




I SMALL BUSINESS COMPUTERS Magazine 

33 Watchung Plaza • Montclair, NJ 07042 

I □ YES. Enter my charter subscription at the '' 2 -price cost of $9 for 
ihly i 



12 monthly issues. 

D Check enclosed. □ Bill me 



I Name 

I Organization . 
I Address 



.Zip. 



CIRCLE 163 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



an Computers Solve the Population Problem? 



David H. Ahl 

Population growth has an immense 
effect on the use of various resources 
on the earth and in individual coun- 
tries. It also leads to interesting 
questions like, "If the population 
growth of the United States and Mexico 
continue at their present rates, when 
will the population of Mexico exceed 
that of the United States?" 

In any event, it's probably worthwhile 
to update the old population problems 
and simulations every once in a while 
with new figures. Below are some 
representative 1977 figures. If you 
would like a complete 1977 vs. 1950 
population chart showing every coun- 
try of the world, write to The En- 
vironmental Fund, 1302 Eighteenth St., 
NW, Washington, DC 20036. They're a 
non-profit agency, so you might in- 
clude $1 or $2 to help defray the cost — 
the chart is well worth it. (We've found 
the population estimates of The En- 
vironmental Fund to be better 
documented and, therefore, probably 
more accurate, than those of both the 
United Nations and the U.S. Census 
Bureau.) 

POPULATION DOUBLING TIME 



Population 
Growth Rate % 
0.5 
1.0 
1.5 
2.0 
2.5 
3.0 
3.5 
4.0 



Number of Years 
to double Population 
139 
69 
46 
35 
28 
23 
20 
17 




Major Area 

World 

Africa 

Asia 

North America 

Latin America 

Europe 

USSR 

Oceania 

Selected Countries 

Libya 

Nigeria 

Iraq 

Kuwait 

Japan 

China, People's Rep. 

United States 

Mexico 

Brazil 

Sweden 

Germany, Fed. Rep. 

German, Dem. Rep. 



Population 

Estimates Growth Birth Rate Death Rate 1950 

(Millions) Rate (Per 1000 

Mid 1977 (%) Population) 

4307.4 2.1 34 

451.2 2.8 46 
25057 2.4 38 

249.0* 1.5 14 

341.8 2.8 37 

478.8 0.6 15 

259.4 1.0 18 
21.8 1.8 22 

2.6 4 1 45 

89.3 2.9 49 

11.8 3.4 48 

1.1 6.1 47 

113.5 1.1 17 

987.3 2.4 36 
225.6* 1.5 14 

62.6 3.5 44 

116.1 2.9 37 

8.3 0.4 12 

62.2 0.1 10 

16.8 -0.2 11 



r 1000 


Population 


jlation) 


(Millions) 


13 


2542.8 


20 


218.9 


14 


1408.5 


9 


166.1 


9 


164.4 


11 


392.4 


9 


180.1 


9 


12.4 


15 


.95 


23 


34.3 


15 


5.2 


5 


.1 


6 


83.8 


12 


556.3 


9 


152.3 


7 


26.5 


9 


53.3 


11 


7.0 


12 


50.0 


14 


18.4 



'US population figures include an estimate ot 1.7 million from illegal immigration derived from US 
Immigration and Naturalization Service reports Corresponding adjustments have nor been made to 
other figures, most notably Mexico 



©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©©< 



HEX-OCTAL CONVERSION CHARTS 

* 4 colours 

* Base 2, 8, 10, 16 on each sheet 

* shows the relationship of hex and 
octal notations to binary 

* great learning aids 

* indispcnsible for anyone working in 
assembler or machine code 

* 3-ring binder fold-out 

OR wall chart (please specify) 

SET OF 2 CHARTS 

(one indexed in hex, the other in octal) 

Single set $5.95 / set 

12 or more $4.50 / set 

SEND CHEQUE OR MONEY ORDER TO 

ZETA SYSTEMS CANADA LTD 

2547 HEATHER STREET 

VANCOUVER. B.C. V6Z 3J2 

Quantity & school discounts available 

Daalar inquiries invitad 



CIRCLE ISO ON READER SERVICE CARD 



2 6 2 

10 110010 


178 


B 2 



2 7 2 

io'iii'oio 


186 


K A 



3 2 

1 1*000010 


194 


C 2 



3 1 2 

1 1001010 


202 


C A 



IQOD D OBPD O OOaOBO . 

Solution to Cryptic Message from page 168. 

I received a very severe message today from Colonel 
Stager. I think it unjust. Please see my reply to him. Thanking 
you and the Colonel for past confidence and kindness. I beg 
leave to tender my resignation. 

— McCaine 

BREMEN is simply a keyword that indicated that the 
message was written from left to right in six columns. The 
seventh row was filled out with four null words and a blank 
space. Encipherment was accomplished by going up and 
down the columns in a prearranged sequence and adding 
additional null words. 

Evidently, Operator McCaine was prevailed upon to 
reconsider his resignation. He ended his career in 1865 on the 
staff of General Sheridan. He was credited with sending an 
intercepted confederate message, which caused General 
Robert E. Lee 's last food train to be captured, leading shortly 
to the Appomatox surrender. 

'OOOOOOOQ B B BB B BBB BB BB B BB B 



124 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



business 
computing 



/ ILLUUII i j iu 



Scientific Research Inst. 



Scientific Research Inst, has three 
accounts receivable programs. The 
first is in Volume III of their BASIC 
Software Library, "Advanced Busi- 
ness" ($39.95) by R. W. Brown, as part 
of a Billing and A/R program that can 
be input from audio cassette. There are 
no external files, because all the data is 
contained in DATA statements. 

The second accounts receivable 
program is in the front of Volume 
VI, "A Complete Business System" 
($49.95, same author), as a module of a 
large system, which is a disk interactive 
version of (although not identical in all 
parts to) the Volume III program. The 
user can make up a business system 
from both Volumes III and VI, using 
disk interactive programs where 
desired. 

The third program is described 
extensively in the back of Volume VI; 
and as the forward puts it, "the entire 
source code for this complete business 
system program is not included due to 
its proprietary matter." This propri- 
etary package is available from Sci- 
entific Research Inst., 220 Knollwood, 
Key Biscayne, FL 33149. 

First A/R Program 

The first accounts receivable 
program, which takes up a little over 
eight pages and about 400 lines of 
BASIC statements, is described this 
way in Volume III: 
Description 

This is a Billing and Accounts 
Receivable program. It does not use 
any external data files. All of the data is 
self-contained within the program. It 
generates the following five kinds of 
reports: Mailing labels, Customer bills, 
A/R, Sales and a last purchase report. 
Users 

This program would be used by 
individuals or companies engaged in 
selling merchandise or services. 
Instructions 

All of the customer and billing data 
must be updated in data statements 
before the program is run. Initially the 
data must be input to the program, 
then, after the first execution, the 
program with the data included is 
saved on paper or magnetic tape. After 
this the data only needs to be updated 
as it changes. List the program for 
detailed information about data entry 
and updating. 




Limitations 

As this program does not use 
files it should execute in any BASIC- 
speaking computer that has sufficient 
on-line storage. The program is set up 
with sample data that must be removed 
before entering your data. It is set for a 
maximum of 100 customers. This 
number is set in the DIM statements on 
lines 1100 and 1120. The source code 
requires 12K bytes of memory for 
program storage. The amount of 
memory required for execution is a 
function of the number of customers 
you have. This is set in the DIM 
statements. With it set for 100 
customers, the program will require 



about 31 K bytes for execution. Includ- 
ed after the source-code listing is an 
executed run using the data presently 
contained in the program. 

Second A/R Program 

This is a disk interactive version of 
the Billing and Accounts Receivable 
program that appears in Volume III of 
this set. This version generates the 
same reports as the program in Volume 
III except it also allows the data base to 
be updated interactively. 

The source code for this program is 
8K bytes long and the program will 
execute in 12K of available memory. 
While most of the BASIC statements 



WHICH REPORT WOULD YOU LIKE TO RUN: 


73 








C U "-: rONERS A / R 


R F 


P 


r-' T > 


V76 


ACC# 


ft/ft S PAYMENTS 




LS PATE CU8T NAME 


:;71 16 
45686 
73192 
93216 


074.51 

3.94 

95. 31 

16.14 


71 1 . 26 

1.76 

213.5 

11?. 35 


12^17^75 

2/17/7$ 

Z/\./7$ 

=V6/7£. 


ItSTAIM SALES CO. 
REMINGTON CAN 
TUGITRflM CO. 
SUPERIOR ELFC. 


TOTAL PAYMENTS = « 1059.87 
TOTAL ACCOUNTS^REC. = S 690.4 










THE FOLLOWING 
WILL GENERATE. 


IS A LIST OF REPORTS THAT 
TO CHOOSE ONE TYPE IT'S 


THIS PROGRAM 
MUMPER WHEN ASKED. 


1 - PRINT MAILING LABELS 

2 - PRINT UP BILLS 

3 - CUSTOMER A'R REPORT 

4 - SALES REPORT 

5 - LAST PURCHASE REPORT 

6 - STOP PROGRAM 











In the first SRI Billing and Accounts Receivable program, the user has selected 
item 3 from the menu, the Customer A/R Report. 



SEPTADCT 1978 



125 



HON At LOUS YOU TO SURI YOUR A/R Rl CORDS IN A VARIETY OF 
SEQUENCES ANIi THEM IRINT A .REPORT. 



I HI '.I illlfcNCES are: 

1 
J 

4 - 
A 
WHICH SEQUENCE'' 2 



CUSIIJMll; • 

CUSTOMER NAHF 

CI IY 

SilAIF 

71P CUM 

* OE TRANSAC1IONS 

EXIT UITHOUI KIJRIINTi. 



TONER 

NO. 



10 
78192AC 

au'AH 

45M1A 
VJ J I All A 
J~>1 IA1IH 



CUSTOMER 
NAME 



BTREI I 
AMiRESS 



CA'JH BALE ACCOUNT 

HIGiTRAN 

OMEGA 

Kf M1NGTON CAN CO. 

!.lll LhlOR ELECTRIC 

ULSIHAH SALES CO. 



1421 LAURENCE ST. 

P.O. vox 404s 

2314 SHERUOOD AVE. 

nox 30 

327 N. CHERRY ST. 



PASADENA 

STANFORD 

LAKESIDE 

READER 

MELROSE 



O 

CA. 

N.J. 

TX. 

PA. 

II . 



ZIP 
CODE 



O 

VllOi 

91268 

45217 

1A804 

37215 



ii.an:.ali ion;. 



In the second SRI Billing and Accounts Receivable program, the user has 
selected item 2, which sorts the A/R records in the customer-name sequence. 



TH I S SUBS E CT I ON A LL OWS Y fl ll T O S ORT YOUR A/R RECORDS IN A VARIET Y OF 
SEQUENCES AND THEN PRINT A REPORT. 



THE SEQUENCES ARE: 
1 - rilSTriMFE- 4 



2 - CUSTOMER NAME 

3 - CITY 



4 - STATE 

5 - zip cnnr 



UHICH SEQUENCE?^?, 



6 - * OF TRANSACTIONS 

7 - EXIT UITHOUT SORTING, 



THIS IS THE ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE SECTION. 

IT WILL J^lNJ^E,^U-J£AJ<Sj^C_TJJNS IN VOLVI NG SALES ._ 



IT OFFERS EIGHT MODES OF OPERATION: 
1 - A/R LEDGER 
2- PRINT MAILING LABLES 



3 - PAST DUE ACCOUNTS LIST 
_4_=_P.BJHT CUSTQMERS__BILLS 

5 - SALES REPORT 

6 - SORT ACCOUN TS 



7 - UPDATE CUSTOMER ACCOUNTS 

_ _ 8 - FI NISNED UITH A/R SECTION 

UHICH WOULD YOU LIKETO DO? 7 



FOR EACH ACCOUNT C HANGE. ENTER A NUMBER DEFINING THE CHANG E. 



END 

OLD CUSTOMER U PDATE 



ADD NEU CUSTOMER 



WHICH _.QNE?_2_ 

ENTER NEU CU. 4. NAME, ST., CITY. ST.. ZIP. » OF TRANSACTION S. 

*? AA-I1111.LIII C»rill 01 tr.r,i w -» 4 t- . ..-*%-~. .««.-. .- TTT . ! 



? AA72316.UTI cjHN SUPPLY, 31S WESTUOOD . R ICHMOND . UA .. 22036 , 1 
JNfUL_- ITE_M_*, QU_ANTirY,_UN_ir;_PRT_CE, HON f H,_DAY , PAYMENT, DESC. 
? 876512.2 .6.36,6,25, 10, WIRE MESH 

TOR'^ScirACC'oUNT CHANGET~ENTER A NUMBER DEF I N T NG"THE CHANGE ". 

- END 



UHICH ONE? 



1 - OLD CUSTOMER UPDATE 

2 - ADD N EU CUSTOMER 



IF YOU HAVE EXCESSIVE TRANSACTIONS FOR ANY OF YOUR 

CUSTOMERS YOU WOULD LIKE TO REMOVE, TYPE A '1' OTHERUISE 



TYPE A '0'? 



THIS IS THE ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE SECTION. 
_LL WILL HANDLE ALL TRAN SACTIONS INVOLVING SALES. 



IT__0FFERS_EIJ3HT M ODES OF OPERA TION: 

1 - A/R LEDGER 

2 - PRIN T MAILING LABLES 



3 - PAST DUE ACCOUNTS LIST 

4 - PRINT CUSTOMERS BILLS 

5 - SALES REPORT 

6 - SORT ACCOUNTS 



7 - UPDATE CUSTOMER ACCOUNTS 

8 - FINISNED UITH A/R SECTION 
UHICH WOULD YOU LIKE TO DOT 7 



The second program displays various menus that allow the user to choose 
sequence, mode of operation, type of change, etc. 



are fairly straightforward, the disk I/O 
calls may not be compatible with your 
system. In this event you will be 
required to modify these five programs 
to meet the requirements of the BASIC 
that you are using. 

Third A/R Program 

Much of thecxplanatory text accom- 
panying the programs in the latter two- 
thirds of Volume VI, called "A Com- 
plete Business System, ACBS rev:80," 
was reprinted in the SRI Inventory 
Control article in the March-April issue 
of Creative Computing (pages 116- 
120). 
Accounts Receivable 

The A/R (Accounts Receivable) 
section allows the printing of all 
accounts that are older than 30 days. If 
account aging is desired it will have to 
be done through a dummy account set 
up in the A/P (Accounts Payable) file. 
For example: an A/P account #30, 
aging 30 days can be set up, likewise 
one for 45, 60 and/or 90 days may also 
be set up. Enter the amount of aging 
desired as a purchase or bill but Don't 
enter any payment. To zero an account 
enter a negative purchase equal to the 
amount still owing. 

Inventory 

The saleable or merchandise inven- 
tory contains quantity on hand and unit 
cost. The unit cost of each item may be 
changed each time its quantity is 
increased or the inventory is updated. 
Each time an inventory item is purchas- 
ed the inventory must be updated. In 
addition to updating the inventory 
section the accounts payable section 
will also have to be updated. If the 
transaction involves cash being paid 
out at the same time the inventory item 
is purchased then update or create. 
A/P account #010. The updating con- 
sists of entering the amount of the 
purchase and also entering this same 
amount as a payment. This allows the 
#010 account to zero itself and also 
subtracts the payment from the Cash 
on Hand account, contained in the 
Miscellaneous file. 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



All entries in Inventory, A/P and A/R 
will have to be entered twice, as the 
program is based on a double entry 
system and these three sections are 
interactive. Every time a bill comes in it 
can be added to its respective account, 
unless it is one of the twelve itemized 
expense items. These items are up- 
dated in the expense section when the 
bill is paid. All other bills are added to 
the A/P section when they are received. 
If it is necessary to add to your Cash on 
Hand as a separate item then update 
the A/P account #010 and enter a 
negative amount equal to the amount 
of cash to be added as a purchase and 
then enter this same negative amount 
as a payment, this zeros the #010 
account and adds the amount to Cash 
on Hand. 

The A/R (Accounts Receivable) 
section will update cash on hand but 



FILE STRUCTURES 

File #3— A/R 

N# (number of customers), Customer 
#, Customer Name, Street address, 
City, State, Zip, Total $ sales yr. to date, 
Total sales since last P & L, # of 
outstanding transactions, litem #, 
Quantity purchased, Unit Selling price, 
month (1-12) of purchase, day of 
purchase, Payments made in $'s. 
Description! 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE LEDGER 



PA1E SEP. u. 1777 



.flCCl -CITY I STATE ... 

DATE DESC. 



» SCI 

YK. TO DATE 



SALE PAYMENT 



WALTON SUPPLY 

234561 2 



AA23716 



6/25 



RICHMOND! ua. 

PLASTIC ROD 



♦ 8.72 



»0.00 
• 0.00 



WESTHAM SALES CO. 



37116DH 



C556178 

. suaiz - 



25 

50_ 



3 / 

« / 



18 
-L2_ 



136928 
A221679 



20 
14 



5/19 



MELROSE. IL. 

PULLEY 
JilSE_H£SH...- 
URENCH 
SAW 



♦1.712.70 



tl , 109.50 

S318.2JL 

*205.20 
♦144.76 



_-6EMN0I 



15686 



LAKESIDE, TX. 



♦500.00 

♦0.00. 

♦250.00 
*0.00 



♦28 ..V 



136*28 
234561 



3/ 17 



WRENCH 
PLASTIC ROD 



»28_.S2 

♦ 4.36 



♦ 0.00 
♦30.00 



51376H 



STANfORD. H.J. 



JU( 


• ITRAN 




78192AC 


PASADENA. CA. 






723736 
745336 
234561 


■ 

6 
5 


.... 1. ' \9 
3/12 
5/23 


bmj; 

FUSE IK. 
PLASTIC ROD 


1234.72 

♦151.80 

♦21.80 



♦1 . 118.76 



♦180.00 

♦ 0.00 

♦150.00 



SUPERIOR ELECTRIC 



8127o3 

A91S332 

234561 

A221679 



136928 



93216DA 



2 / 3 
3/18 

3 / - 
6/11 
6/28 
6/29 



READER. PA. 

CLOBE 
PILE 
_PJ.flSUi;_ROJl 
SAW 

PAYMENT 
WRENCH 



♦94.08 
♦10.48 
♦39.24 
♦10.34 
♦ 0.00 
♦28.52 



CASH SALE ACCOUNT 



22 
25 
28 
30 



♦1.135. 00 

♦1 ,118.00 

•1.002.00 

♦667.31 



♦ 0.00 
♦0.00 
♦1J0.00 
♦0.00 
♦10.00 
♦0.00 



♦0.00 

♦1.135.00 

♦1.118.00 

♦1.002.00 

♦667.31 



TOTAL A/R (LESS SALES TAX)- ♦1.228.04 



An Accounts Receivable Ledger, previously updated with the use of the menus 
shown in the previous figure. 



not the inventory section. Therefore for 
each transaction it will be necessary to 
first update the A/R section and then 
update the inventory section by sub- 
tracting the quantities for each item 
sold. To add cash sales to cash on 
hand, enter a transaction to the A/R 
#010 account as a receivable and then 
enter it again as a payment with both 
amounts being equal. This allows the 
cash sales account to zero itself while 
at the same time updating cash on 
hand and generating a cash sales log 
for future records. If this log becomes 
too long it may be reduced by an 
appropriate entry at the end of the A/R 
updating section. Whenever a 
customer makes a payment on his 
account it is automatically added to 
cash on hand as soon as it is entered as 
a payment. ■ 



Video Terminals 

$649.50 $15 picking 

Dilapoint 3000. 3360 CRT s 

Std ASCII. RS-232. many laaturai 

Fully Assamb/ad. Gumrantud 

REFURBISHED 

TELECOM. Bo« 41 1 7 (7031 613-401 9 

Aiaiandria. Virginia 22303 



CIRCLE 145 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Baltimore 
& 

Washington 






For Friendly 

Help and 

Advice 



ETC> 



1 3A Allegheny Ave., Towson, Md. 
(301)296-0520 

9330 Georgia Ave., Silver Spring, Md. 
(301)588-3748 
OPEN 7 DAYS A WEEK 



CIRCLE 154 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



127 



business 
computing 



IILLUUII I J Hi 



Altair 
Software 
Distribution 
Co. 



The Accounts Receivable Package 
contains two main types of data files, 
the Customer Accounts Master Files 
and the Transaction Activity Files: 

• The Customer Account Files are 
broken into three sub-files. The pri- 
mary Customer File contains: account 
number (5 Alphanumeric Characters); 
customer name, address and phone 
number; credit limits and terms; tax 
and discount rates; dates and amounts 
of last credit and debit; year-to-date 
totals; and current and high balance. 
The second Customer Account subfile 
maintains a record of all open invoices 
for a company. The last Customer 
Account subfile contains a two-month 
"moving window" of all activity within 
that account. 

• The Transaction Activity files are 
also separated into three separate files: 
A Periodic Activity file, which contains 
the most recent transactions within the 
system, an Invoice Activity file which 
contains invoices for the month, and 
finally a Payment Activity file. 

Complete Customer File Main- 
tenance is available for those portions 
of the file which may be modified. This 
includes add, change, delete, query 



THE HARRIS SUPPLY CO. 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

PERIODIC ACTIVITY REGISTER 

04/30/77 



PAGE 



ACTIVITY TYPE DATE INVOICE/ DATA 1 DATA 2 

ENTRY OF OF ACCOUNT CREDIT (SALE, PAY, CR (FREIGHT 
DATE ACTIVITY ACTIVITY NO. NO. OR ADJ VALUE) OR DISC.) 



DATA 3 
(TAX OR 
CUST. REF.) 



06/10/77 PURCHASE 06/08/77 BANK 2020 $ 12.00 
06/10/77 PURCHASE 06/10/77 BOB 1010 $ 197.60 
06/10/77 PAYMENT 06/10/77 AUTO $ 60.00 



$ 0.00 $ 0.00 

$ S.40 $ 7.60 

INV 10111 



TOTAL SALES FOR PERIOD 

TOTAL FREIGHT FOR PERIOD 

TOTAL TAX FOR PERIOD 

TOTAL PAYMENTS FOR PERIOD 

TOTAL CREDITS FOR PERIOD 

TOTAL ADJUSTMENTS FOR PERIOD 

TOTAL DISCOUNTS TAKEN FOR PERIOD 

NET CHANGE IN ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 



$209.60 

S 5.40 

$ 7.60 

$ 60.00 

$ 0.00 

$ 0.00 

$ 0.00 



$149.60 



THE HARRIS SUPPLY CO. 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

ACINC REPORT 

06/ 10/77 



ACCT SO CUSTOMER NAME •«•*•«*••* 

IKV.no BATE CURRENT 30-60 



OVL« 90 TlirAI. 



AUTO THOMPSON'S AUTO 
2000 03/OJ/77 
2011 04/20/77 



********** 



166.50 



10 1.00 



10 1.00 



267.50 



BANK 3 HO NATIONAL HANK 
2002 03/05/77 
2009 04/06/77 
2020 06/08/77 12.00 



********** 



12.00 



21.00 



15.00 



COB BOB'S BAK-B-qUE •••••*•••* 

1001 01/01/77 5.00 

1002 03/09/77 8.00 

1003 03/10/77 |2.oo 

1004 03/11/77 10.00 

1005 04/09/77 12.00 

1006 04/10/77 17.00 

1007 04/11/77 20.00 

1008 05/10/77 100.00 

1009 05/11/77 152.00 

1010 06/10/77 203.00 

2008 04/02777 110.01 

355.00 120.00 139.01 35.00 649.01 

DAISY UAISY KEALTY COMPANY «••••»«««• 

2007 03/29/77 2 7 50 

2013 04/30/77 100.00 

2017 05/20/77 90.00 

90.00 100.00 27.50 0.00 217.50 

DTOWN DOWNTOWN BUSINESS SUPPLY* *•*••»••• 

2018 05/29/77 22.83 22.83 



128 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



THE HARRIS SUPPLY CO. 
33 NORTHS IDE AVE. 
CHAMBLEE, GA 30340 



THOMPSON'S AUTO 

354 LAWRENCFVILLE RD. 

MARIETTA, GA 30324 



CUSTOM!* 9 O 1 CUStOMll 10 


HAmS sh* vi* 


» c 


SAlfSMAMNO 


MVOKf OATf 


iNVC'Ct NO 


B-136 ]aUTO 


NET 30 | U.P.S. 






04/20/77 


2011 


»A*T MUMtfft 


QUA* 




DfXtOTKX 


UM1 PWCf 


n.5C hUAWI 


ntJ UtOUNl 


P-21LP 


10 


LINE PRINTER PAPER 


15.00 




150.00 


Uitl 1«. 1 ; SMtJ 


»■ 7 


I SMIS T »» 1 


Mf»GMT 


INVOKI otic 


sue c«a«« cmo 


i 


INVOICf ». ._ 


4.50 




12.00 






IOTAI V 


Ibb.bU 



and list capabilities. Optional Control 
Reports may be generated in order to 
provide hardcopy. 

Entry of invoices and payments is 
provided in a Speed Entry form to 
maximize operator effectiveness. Entry 
of Credit Memos and Adjustments is 
provided for. However, invoices may be 
entered in a "non-speed" mode and 
then printed. 

The following reports are created by 
the system: 

• Periodic Activity Report 

• Aged Accounts Receivable 

• Invoice Register 

• Payment, Credit and Adjustment 
Register 

• List Current Customer Accounts 

• Invoices and Statements 

For a typical dual-disk system the 
Customer Accounts file may contain 
up to 400 or more companies, each 
averaging 9 open invoices, and 13 
current transactions. This would allow 
for several hundred transactions to be 
handled. 

The Receivables Package prepares a 
direct monthly report to the General 
Ledger, provided that the user has 
more than one floppy disk unit for data 
transfer. ■ 





Till: HARRIS 


SUPPLY CO. 






ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

QUERY CUSTOMER ACCOUNT STATUS 

06/ 10/77 




ACCOUNT NUrDER 

NAME 

ADDRESS 

PHONE NUIIbT.I' 
YTll SALES 
HIGH BALANCI 
CURRENT BALANCE: 


AUTO 

THOMPSON'S AUTO 
354 LAI'RENCEVILLF. 
MARIETTA CA 30324 
404-231-3434 

$267.50 

$267.50 

$267.50 


TYPE OF ACCOUNT 
CREDIT TERMS 
CREDIT I.IMtT 
YTll PAYMENTS 
DATE OF LAST CREDIT 
AMOUNT LAST CREDIT 
DATE OF LAST DCBIT 
AMOUNT LAST DEBIT 


RECULAR 
NET 

$2,000.00 
$0.00 
I/O 

$0.00 
06/10/77 

$166.50 


OPEN 


INVOICES 


RECCNT TRANSAI 


:tions 


NO. DATE 


AMOUNT IF.RMS 


DATE TYPI. OF TRAI 


IS. AMOUNT 


2000 03/03/77 
2011 04/20/77 


$101.00 NET 
$166.50 NET 30 


06/10/77 PURCHASE 
06/10/77 PURCHASE 


$101.00 
$166.50 


account number ! 
.-.ami: 

ADDRESS 

PHONE NUMBER 
YTD SALES 
II tl.ll BALANCI 
CURRENT BALANCE: 


BANK 

3 f li NATIONAL BANK 

9 POtltF. HE LF.OII AVE. 

DECATUR, CA 30123 

404-161-2222 

$48.(10 

$48.00 

$48.00 


TYPE OF ACCOUNT 
CREDIT TERMS 
CREDIT LIMIT 
YTD PAYMENTS 
DATE OF LAST CKEIIIT 
AMOUNT LAST CREDIT 
DATE OF LAST DEBIT 
AMOUNT LAST DEBIT 


OTHER 
NET 

$3,000.00 
$0.00 
//O 

$0.00 
06/10/77 

$12.00 


OPEN 


INVOICES 


RECENT TRANSAI 


:tions 


NO. DATE 


AMOUNT MS 


DATE TYPE OF TRA 


IS. AMOUNT 


2002 03/05/77 
200¥ 04/06/77 
2020 06/09/77 


$15.00 NET 
$21.00 NET 
$12.00 MET 


06/10/77 PURCHASE 
06/10/77 PURCHASE 
06/10/77 PURCHASE 


$15.00 
$21.00 
$12.00 




SEPT/OCT 1978 



129 





THE HARRIS SUPPLY CO. 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

CURRENT CUSTOMER ACCOUNTS LISTING 

06/10/77 


PACE 


1 


ACCOUNT 

•Jo. 


CUSTOMER 

ADD! 


CUR'.F.NT 
BALANCE 




PHONE 


AD TO 


THOMPSON'S AUTO 


35* LAWRENCEVILLE RD. 
MARIETTA, CA 3032* 


$267.50 


404 


-231-3*3* 


BANK 


RATIONAL BANK 


9 PONCE HE LEON AVE. 
DECATUR. CA 30123 


$*8.00 


404 


-161-2222 


BOB 


BOB'S RAR-B-qUE 


98 WINDY HILL ROAD 
SMYT' A. r.A 30300 


$649.01 


404-876-8876 


DAISY 


DAISY REALTY COMPANY 


3125 BUFORD HICHUAY 
ATLANTA, CA 303*0 


$217.50 


404 


-457-2363 


OTOWN 


DOWNTOWN BUSINESS SUPPLY 7886 HOUSTON ST 

ATLANTA, CA 30302 


$22.83 


404 


-321-1234 


r.i.rx 


ELECTRONICS WAREHOUSE 


132 CONSTITUTION ST. 
SY1RNA. CA 30331 


$888.28 


404- 


■457-8725 


HOTEL 


ALEX GRAHAM HILTON HOTK 


. 4566 PEACHTREE STREET 
ATLANTA, CA 30302 


$290.49 


404- 


-455-1122 


SUMER 


PETE SUMCR. CONTRACTOR 


1312 PEYTON PLACE 
ATLANTA, CA 30333 


$122.07 


404- 


■446-7890 


TACO 


TACO BELL 


1616 MEMORIAL DRIVE 
DECATUR. CA 30300 


$101.41 


404- 


231-2345 


THERE ARE 9 CURRENT ACCOUNTS. . 
WITH TOTAL CURRENT ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 








$2,607.09 




business 
computing 



ui I i ii ii i re uc rr ii mm r 

I IL L UUI I I J I )L L L IVllUL L 



Arkansas Systems 

Dr. James K. Hendren 
B. Eugene Jones 



The Accounts Receivable System is 
the fourth in a series of micro software 
systems being developed by Arkansas 
Systems, Inc. General Ledger with 
Financial Reporting and Payroll are 
currently being used by many com- 
panies and several OEMs. Accounts 
Payable, and Accounts Receivable are 
under development. Order Entry, In- 
ventory Control, and Time and Material 
Billing are planned. 

As with the Payroll and General 
Ledger, Arkansas Systems, Inc. has 
tried to make Accounts Receivable as 
flexible as possible for floppy disks; 
they have also tried to make the system 
as fool-proof as possible, via on-line 
editing of input data, automatic backup 
of files, coordinated-organized system 
flow, and excellent documentation. 

Software Overview 

The A/R system has two major and 
three minor files that contain all in- 
formation which is used and reported 



throughout the system. The major files 
are the Master Account File and the 
Transaction History File. The master 
account file has each customer's name, 
address, person to contact, telephone 
number, balance for each period, etc. 
Aged balances are kept for 31 -60 days, 







61 -90 days, 91 -120 days, over 120 days, 
in addition to the current-month 
balance. The main function of the 
system is to maintain these balances in 
an orderly manner. The transaction 
history file contains a record of all 
payments, charges, and adjustments 



CUttCNT MTE 12/12/77 
LAST ME MTC 11/12/77 




RCCEIVAM.ES 
C0APANT 


IT SALESMAN 

NAME 








PAGE 1 


SALESMAN NAME 


MUNKR 


CURRENT 


JO- 40 


AO-W 


90-120 


120* 


TOTALS 


KPT. 


ALMS! A. 


100 


90.00 


40.00 


30.00 


40.00 





100.00 


030 


ALFtfl I. 


200 


20.00 














20.00 


•30 


■EFT. 030 TOTALS 




30.00 


40.00 


30.00 


40.00 





200.00 




SAMUEL A. 


474 


73.00 


30.00 








41.00 


03.00 


040 


SOPHIA 1. 


499 


30.00 


3.00 





30.00 





43.00 


040 


KPT. 040 TOTALS 




53.00 


33.00 





30.00 


40.00 


140.00 




COMPANY TOTALS 




103.00 


73.00 


30.00 


90.00 


40.00 


340.00 





130 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



made in this invoicing period. This file 
prints the detailed information appear- 
ing in the statement for the current 
period. 

Minor files within the system are the 
control file, cursor control file, and the 
salesman file. 

The control file contains information 
about the company— the company 
name and address, telephone number, 
number of lines per page on the printer, 
how many periods within the cyclic 
billing, what the current process date 
is, etc. This file generally contains data 
to which every program needs access. 
Use of a control file greatly simplifies 
operation if accounts receivable is 
being run for more than one company 
(customers often run several com- 
panies). If the company name changes, 
then instead of changing every 
program, one short program can be run 
and the company name will be chang- 
ed in every program. 

The salesman file keeps receivables 
by salesman. The cursor control file 
allows the software to be run on 
hardware with different types of CRT 
terminals. A cursor control modifica- 
tion program is included so that the 
user is not tied to one CRT. 

There are various functions that can 
be selected by the user from a menu. 
Several of these functions are describ- 
ed below. 

Charges, Payments, and Returns Entry 

This function allows transactions for 
any account to be entered, edited, 
posted, and logged to the history file. 
Easy English prompts guide the user 
through each account requiring 
modification. Initially the program 
prompts "Enter Account Number or 
End to Stop." After entering an account 
number (verified valid upon entry), the 
system displays a mini-menu con- 
taining several types of entries, 
as: 

for Charge 

for Payment 

for Current Period 

Returned 

for 30 day old return 



CH 
PY 
RC 



such 



Item 

























ran 


11/01/77 


TO 12/01/7/ 








TRANSACTION 100 
CONPAKT HM 








ACCOM! ■ 


TMM. 


I 


Mil 


lift 


TRANS. 


■CSC. 


OMIT 


CRESIT 




10M 




370 
307 
504 

307 




11/03/77 
11/07/77 
11/10/77 
11/11/77 
11/22/7? 


10 
21 
31 
13 
13 


AJJUST 120 OAT 
MJK. RETURNER 3/7 
RATICNT INVOICE 7043 
INVOICE 0302 
SISPUTES ANT. IN tO PAT 


10.00 
110.00 


15.00 
23.00 

10.00 




1IM 




302 




11/7/77 


31 


PATNCNT 


■Ml. 7T34 




127.00 





R3 



R6 for 60 day old return 
R9 for 90 day old return 
RO for Older than 120 days 
EE to End Tranactions for this 

customer 
After entering the transaction code, a 
comment can be entered which will 
print on this customer's statement, 
followed by the amount of the transac- 
tion. At this time a reference number is 
generated by the system which will 
also be printed on the statement. This 
reference number is valuable in that it 
provides an audit trail. 

Add Account and Change Account 

The add account and change ac- 
count functions are very similar; 
therefore, they will be discussed 
together. 

After selecting the function, you will 
be prompted to enter the account 
number. The account number will then 
be verified either as on file (change 
account) or not on file (add account). If 
you are in change-account, the current 
account will be displayed and you will 
be allowed to change any non-dollar 
fields. In the add-account function you 
will be asked to give values for all non- 
dollar amounts; the dollar amounts will 
be initialized to zero. 

Sort Transactions 

This function is automatically called 
when you choose to write statements, 
but it can be of value if you wish to print 
the transactions in the Transaction 
History Report in account order. If this 
function is not performed, the report 
will be in the same order as the 
transactions were entered. 

Age Accounts 

This function moves the current 
balance to the 31-day balance, the 31- 



CURRENT MTE 
LAST A01N0 SATE 


12/12/77 














ACCOUNT 


■ 


OVER 
CRESIT 


ACCOUNT NAM 


CURRENT 


30-40 


40-00 


♦0-120 


120. 


TOTAL 


T 






. 




JOE ROM, INC. 


400.00 


33. rs 


147.30 


0.00 


10.03 


304.40 


10 










AIL 00OS CO. 


33.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


33.00 


100 






.... 




0001 OLE 0IILS, INC. 
IISPUTEI ANOUNTS 


100.00 
0.00 


0.00 
0.00 


0.00 
0.00 


30.00 
30.00 


0.00 
0.00 


130.00 
30.00 


1000 










SANUEl T. CO. 


30.00 


33.00 


73.33 


0.00 


0.00 


140.33 












KPT. 030 TOTALS 


309.00 


70.03 


232.03 


0.00 


10.03 


BOO. 73 


woo 










ACS CAARS 


373.00 


430.00 


370.00 


0.00 


0.00 


1704.00 


•JH 










SAH 


30.00 


23.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


73.00 



KPT. 040 TOTALS 



day balance to the 61 -day balance, etc. 
This function must be performed only 
once a month, otherwise it will cause 
invalid results. 

The various reports Histed in the 
menu of functions are as indicated with 
samples of some of these included in 
this article. 

Features 

The following is a list of features that 
are being incorporated into this ac- 
counts receivable. 

• Multi-company or multi-department 

• Up to 500 accounts 





ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 


FUNCTIONS MENU 




FILE MINTEMUKC 




REPORTS 


1 

2 
J 

4 
5 
I 
? 


» 


charges. f*rnt«rs. and miurns 

SET MUX ESS MTE 

CONPANT RATA CHMfOE 

AM ACCOUNT 

OMMC ACCOUNT 

DELETE ACCOUNT 

SORT TRANSACTIONS 

RECOVER FROfl MCKUF 

AGE ACCOUNTS PIRI0I START, 

FUNCTION NUHKR ? 1 


20 

22 
23 
24 
25 
24 


PRINT STATEMENTS 

REmVAM.ES IT SALESMN 

IRAMSACMON HISTORY REPORT 

MILINO LABELS 

MSTER ACCOUNTS REPORT 

ON LINE ACCOUNT STATUS INOUIRT 

EN» ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 



Up to a disk full of items per period 

(4000 for double density floppy) 

Balance forward with details for this 

invoice period 

Aged Receivables Balance Report 

(options for only those accounts with 

balances older than 30, 60. 90, or 1 20 

days) 

Credit-limit warnings 

Receivables by salesman report 

Disputed amount handling and 

reporting 

Interest or penalty on past-due 
statements (optional usage) 
Detailed input editing for cor- 
rectness 

On-line aged account analysis 
On-line posting of accounts 
Cyclic billing capability for state- 
ments 

Automatic backup of files with 
recovery from backup function 
Detailed transaction history for audit 
and recovery from backup purposes 
Returns and Allowances can be 
applied to any aged period 
Automatic discount calculations 
based on individual customers 
Up to four dunning messages for 
statements 

Up to four custom thanks or adver- 
tising lines for statements 
Never print dunning statement for 
individual customer option 



5EPT/OCT 1978 



131 






APPLETALSER 




from 






SOFTAPEI 

Now, a software program which will run 
on any Apple Computer and give it the power 
of speech for only $15.95. Use "Talker 
Tables" you create to make your own 
basic programs. You create these tables 
using your tape recorder and microphone. 
Your computer will digitize your voice and 
store it in memory or tape. 

The program comes complete with 
instructions and a demonstration program. 

We're looking for original software for 
the APPLE II TRS-80, Pet, Sorcerer and 
Northstar for inclusion in the exchange. 
We'll also market those programs you'd like 
to see sold through stores across the country 
and abroad. We're paying royalties to 
authors on sales or we'll purchase your 
programs outright. 

SOFTWARE EXCHANGE 

As a member of the exchange you select 
many quality programs for only the cost 
of cassette, postage and duplication. This 
cost is currently $2.00 per tape with 1 to 
9 programs per tape! Ten tapes are available 
today! Join now and receive member order 
forms. Trial membership $20.00. 

Ask your nearest apple dealer for a demon- 
stration or contact us. 

SOFTAPE 1 

1 0756 Vanowen 

North Hollywood, California 91605 

(213) 985-5763 



CIRCLE 131 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



132 



• Never-print statement for individual 
customer option 

• Year-to-date totals (billed by ac- 
count) 

• Transaction log report between 
specified dates 

• Mailing-label generation 

• Master-accounts report 

• Reports sorted by department or | 
company 

Specifications 

Machine Requirements 

Any 8080 or Z80 processor with 32K 
bytes of memory, two floppy disks or a 
hard disk running under CP/M, a CRT 
and a printer. A program is provided to 
modify the entire system to handle 
CRTs with cursor controls different 
from a Hazeltine 1500. 
Language 

The systems are written in Fortran 
with an Indexed Sequential Access 
Method. Therefore they run very fast 
and efficiently. The system is provided 
in 8080 object code. 
Documentation 

Complete users manuals are 
available for the completed systems. 
The manuals explain step-by-step use 
of the systems from start-up to year- 
end processing. Sample reports and 
most CRT displays are also provided in 
the manuals. 

License 

The software is available under a 
non-disclosure and non-proliferation 
license. OEM and dealer licenses are 
also available. 
Maintenance 

Any programming errors will be fixed 
at no charge for a one-year period. 
Enhancements and modifications will 
be performed for any user through a 
per-job fee, although few users are 
expected to need this service. 

Software Subscription Service 

A subscription service under which 
software updates are supplied is 
available at $100 per year. 
Installation and Training 

Arkansas Systems, Inc. will supply 
installation and training support at 
your location or at theirs for $200 per 
day plus expenses (at your location). 
The software and manuals are design- 
ed however, to allow easy installation 
by the user. 
Availability 

The Accounts Receivable Package is 
$495 including the software on a floppy 
with documentation. Users manuals 
are $15 each with credit toward 
purchase of the software. An informa- 
tion packet is available free from 
Arkansas Systems. Inc., 8901 Kanis 
Road, Suite 206, Little Rock, Ark., 
72205, (501)227-8471. Dealer inquiries 
are also invited. ■ 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



business 
computing 



orrnurmz ocrcniooi C- 

IILLUUII I J ULLLiVHULL' 



Computer Data Systems 



The Computer Data Systems ac- 
counts receivable package was design- 
ed to effectively utilize the capabilities 
of our computer. The package is a low- 
volume unit with combinations of 
sequential and random accesses to the 
files. Information gathered by the 
package represents the minimum es- 
sential inputs for any day-to-day 
business transaction. To keep the 
package as general and simple as 
possible, the user is prompted to 
respond to menus to obtain the proper 
input function and statements to enter 
the specific data required to complete a 
transaction. We do not make any 
claims that the Business Pak will solve 
all business problems or that it will 
provide reams of perfect information 
for making decisions, because we don't 
offer the package for sale. We do 
believe the package provides good, 
concise information that can be 
analyzed for running a more com- 
petitive business. 

To begin using the Business Pak, 
you load the MDOS & Basic Pak. Then, 
insert the Business Pak. To insure you 
have clean files you type-in PLOADG 
"Initial". This process takes ap- 
proximately 5 minutes. You are now 
ready to begin. 

Receivables Mode 

The Business Pak is menu driven. In 
the Receivables section, you can enter 
an order, update an account, or print a 
Receivables statement. To enter an 
order, you answer the menu with a 1. 
Then you are prompted to enter the 
date, customer's Account #, Invoice # 
(an alphanumeric field that is checked 
for duplication) and finally the total 
Invoice Amount due. You are then 
asked if you have another Invoice. If 
you do, type in Y and repeat the above 
steps, otherwise, you return to the 
Receivables menu. 

EXAMPLE 



If you wish to update an account, you 
type in a 2 and another menu appears. 
This menu asks if you wish to change 
an Invoice amount, enter a payment, or 
quit. If you type in for Quit you return 
to the Receivables menu. Otherwise, 
you are asked to type in the customer 
Acct. #. Then the customer's Acct. 
statement is displayed. You are asked 
to enter the Invoice # (which is checked 
for validity). If you want to change the 
Invoice amount, you are asked to enter 
the new corrected total and then return 
to the update menu. If you wanted to 
enter a payment, you enter the amount, 
the check # and date of payment. Next, 
another payment (Y or N)? appears on 
the screen and if yes, you repeat the 
above or you return to the update 
menu. 

Hardware 

Computer Data Systems computer 
consists of a Versatile 4 series com- 
puter or equivalent with 32K RAM, 9" 
CRT with a 24x80 video card, one 
Micropolis floppy disk unit and con- 
troller (315K) with Micropolis BASIC. A 
line printer is optional. 

Each computer we sell comes com- 
plete with documentation for the unit 
and the software. The software comes 
in source code on a single diskette. The 
Business Pak diskette contains all 15 
programs and 6 data file areas. The 
data files can handle 200 names and 
addresses, 100 payables items, 100 
receivable items, 100 inventory items, 
100 cash account items and writing 45 
checks. Our manual includes sections 
on MDOS, BASIC and how to use the 
Business Pak. This is done to facilitate 
small changes in the source code if an 
application does not fit the purchaser's 
needs. 

For further information contact 
Computer Data Systems, 5460 Fair- 
mont Drive, Wilmington, DE 19808 ■ 



Account Statement 






Dan Peck 






5460 Fairmont Drive 






Wilmington, DE 19808 


Account # 101 


Invoice # Invoice Date 




Invoice Total 


CDS 1001 6/22/78 




$ 89.00 


CDS 1002 6/22/78 




$ 267.05 


CDS 1003 6/27/78 




$ 999.95 


CDS 1004 6/27/78 




$ 4.465.89 




Total Due - 


$ 5.821.89 




£.11U 



Computer Data Systems Versatile 4 Dual 
Drive System 



CATCHAPULSE II 

LOGIC PROBE 

^-10 Nsec SPEED AT 
^ 4 to15U LEUELS 

"■»* Compatible with DIt TTl. 

, CMOS. M0S. and Microproces 

sors using a 4 to 15V power 

supply Thresholds automatically 

programmed Automatic resetting 

memory No adiustment required 

Visual indication of logic lewis, using 

lEOs to show high. low. bad level or 

open circuit logic and pulses Highly 

sophisticated, shirt pocket portable 

Iprotectne tip cap and removable 

coilcordl Eliminates need lor heavy 

test equipment A definite savings 

in time and money lor engin aer 

and technician 

ONLY , • 10 N.tc H»« rtaawne 

I C A A OK wip- * °* M """* * ,,K,, °" 

OH X. TPgL • MMttrttdMi 






SPht'lAL PAK-II J5I.95 

Includes a standard lulled cord, tolled cord 
with micro hooks, adapter for using CAH'll 
A-PL'LSI M loaif UiiiiIr-s whose power 
supply is ISV to 25V. Shipping add $2 OOper 
probe. 



A l ; ELECTRONICS 

Box 19299, San Diego CA92119 
(714)447-1770 



I 



CIRCLE 126 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



133 




'XvtfcK 




Thomas N. Ronayne 



STARWARS is a BASIC-language computer game of 
war with a twist: the player may actively participate by 
playing the game against the computer, or, alternately, the 
player may function as an uninvolved observer as the "on- 
board computers" battle against one another; that is, the 
computer will play against itself. (It's not a good idea to 
play the game in this manner on a printing terminal — the 
"computers" play a very conservative game which takes a 
very long time and gobbles up a great deal of paper! 

The game is played in the scenario of the film 
STARWARS: the players are the characters of the film, the 
time and place is "long ago in a galaxy far away." The 
human player assumes the role of Han Solo, mercenary 
captain of the Millennium Falcon. The computer assumes 
the role of Darth Vadar, Chief Bad Guy. The Millennium 
Falcon must reach a goal — Yavin-4 — before the evil force 
personified by Darth Vadar can destroy it and its 
occupants. The fate of the entire galaxy hinges on the 
successful completion of this mission. 

There are three obstacles in the path of successful 
completion of the mission: distance; time; Darth Vadar. 
First, Yavin-4 is one light-year (9.45426 12 Kilometers) 
distant. Second, the Millennium Falcon can travel only at 
90% light velocity in "normal" space, and, at this velocity, it 
takes 1.1 years to travel one light year. The Millennium 
Falcon has only sufficient life-support for one year of 
travel (365 moves). The third problem is Vadar: he is a 
hunter-killer, bent on destroying the Millennium Falcon at 
almost any cost, to save the rather overbearing Galactic 
Empire from destruction by the Good Guys (the crew of 
the Millennium Falcon and their buddies). However, Vadar 
is not suicidal — he will go on R&R if he has to so that he 
may continue to fight. 

Thomas N. Ronayne. 16615 Rosemont Rd., Detroit. Ml 48219 



134 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



To overcome the time and distance factor, the Millen- 
nium Falcon (and Darth Vadar!) can enter "Hyperspace" 
and travel at greater-than-light velocities. However, this 
gobbles up wads of power, can only be done for one hour 
at a time, and only once every two days. Navigation at 
excess light velocity also tends to be somewhat sloppy, 
sometimes at right angles to the intended flight path. 

Additionally, navigation errors can put the Millennium 
Falcon in a black hole, star, or other unpleasant cir- 
cumstances (of course, it would be unfair if the same does 
not hold true for Vadar; it's just that his chances of having 
such a calamity befall him are much slimmer than those of 
the Millennium Falcon). Also, because the computer on 
board Vadar's ship isn't as smart as the one on the 
Millennium Falcon, his weapons tend to have better aim 
and greater success when fired. 

As regards light velocity, it is stated in kilometers per 
second (KPS), and is given as C; C = 299792.5 KPS. The 
Millennium Falcon is able to travel at .9C, or 269813.25 
KPS in normal space and at much higher rates in 
hyperspace (see the program instructions). 

The game can last for a very long time if played in a 
conservative manner. By taking frequent rests (to build up 
power), both ships can last to the end of the game. The 
penalty for running out of power is the same as running 
out of life support: death. 

Note should be made that the most powerful weapon, 
the laser, has its effectiveness affected by range — the 
closer together the two ships are, the more effective the 
laser; however, the laser can't be used except at distances 
greater than 100.000K (the backsplash would harm the 
firing ship). 

Program Language Notes 

The language used in the program is standard BASIC, 
with the following minor exceptions: The back slant (/) 
allows more than one statement per line; the SST function 
extracts the first letter from a string (allowing a YES or NO 
answer to be Y or N) and, because it cannot be utilized 
directly in the BASIC that the program was written in, the 
assignment is to an additional variable. The program was 
written for a word-oriented machine, operating in eight 
significant digits — if you go to double precision, you may 
find the distances more exact. Line-feeds are used inside 
of quotes — BASIC should allow this in any version 
because line-feeds are, after all, string characters. If your 
BASIC will not allow "PRINT USING", just remove the 
image statement lines, delete the word USING, and format 
with commas and/or semicolons. 

Mostly, have fun. 

SEPT/OCT 1978 1 35 



Line Comments 

10 DAT$ is date, CLK$ is time of day 

50 The back slant ( / ) allows multiple statements 

on one line 

90 SST(A1$,1,1) is sub-string extraction: A$ is the 

string, the first 1 indicates where the extracting 
starts, the second 1 is the length to be extracted 

100 Line Feed, within quotes, is a string, and spaces 

the carriage (instead of multiple PRINT 
statements) 

710,810 D9 counts the days in transit. Change to 
D9 D9 • 5 to speed up game (you are allowed 365 
days) 

2030 Again, Line Feeds within quotes 

„ RUH Sample Run 

STARWARS 01/06/78 I.7M 

WHAT IS tOUt NAHETHAK SOLO 

00 YOU WISH TO ALLOW THE 0M-B0ARD COMPUTUS DO 1ATTLE 
AGAINST ONE ANOTHER, HAN SOLOTN 



GREETINGS. HAN SOLO, THIS IS DARTH VADAH. I AM ABOUT TO WIPE 
THE FLOOR WITH YOU. BUT, FOR THE SAKE OF SPORT, 1 WILL CIVE YOU 
A SP0RT1SC CHANGE TO DEFEND YOURSELF AND - PERHAPS. THOUGH I SIN- 
CERLY DOUBT IT - CET ME INSTEAD. 



DO YOU THINK THAT INSTRUCTIONS WILL HELP YOU. NAN SOLOTY 



HISTORY TAPE - DATA LIBRARY: CALDATE 8066 8.7*9 HOURS. 



YOU ARE CATTIAN OF THE MILLENNIUM FALCON. YOU AND YOUR CO-PILOT 
THE WOOKIE CHEWBACCA, ARE MERCENARIES PLYING YOUR TRADE THROUGHOUT 
THE GALAXY. 

AFTER TARING ON FOUR PASSENGERS. LURE SRYWALRER. BEN (OBI-WAN) 
KENOBI, AND TWO 'DROIDS. SEE-THREETIO AND ARTOO-DETOO. AND ESCAP- 
ING THE IMPERIAL FORCES AT HOS EISLEY, IN THE TATOOINE SYSTEM, YOU 
HAVE RESCUEU THE PRINCESS LEIA ORCANA OF ALDERHAAN FROM THE 
CLUTCHES OF THE EVIL GRAND HOFF TARKIN, AMD THE DARK LORD OF 
THE SITH. DARTH VADAR. 

YOUR MISSION IS TO REACH THE REBEL FORCES RASE LOCATED ON 
YAVIN-4. LORD VADAR IS BETWEEN YOU AMD YOUR COAL. HIS SHIP 
HAS EXACTLY THE SAME ARMHAMEMT AS YOURS. AMD THE SAME AMOUNT 
OF POWER AVAILABLE. YOU MUST DEFEAT HIM IN ORDER TO REACH SAFETY, 
AND DELIVER YOUR PRECIOUS CARGO. 

THE PRINCESS LEIA. AND THE DETAILED FLAMS OF THE DEATH STAR STORED 
IN THE MEMORY CIRCUITS OF THE 'DROIO, ARTO-DETOO. 

DO YOU WISH FURTHER INFORMATION. HAN SOLOTY 






EACH TIME A SHIP IS HIT. lilt ENERGY UKAIN FROM Hit SCREENS 
IS EQUAL TO THE AMOUNT UF ENERGY EXPENDED BY THE STRIKING 
UEAPUN TIMES 1U (EXCEPT LASERS, WHICH ARE EQUAL TU AN 
EXPENDITURE THAT VARIES Wl til DISTANCE TU TARGET). 



NUTE: YOU ARE CONTINUALLY BEING UKAUN TOWARD YOUR OPPONENT, WATCH 
YOUR RANGE CLOSLY, HAN SOLO! 



THIS IS COMPUTER CONTROL. 



WE ARE LEAVING PLANETARY ORBIT, HAN SOLO 
VADAR APPROACHING AT I H 1 3 34 KILOHETERS. 
DISTANCE TO YAVIN-4 IS 9.45426c 12 KILOMETERS. 



HAY THE FORCE IE WITH YOU, HAN SOLO. 



YOU ARE BOUND FOR YAVIN-4 WHICH IS ONE LICHT-YEAR DISTANT 

(A LICHT-YEAR IS EQUAL TO 9.454"12 KILOMETERS). YOU AM 

ABLE TO TRAVEL AT .9C (C - LIGHT VELOCITY - 299792. 5 KPS) 

WITH POWER CONSUMED EXACTLY OFFSETTING POWER GENERATED HOWEVER, 

TRAVELING AT .9C WILL PUT YOU AT YAVIN-4 IN 1 . 1 YEARS HAH SOLO, 

AND YOU HAVE ONLY SUFFICIENT LIFE-SUPPORT CAPABILITES FOR ONE 

YEAR OF TRAVEL (CHEWBACCA EATS A LOT). 

TO OVERCOME THIS TIME FACTOR, YOU MAY ENTER HYPERSPACE AMD TRAVEL 
AT A MAXIMUM VELOCITY Or 518,041.440 EPS FOR A PERIOD OF OHE HOUR 
AT A TIME. THEORETICALLY, BY SO DOING. YOU WOULD REACH YOUR COAL 
IN 51 HOURS BY TRAVELING CONTINUOUSLY IH HYPERSPACE. HOWEVER. THE 
ENGINES MUST REST AFTER EACH HYPERSPACE JUMP, AMD AMY ATTEMPT 

TU ENTER HYPERSPACE TWICE IN A ROW RESULTS IN BLOWING UP THE 

ENGINES, LEAVING YOU STUCK IN HYPERSPACE FOREVER. 

A HYPERSPACE JUMP USES A CREAT DEAL OF ENERGY VARYING BY A POWER 

OF THE HYPERFACTOR |HF) SELECTED. JUMPS ARE SPECIFIED FROM HF-1, 

1.0C TO HF-12. 172SC. 

THESE ARE AS FOLLOWS: 



WHAT ARE YOUR INSTRUCTIONS, HAN SOLO?} 
LASER FIRED . MAYBE . MISSED . .PUOOEY. 



ENEMY SHIP INTELLIGENCE REPORT: 
RANGE: 181334 POWER: 100000 



ENEMY SHIP APPROACHING HAN SOLO 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON: 
RANGE: 161822 POWER 99U00 

DISTANCE TO YAVIN-4 9.4)094* 12 KILOMETERS 

DAYS IN TRANSIT. 2 IIYPER-JU.'IPS : 



H-F 


1 


VELOCITY 


299792 


5 


KPS 


H-F 


2 


VELOCITY 


239834U 




KPS 


H-F 


3 


VELOCITY 


8094398 




KPS 


H-F 


4 


VELOCITY 


1. 91067* 


07 


KPS 


H-F 


5 


VELOCITY 


3.74741* 


07 


KPS 


H-F 


6 


VELOCITY 


6.475S2e 


07 


KPS 


H-F 


7 


VELOCITY 


1.02829c 


OH 


KPS 


H-F 


8 


VELOCITY 


1.53494* 


08 


KPS 


H-F 


9 


VELOCITY 


2.18549* 


08 


KPS 


H-F 


10 


VELOCITY 


2.99793* 


08 


KPS 


H-F 


11 


VELOCITY 


3.99024* 


08 


KPS 


H- 













WHAT ARE YOUR INSTRUCTIONS, HAN SOLO?) 

LASER FIRED I THINK .1 THINK . . MAYBE . MISSED . .PUOOEY. 



ENEMY SHIP INTELLIGENCE REPORT: 
RANGE: 161822 POWER: 99900 



ENEMY FIRES LASER 



.SCREENS AT FULL POWER 



THEY CUT USi 



12 VELOCITY 5.18041* 08 



HYPERDRIVE CONSUMES ENERGY AT A MINIMUM OF 10.000 UNITS AND A 
MAXIMUM OF 21,074 UNITS, AS FOLLOWS: 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON: 
RANGE: 158585 POWER: 96854 

DISTANCE TU YAVIN-4 9.40763* 12 KILOMETERS 

DAYS IN TRANSIT: 3 IIYPEH-JUIIPS: 



HF - 


1 


POWER CONSUMED - 


10000 UNITS 


HF - 


2 


POWER CONSUMED - 


12311 UNITS 


HF - 


3 


POWER CONSUMED - 


13904 UNITS 


HF - 


4 


POWER CONSUMED - 


15157 UNITS 


HF - 


5 


POWER CONSUMED - 


16207 UNITS 


HF - 


6 


POWER CONSUMED - 


17118 UNITS 


HF - 


7 


POWER CONSUMED - 


17928 UNITS 


HF - 


8 


POWER CONSUMED - 


18661 UNITS 


HF - 


9 


POWER CONSUMED - 


19332 UNITS 


HF - 


10 


POWER CONSUMED - 


1995) UNITS 


HF - 


11 


POWER CONSUMED - 


20531 UNITS 


HF - 


12 


POWER CONSUMED - 


21074 UNITS 



HYPERSPACE NAVIGATION TENDS TO BE SOMEWHAT ERRATIC. RESULT1NC 

IN NAVIGATION ERRORS; THE HIGHER THE HF. THE GREATER THE 
POTENTIAL ERROR. 

DO YOU WISH ARMMAMENT INFURMATIUN HAN SOL07Y 



HERE ARE YOUR VITAL DATUM: 
YOU ARE EQUIPPED WITH 100,000 UNITS OF ENERGY. 
WHEN YOU RUN OUT, HAN SOLO DARTH VADAR WILL DESTROY YOU. 



TYPE 
1 

2 
3 



DESCRIPTION 
HEAVY GUNS 
WARHEADS 
LASER 



ARMMAMENT: 

RANGE (KILOMETERS) 
- 1 1000 
10,000-100.000 
100. 000-200, 000 



FUEL DRAIN 
10 UNITS 
100 UNITS 
1.000 UNITS 



OPTIONS 
APPROACH 10 UNITS 

RETREAT loo UNITS 

WE WILL CONTINUE TO TRAVEL IUUARD YAVIN-4 AT .9C 
AND CAIN ENERCY. ALTHOUGH WE ARE VULNERABLE TO ATTACK. 
ENTER HYPERSPACE. 



WHAT ARE YOUR INSTRUCTIONS. HAN SOLO?) 

LASER FIRED . MAYBE .GUT 'EM . . . .COUJ SHOUTING. HAN SOLO! 

ENEMY FIRES LASER . . .Ull-OH . . .MISSED . .WHEW! 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON: 
RANGE: 15541) POWER: 95854 



WHAT ARE YOUR INSTRUCTIONS. HAN SOLO? 7 
PLEASE INDICATE HYPER-FAGTOR71U 
COMPUTING CUURSE AT HF: 10 
ENEMY FOLLOWED US TilRUUCII 




136 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



ENEMY WARHEAD IS LAUNCHED 



.IIH . .OUR PUWLK UUU.'I. 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON 
28406 PUULK: 74902 



UIIAT ARE YOUR INSTRUCTIONS, 'IAN SOL077 
PLEASE INDICATE HYPER-FACTOR?! J 
COMPUTING COURSE AT IIF: 1(1 



ENEMY SHIP APPROACHING HAN SOLO 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON: 
161022 POWER 99000 

DISTANCE TO VAV1N-4 9.43094c 12 KILOMETERS 

DATS IN TRANSIT. 2 HYPEA-JUIU'S: 




'• i.^/llMI J.t 




WHAT ARE TOUR INSTRUCTIONS, HAN SOLO? 3 

LASER FIRED I THINK .1 THINK . . MAYBE . HISSED . .PHOOEY. 



ENEMY WARHEAD IS LAUNCHED 



.OUR POWER DOWN. 



ENEMY SHIP INTELLIGENCE REPORT: 
161822 POWER: 99900 



UNCI 

ENEMY FIRES LASER 



. .SCREENS AT FULL POUER 



THEY COT US1 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON: 
RANGE: I585D5 POWER: 96854 

DISTANCE TO YAVIN-4 9.40763* 12 KILOMETERS 

DAYS IN TRANSIT: 3 HYPEK- JUMPS: 



WHAT ARE YOUR INSTRUCTIONS. HAH SOLO?3 

LASER FIRED . MAYBE .GOT *EH . . . .GOOD SHOOTING. HAN SOLDI 

ENEMY FIRES LASER . . .Ull-oll . . .MISSED . .WHEW! 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON: 
RANGE: 155413 POWER: 95854 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON: 
RANGE: 39630 POWER 96700 

WC HAVE LAUNCHED A WARHEAD HE IS TRYING TO AVOID . .GOT HIM! 
ENEMY WARHEAD IS LAUNCHED . . . .HIT . .OUR POWER DOWN. 



STATUS Or MILLENNIUM FALCON 
RANGE. 38837 POUER: 95600 



WE HAVE LAUNCHED A WARHEAD HE IS TRYING TO AVOID .GOT HIM! 
ENEMY WARHEAD IS LAUNCHED .... MISSED . .HA! 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON 
RANGE 38060 POWER: 95500 

DISTANCE TO YAVIN-4 8.89646a 12 KILOMETERS 

DAYS IN TRANSIT 4 HYPER-JUMPS: 2 

WE HAVE LAUNCHED A WARHEAD ENEMY MANEUVERING COT HIM! 



WHAT ARE YOUR INSTRUCTIONS. HAN SOLO? 7 
PLEASE INDICATE HYPER-FACTOR? Ill 
COMPUTING COURSE AT HF: 10 

ENEMY FOLLOWED US THROUGH 



ENEMY WARHEAD IS LAUNCHED 



.OUR POWER DOWN. 



ENEMY WARHEAD IS LAUNCHED 



.OUR POWER DOWN. 



STATUS Or MILLENNIUM FALCON: 
RANGE: 37298 POWER: 94400 

WE HAVE LAUNCHED A WARHEAD HE IS TRYING TO AVOID 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON 
28406 POWER: 74902 



ENEMY WARHEAD IS LAUNCHED 



MISSED . .HA! 



WHAT ARE YOUR INSTRUCTIONS. HAN SOLO? 7 
PLEASE INDICATE HYPER-FACTOR71U 
COMPUTING COURSE AT HF: 10 

YOU HAVE JUST ENTERED IIYPERSPACE TWICE . .ENCINES BLOWN . . 
WE'RE STUCK HERE FOREVER! 

IIAli SOLO THAT WAS A PRETTY DU.MB THING FOR YOU TO DO YOUR 
MISSION WAS TO DELIVER YOUR PASSENGERS AND THE VITAL INFORMATION 
TO YAVIN-4 NOT GET EVERYBODY KILLED. 

WHAT A NERD. 
PLAY ACAINTY 

DO YOU WISH TO ALLOW THE ON-BOARD COMPUTERS DO BATTLE 
AGAINST ONE ANOTHER. HAN SOL07Y 



WE ARE LEAVING PLANETARY ORBIT. HAN SOLO. 
VADAR APPROACHING AT 42108 KILOMETERS. 
DISTANCE TO YAVIN-4 IS 9.45426c 12 KILOMETERS. 



MAY THE FORCE BE WITH YOU. HAN SOLO. 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON: 
RANGE: 36352 POUER: 94300 

DISTANCE TO YAVIN-4 8.76259c 12 KILOMETERS 

DAYS IN TRANSIT: 5 HYPER-JUMPS: 2 

ENTERING HYPERSPACE 
COMPUTING COURSE AT HF: 6 

ENEMY FOLLOWED US THROUGH 



ENEMY FIRES LASER 



.SCREENS AT FULL POWER 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON: 
RANGE: 122240 POWER: 74924 

DISTANCE TO YAVIN-4 8.50716c 12 KILOMETERS 

DAYS IN TRANSIT: 6 HYPER-JUMPS: 3 



THEY GOT US1 



LASER FIRED I THINK . .1 THINK 



MAYBE 



ENEMY SHIP INTELLIGENCE REPORT: 
122240 POUER 74182 



ENEMY FIRES LASER 



.SCREENS AT FULL POWER 



THEY GOT US! 



WE HAVE LAUNCHED A WARHEAD ENEMY MANEUVERING GOT HIM! 
ENEMY WARHEAD IS LAUNCHED . . . .HIT . .OUR POUER DOWN. 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON: 
RANGE: 119795 POWER 71591 

DISTANCE TO YAVIN-4 8.46253c 12 KILOMETERS 

DAYS IN TRANSIT: 7 HYPER-JUMPS: 3 



LASER FIRED I THINK . .1 THINK 



MAYBE . MISSED 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON: 
RANGE: 41265 FOUER. 98900 



WE HAVE LAUNCHED A WARHEAD HE IS TRYING TO AVOID . .COT HIHI 
ENEMY WARHEAD IS LAUNCHED . . . .HIT . .OUR POWER DOWN. 



ENEMY SHIP INTELLIGENCE REPORT 
119793 POWER: 73182 



RANGE 

ENEMY TIRES LASER 



.SCREENS AT FULL POWER 



.OOOFF . . THEY COT US1 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON: 
RANGE: 40439 POWER: 97800 



WE HAVE LAUNCHED A WARHEAD ENEMY MANEUVERING COT HIHI 

SEPT/OCT 1978 



137 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON: 
RANGE: 117399 POWER: 68185 



LASER FIRED I THINK 



MISSED . .PIIOOLY. 




ARMHAHENT:" 

440 PRINT "TYP£";TAB(IO);"DESCRIPTION";TAS(30);"RANCE (KILOMETERS)" TAB(50) ;"FUEL I 
450 HUNT " l";TAB(10);"HLAVY CUHS";IAB(30> ,"0 - I IOIJU" ;TA8(5U) ;"10 UNITS" 
460 PRINT " 2";TAB<1U);"WA*HEA0S" TAB( 30) :" 10, 000-100. 000" ; TAB(50> ;"100 UNITS" 
470 PRINT" 3";IAB(10);"LASER";TAB(JO>;"IOO, 000-200. 0O0";TAB(S0);"i. 000 UNITS" 
400 PRINT\PRINT\PRINT TAB(25) /'OPTIONS" 
490 PRINT " 4";IAB(10);"AFPROACH";TAB(5O);"100 UNITS" 
500 PRINT " 5":TAB(IO);"RCTREAT";IAB(50);"1UO UNITS" 

510 PRINT " 6";IAB(10);"WC WILL CONTINUE TO TRAVEL TOUAJtO YAVIN-4 AT .9C" 
520 PRINT TAB(10);"ANO CAIN ENERGY, ALTHOUGH HI ARC VULNERABLE TO ATTACK." 
53U PRINT " ;";TAB(10) /'ENTER HYPERSPACC." 
540 PRINT TAB(25) |" 



ENEMY : " 
550 PRINT "THE ENEMY HAS THE SAME CAPABILITIES THAI YOU IMI 
560 PRINT " 



ENEMY SHIP INTELLIGENCE REPORT: 
117199 POWER: 72182 



RANGE 

ENEMY FIRES LASER 



. . .MISSED . .WHEW! 



EACH TIME A SHIP IS HIT, THE ENERGY MAIN FROM THE SCREENS" 
570 PRINT "IS EQUAL TO T.IE A-IOONI OF ENERCY EXPENDED BY THE STRIKING" 
5BO PRINT "WEAPON TIMES 10 (EXCEPT LASERS. WHICH ARE EQUAL To AN" 
590 PRINT "IXPDBITUU THAT VARIES Willi DISTANCE TO TARGET)." 
600 PRINT " 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON: 
RANGE: 1150S1 POWER 67185 

OISTAIICE TO YAVIN-4 8.39560.! 12 KILOMETERS 

OAYS IN TRANSIT: t) HYPER-JUMPS 3 

ENTERING HYPERSPACE 

COMPUTINC COURSE AT HF: 9 

ENEMY FOLLOWED US THROUGH 



ENEMY WARHEAU IS LAUNCHED 



.HIT . .OUR POWER DOWN. 



NOTE YOU ARE CONTINUALLY BEING DRAWN TOWARD YOUR OPPONENT 
610 PRINT "YOUR RANGE CLOSLY " AS "!" 
620 PRINT " 

THIS IS COMPUTER CONTROL." 
630 Bl • 9.454256EI2 

640 P - 10OO00\P(l) - 10O0O0VA - 1N7(RHU(-I) • 200000) 
650 PRINT " 

WE ARE LEAVING PLANETARY OP.JIT. " AS ". " 
660 PRINT "VADAR APPR0AC1II:*C AT". A "KILOMETERS." 
u70 PHl.iT "DISTANCE TO YAVIN-4 IS" , Bl ."KILOMEILKS. " 
oBO PRINT " 



STATUS OF MILLENNIUM FALCON: 
RANGE: 17280 POWER: 46853 



WE HAVE LAUNCHED A WARHEAD HE IS TRYING TO AVOID . . MISSED. .DRAT! 



Program Listing 



10 PRINT "STARWAttS" TAB( 1 5) :OArS.IAB(25> ;CLKS 

20 REM 

30 REM BY T. N. RUUATVE 16615 RUSLMONT ROAD DETROIT. II 40219 

40 REM 

50 DIM P(l)\y - I 

60 PR! 

JHAr IS YOUR NAIIL';\INPUT AS 
70 PRINT " 

DO YOU W1SII TO ALUM Tilt ON-BOARD COtlPUTERS OO BATTLE" 
BO PRINT "AGAINST ONE ANOTHER, ";AS;UNPUT A15 
90 A2S • SST(A1S,1,1)\ IF A2S -"Y" THEN 6J0 
100 PRINT " 

GREETINGS. ":AJ;", THIS IS OARIH VADAR. I AM AJOUT TO WIPE" 
110 PRINT "THE FLOOR WITH YOU. BUT, FOR HIE SAKE OF SPORT, 1 WILL GIVE YOU" 
120 PRINT "A SPORTING CHANCE TO DEFEND YOURSELF AND - PERHAPS, THOUGH I SIN-" 
130 PRINT "CERLY DOUBT IT - CET HE INSTEAD." 
140 PRINT " 

DO YOU THINK THAT INSTRUCTIONS WILL HELP YOU. ";AS;\INPUT 85 
150 IF BS - "N" THEN JBOUF BS - "NO" THEN 380 
160 PRINT" 

HISTORY TAPE - DATA LIBRARY: GALI>AIE"| INTCRNU(-l) • loot 3000). 
170 PRINT CCKS;" HOURS." 
1BU PRINTXPR1NT 

190 PRINT " YOU ARE CAPTIAN OF THE MILLENNIUM FALCON. YOU AND YOUR CO-PILOT." 
200 PRINT "THE WOOKIE CHEWBACCA. ARE MERCENARIES, PLYING YOUR TRADE THROUGHOUT" 
210 PRINT "THE GALAXY." 

220 PRINT " AFTER TAKING ON FOUR PASSENGERS, LUKE SKYJACKER. BEN (OBI-WAN)" 
230 PRINT "KENOBI. AND TWO 'URDUS. SEE-THREEPIO AND ARTOO-DETOO AND ESCAP-" 
240 PRINT "INC THE IMPERIAL FORCES AT HOI E1SLEY, IN THE TATOOINE SYSTEM YOU" 
250 PRINT "HAVE RESCUED THE PRINCESS LEIA ORCANA OF ALOERMAAN FROM THE" 
260 PRINT "CLUTCHES OF tilt. EVIL GRAND HUFF TAHKIN AND THE DARK LORD OF" 
270 PRINT "THE SITU UARTII VADAR." 

2B0 PRINT " YOUR MISSION IS TO REACI1 THE REBEL FORCES BASE LOCATED OH" 
29U PRINT "YAVIN-4. LORD VADAR IS BETWEEN YOU AND YOUR GOAL. HIS SHIP" 
300 PRINT "HAS EXACTLY THE SAME ARMMAMLNI AS YOURS, AND THE SAME AiKIUNI" 
310 PRINT "OF POWER AVAILABLE. YOU IRIS! UEFEAT HIM IN ORDER TO REACH SAFETY." 
320 PRINT "AND DELIVER YOUR PRECIOUS CARGO:" 

330 PRINT "THE PRINCESS LEIA, AND THE DETAILED PLANS OF THE DEATH STAR STORED" 
340 PRINT "IN THE MEMORY CIRCUITS OF THE 'OROIJ. ARTO-DCIOO." 
350 PRINT " 

DO YOU WISH FURTHER INFORMATION ";AS UNPUT BS 
360 IF BS - "N" THEN )80\ IF B$ • "NO" THEN 380 
370 COSUB 2210 
380 PRINT " 

DO YOU WISH ARHHAMCNT INFORMATION ";AS;\INPUT BS 
390 IF BS - "N" THEN 620\IF BS - "110" THEN 620 
400 PRINT TABOO);" 



HERE ARE YOUR VITAL DATUM." 
410 PRINT\PtlNT IAB(S);"YOU ARE EQUIPPED WITH IUO.000 UNITS OF ENERGY. 
420 PRINT " 

WHEN YOU RUN OUT, ";AS ". DARTH VADAR WILL DESTROY YOU." 

430 PRINT TAB(JO);" 



MAY THE FORCL BE Jl Til YOU. " AS."." 
690 PRINT\PR1:.T\PRINT 
700 IF A2S <> "Y" THEN 800 
710 D9 - J9 ♦ l\o - INHRNIJ(-I) ■ 2 ♦ 1) 
720 C - I.<T(«.IU(-1) • J. 14159 • (RNJ(-I) • 3.14159)) 
7J0 IF A > 200050 THEN I410UF C - I •lE.'l 72U\1F A > 50000 THEN 750 
740 IF C - 4 THEN 720 

750 IF C - 4 THEN 720UF C - 5 TIEN 720UF C <> 6 THEN 770 
760 IF P > 5000 THEM 720 

770 IF C < 7 THLN 780\IF C - 7 T.ILN 790\1F C > 7 T It 
131) N - 0\3I - Jl - (2.21I186EIO)\GOM 880 
790 IF H > THEN 7 20\COM 880 
800 PRINT " 

WHAT ARE YOOR INSTRUCTIONS. ";AS:\1NPUT C 
813 D9 - 09 + 1 
61^ O - INKRND(-l) • 2 ♦ 1) 
830 IF A > 200050 THEN 840\GotO 850 
840 IF C < 6 T.ILN 1090 
BSD IF C<7 T.ILN 860MF C - 7 THEN 880 
360 11 - 

870 Bl - Bl - (2.331IB6L1J) 

880 IF C - 1 THEN 1IOOUF C • 2 TIEN 1I8IAIF C - 3 THLN 1250 
890 IF C • 4 THEN 1JIUUF C • 5 THEN 1350MF C - 6 T ILN 1410 
900 IF A2S <> "Y" THEN 950 
9IJ II - INT(«ND(-I) • 1) ♦ I) 
920 IF P - (10000 • I!'. 3) < 500 T.ILN 720 
930 IF II - THEN 910 
940 PRINT " 

ENTERING HYPERSPACE"\COTO 970 
950 IF C>7 THEN I0B0\PR1NT "PLEASE INDICATE IIYPEK-FACTOK ";\ INPUT H 
960 IF II < 13 THEN 970VCOTO 950 

970 P - P - (10000 • (ir.3))\N . H ♦ 1\PRINT "COMPUTING COURSE AT HF:":H 
980 H9 - H9 ♦ 1 

990 IF P < 100 THEN 1B90UF Bl -(<H"3 • 299792.5) » 60"2) < 1E0 THEN 1780 
1000 IF N>1 THEN IB70\A - A ♦ ((11*3 • 299792.5) • 60"2)\IF O • 1 THEM 2140 
1010 02 - 1NI(RUD(-I) • 3.1415926 ♦ 1)\1F 02 - 1 THEN 2I40MF 02-4 THEN 212U 
1020 Bl - B1-((H"3 » 299792.5) • (INK 3. 1 4I59~3 « RND(-l) ♦ 29)"2>) 
1030 PRINT "SORRY. NAVIGATION ERROR PUT US OFF L1NE."\IF 02 - J THEN 1060 
1040 IF P(l) - (H".3 • 10000) < 1J0O0 THEN 1480 

1050 PRINT"IIL FOLLOUED!"\P(l)-P(l)-(I0OO0*(H-.3))\A-lNr(RND(-l)«20O0O0)\0oro 1420 
1060 PRINT "NO SIGN OF ENEMY, CRUISING AT ,VC."\B1 - Bl - (2.33118E10) 
1070 IF Bl < 1E5 THEN 1960\COTO 1720 
1080 IF A2S <> "Y" THEN 1090\GOIO 700 

1090 PRINT AS;". LET'S NOT CRACK UNDER PRESSURE, CHECK YOUR RANGE! ."\GOTO 700 
1100 IF A > 11005 THEN 108U 
1110 P - P - 10\PRINT " 

GUNS HAVE BEEN FIRED . .", 
1120 IF - 1 THEN 1130\PRINT" ENEMY MANEUVERING TO AV01D"\GOTO 1140 
1130 PRINT" AWAITING JA.IACE ASSESSMENT. .". 
1140 IF O - I THEN 1160 
1150 PRINT " MISSED - DRAT!"\COTO 1420 

1160 PRINT " HIT HIS POWER IS DOUN." 

1170 P(l) - P(l) - 100 \ GOTO 1420 

11(0 IF A > 100000 THEN 1080\IF A < 10000 THEN 1080 

1190 P - P - loOVPRINT " 

WE HAVE LAUNCHED A WARHEAD ";\0! • 1NT(RNU(-1) • 2) ♦ I 
1200 IF 01 • 1 THEN 12I0XPRINT "ENEMY MANEUVERING "\GOTO 1220 
1210 PRINT " HE IS TRYING TO AVOIJ . ."; 

1220 IF O - 1 THEN I230VPRINT " MISSED. .DRAT!"\GOTO 1420 
1230 PRINT "COT HIM!" 
1240 P(l) - P(l) - I000VCOI0 1420 
1250 If* < 100000 THEN I080\P • P - 1000XPR1NT " 

laser rtin 

1260 01 - INKRNU(-l) • 2 ♦ I) 

1270 IF 01 • 1 THEN 1280XPR1NT " I MINK . .1 THINK . ." 

1230 PRINT " . MAYBE . ";WF O - 1 THEN 1290VPRINT " MISSED . .PHOOEY."\GOTO 1420 

1290 PRINT "GOT 'EM . . . .GOOO SHOOTING, ";AS "!" 

1300 P(l) - P(l) - (((200000 - A)/lEi)«3000)\COTO 1450 

1310 PRINT " 



138 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



APPROACHING. ":A$ 
1)20 II • I.1TUMK-1) • 40000 ♦ 10000AA - A - >\P - P - lOOUf A < I THEN 1140 
13)0 CUIO 1420 
13*0 PRINT TABOO) ;">COLLlSION<"\mNT " 

BOTH SHIPS DESTROYED . ."\COTO 1900 
1350 PRINT " 

RETREATING " AS 
1)60 B - RND(-l) * 40000 ♦ 1000UV.A - A + B\P - P - 100\ IF A > 2000)0 THEN 1 )B0 
1)70 GOTO 1420 

1X10 POINT AS;" YOUR RAHCE IS" A;", BUT JE CANNOT RUN RANGE IS NOU 200.000" 
I WO A - 200000 

1400 IF 01 • I THEN IB2U\COTO 1420 
1410 PRINT " 

RESTING. '\AS\P - P ♦ 1000 
1420 PRINTVPRINTMF O • 1 THEN 14)0 
14)0 PRINT TABOO);" 

IV SHIP INTELLIGENCE REPORT:" 
1440 PRINT "RAWCE:";INT(A);TAB(30>;"POUER ";INT(P(1>) 
1450 IF A > 2000)0 I HI-'. 1480 

1460 IF P(l) < 100 THEN 19)0\IF P(l) < )OO0 THEN 1SO0WF A > 17)000 THEN 1B2D 
1470 IF A < )000 THEN IB)0\GOT0 1)20 
1480 IF P(l) - (IO000 • H~.)) < 2000 THEN 1800 

1490 P(l) • P(l) - <10000 • H".))\01 - INT(RN0(-1) • 3.14IM » 1) 
1)00 PRINT " 

VAOAR IIAS ENTEREU IIYPERSPACE . .";\If Ol - 4 THEN 2110 
1)10 A - I.IKRNO(-I) • 400O0 ♦ IOOOO)\PRINI " IS OH US!" 
1)20 IF 81 < l.)E6 THEN I960 

1)30 R - IM(RND(-I> • 3.141)9 ♦ 1)\0 - 1M(RHD(-I) •2*1) 
1)40 IF K - 1 THEN 1660WF 4-2 THIN 162DWF K - 4 THEN 1 1 1 j 
1))0 IF A < 10O0O0 THEN 15)0\P(I) - P( I ) - 1JO0 
1)60 Pill 

ENEIIY F1KES LASER . . ."; 
1)70 01 - l.M(RNU(-l> * 2 ♦ 1)\1F Ol - 1 THEN I58'J\PRINT "Ull-oll . ." \GOTO 1590 
1)80 PRINT "SCREENS AT FULL POWER . 

1)90 IF 01 - 1 THEN 160'J\PRINI " . .;USSEU . .UIIEU! "\COTO 1720 
1600 IF Ol - 2 THEN 161 J\PRIM " .OOOFF 

1610 PRINT " rilCY COT US! "\P-P-( ( (200000-A)/IE))«JOOO)\COTO 172U 
162U IF A > 100000 TIEN ISJOVIF A < IOOUU III 
16)0 P(l) - P<1) - 100\PRINT "L.M. IY JAR.ILAO Is LMINCUQJ ■ 
1640 IE - I MEN I650V.PRI.M " . . MISSED . .:tA!"\COTO 1720 

!6)o p • p - ioou\print " . -ill I . .our pouer down "\coro 1720 

1660 If A > IIJOJ T IL i li)U\P(l) • P(l) - IU\PKIM "L.IL.IY .IA.i fired A SHELL "; 
1670 PRIM "I All A1 I 
1680 IF O - I I It-'. IH'Af 

1690 IF ul - 1 rHCN »72U\PMM "THAT'LL b.lth. YOJ JilAl CLEAN LIVING .)OEs ". 
1700 PRINT "FOR YOU. ".AS " "\C0TO 1720 
17U PRINT "DULL! HIT!!! POULR JOU..!"\P - P - 1JJ 

INT TABOO) " 




1940 GOTO 2040 

19)0 PRINT "ENEMY SHIP'S POUEH CONE . .NO LIFE FORMS PRESENT. "\GOTO 1980 

1960 PRINT "HA. HA! VAOAR GOT loo CLOSE IO OUR IIMUEN BASE. GROUNU" 

1970 PRINT "BASED HEAVY LASERS HAVE DESTROYED HIS SHIP." 

1980 PRINT "MISSION SUCESSFUL"\COTO 2100 

1990 PRINT "UE HAVE BEEN IN TRANSIT FOR MURE THAN ONE YEAR" 

2000 PRINT TABOO) ;"DARTH VAOAR IS THE VICTOR. ."\PR1NI"LIFE SUPPORT FUNCTIONS" 

2010 PRIM "CONE"; 



2020 PRINT 
20)0 PRINT 



.LIFE SUPPORT FADING. 



STATUS Of IlLLENIUUM l.U.CO.. 




17)0 A - 1ST (A * .98) 

1740 PRIM "RANGE:". UKA). 14,800) ;"POUEH " IIT(P)\lf P < I THE!. 2000 

17)0 If o - 1 T'ILN 1770\PRINT "DISTAIICE TO YA.I.-4" .11 "KILOMETERS" 

1760 0-o»UPKI: ' IIYPLK-JU.1PS ".IIM 

1770 IF U9 >- )6) TIEN I9il\ll II > 11.6 [in::. 1790 

1780 IF O - I MEN I960\PKIM "WE ARE GOING TO COLLIDE WITH YAVlM-4!"\COTO 1 700 

1790 GOTO 700 

1800 P(l) - P(l) ♦ 1000\PR1NI " 

LNEMY SHIP RESTltC."\GOIO 1720 
1810 IF A < 15UO00 THEN l)30\lf A > 2OO05U THEN 14)0 
1820 B - RMD(-l) • 40O00 ♦ IOOOoVA -A - B\PRINI " 

I SHIP APPROACHING ":A3 

1830 P(l) - P(l) - 100 

1840 GOTO 1720 

18)0 B - RNU(-l) • 40000 ♦ 10000\A - A ♦ B\PRI.<I " 

ENEIIY SHIP RETREATING '.AS 
1860 P(l) • P(l> - lOUXCOTO 1720 
1670 PRINT "YOU HAVE JUST LNIEREU IIYPERSPACE TOICE 

1880 PRINT "WE'RE STUCK HERE FOREVER !"\GOIO 1(00 

1690 PRINT "YOU JUST HYPEREU AUAY ALL OF OUR POWER . 

1900 PRINT AS." THAT WAS A PRETTY DUMB IHING FOR YOU TO DO. YOUR" 

1910 PRINT "MISSION JAS To DELIVLR YOUR PASSENGERS AND THE VITAL INFORMATION" 

1920 PRINT "TO YAVIN-4 NOT GET EVERYBODY KILLED." 

1930 PRINT " 

UHAT A NERD." 



.ENGINES BLOUN 



2040 PRINT 

20)0 PRINT 

2060 PRINT 

2070 PRINT 

2080 PRINT "PLAY AGAIN" 

2090 INPUT BS\N - 0\1F BS - "Y" THEN 7UUF BS - "YES" THEN 70 

2100 STOP 

2110 PRINT "UE IS BEING SUCKED INTO A BLACK HOLE!"\GOT0 1780 

2120 PRINT "OOPS . .WE ARE BEING SUCKED INTO A BLACK HOLE .SORRY "; 

2130 PRINT "ABOUT ItlAI."\Goro 2030 

2140 02 - INKRUO(-l) • 3 141)9 > l)\Bl - 81 -<<H _ ) » 299792.)) • (60*2)) 

21)0 IF Bl < IE6 THEN 2120 

2160 If P(l> - <H~.) • 10000) < 10000 THEN 1480 

2170 PRINT "ENEMY FOLLOWED US THROUGH" 

2180 P(l) • P(l) - (10000 • (ir.)))\A - INT(R»D(-1) • 200000)\IF 02-4 THEN 2200 

2190 GOTO 1420 

2200 P - P ♦ 1000\P(I) - P(l) ♦ 1000\GOTO 1720 

2210 PRINT " 

YOU ARE BOUND FOR YAVIN-4, WHICH IS ONE LIGHT-YEAR DISTANT" 
2220 PRINT "(A LIGHT-YEAR IS EqUAL TO 9 4)4"12 KILOMETERS). YOU ARE" 
2230 PRINT "ABLE TO TRAVEL AT .9C (C - LIGHT VELOCITY - 299792.) KPS>" 
2240 PRINT "WITH POWER CONSUMED EXACTLY OFFSETTING POWER GENERATED HOWEVER." 
2250 PRINT "TRAVELINC AT .9C WILL PUT YOU AT YAVIN-4 IN 1.1 YEARS ":AS;"," 
2260 PRINT "AND YOU HAVE ONLY SUFFICIENT LIFE-SUPPORT CAPABILITES KM 
2270 PRINT "YEAR OF TRAVEL (CHEWBACCA EATS A LOT)." 
2280 PRINT 

2290 PRINT "TO OVERCOME THIS TIME FACTOR, YOU MAY ENTER IIYPERSPACE AND TRAVEL" 
2)U0 PRINT "AT A MAXIMUM VELOCITY of 518,041,440 KPS FOR A PERIOD of JUL HOUR" 
2310 PRINT "AT A TIME. THEORETICALLY, BY SO DOl.R., YOU WOULD REACH YOUR GOAL" 
2)20 PRINT "IN 5.1 HOURS BY TRAVELING CONTINUOUSLY IN IIYPERSPACE. HOWEVER. THE" 
2J3U PRINT "ENGINES MUST REST AFTER EACH IIYPERSPACE JUMP, AND ANY ATTEMPT" 
2)40 PRINT "TO ENTER JYPLRSPACE TWILL I.. A ROW RLSULTS III BLOWING UP 
2150 PH: . LEAVING YOU STUCK IN IIYPERSPACE fOREVLR " 

2360 PRINT "A IIYPERSPACE JUilP USES A CRLAT DEAL Of L.ICRCY, VARYING BY A POWER" 
2)70 PRINT "of THE HYPLRFACTOR lllf) SELECTLU JUMPS ARE SPECIFIED FROM ilF-1." 
2380 PRINT "LOG TO IIF-12. 1728C." 
2390 PRINT "THESE ARE AS FOLLOWS:" 
24O0 PRINT 
2410 TOR I - 1 TO 12 

2420 PRIM IAB(IO);"ll-f";I TABI20) "VELOCITY" 299772 5M _ J :TA.I(45) "KPS" 
24)0 NEXT IMPRINT 

2440 PRIMVPRINT "HYPLRURIVL CONSUMES ENLRGY AT A .UNI II HITS AND A" 

245U PRIM "MAXIMUM of 21 074 UNITS, AS FOLLOWS : " 
2460 PRINIVfoR I - 1 TO 12VPRIM USING 2470.1.(1-.) • 13000) 
2471) lir - H POWER CO.ISU!IE.) - »»»*» I 

24:111 NEXT I\PRINT 

2490 PRIM "IIYPERSPACE .'IAV1CAT [or; TI.'IOS T) II .tATIC. RLSULTl «." 

25UO PRINT "IN NAVIGATION LKROItS; T:IL lltCHER Till. Ill 
2510 PRINT "POTENTIAL LRROIt." 
2520 RETURN 

Illustrations copyright 1977 by Star Wars Corp. Reprinted with permission. 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



139 



Another new game from Creative Computing.... 




HEX 



James L. Murphy 




_v 



Two players take turns placing X's and O's within 
hexagonal cells, only one symbol per cell. Two cells are 
connected if they share an edge. The winner is the first 
player to occupy a connected group of cells, one of which 
is on a side of the board and another is on the opposite side 
of the board. In this version of the game, it does not matter 
which pair of opposite sides is connected. In some 
versions of this game, each player is assigned ahead of 
time the pair of opposite sides that must be connected to 
win. By removing line 360, the human player will always go 
first so you can use the program to print boards on which 
two human players can then play HEX without the 
computer. 

Comments 
Initialization; instructions; parameters in 
lines 140 and 150 determine the computer's 
strategy 

Print the board of hexagons 
Computer checks legality of human move, 
updates connected groups 
Random opening move for computer 
Save a copy of board and matrices con- 
taining the connected groups for the com- 
puter and for the human player 

Compute a value S for each empty cell. 1 to 
NxN 

Checks cells adjacent to the cell under 

consideration 

Points for adjacent opponent cells 

Points for adjacent machine cell 

Points for adjacent blank cell 

Points if this move would join human groups 

previously separated 

Points if this move would join machine 

groups previously separated 

Points if this move would give human a win 

Points if this move would give machine a win 



Line 
100-360 



365-650 
655-790 

820,830 
840-900 



930-1400 

980 

990 
1000 
1010 
1030 

1040 

1050 
1060 



1070-1130 

1140-1240 
1320-1350 

1360-1400 

1410-1480 
1510-1780 



1790-1940 
1950-2210 



2230-2410 
2420-2630 



Check cells two cells away with two ways to 
join them on a later move 
As above for a different angle 
RESTORE the record of connected groups 
before this move 

Check for maximum value on moves con- 
sidered thus far 

Execute computer move and check for win 
Check to see if move P is adjacent to any cells 
occupied by human marker. If so, add this 
cell to that group and any other groups 
connected in this way. H1 is the number of 
groups, P(l) the number of cells in group I, 
h(I.J) the cells of group I for J=1 to P(l) 
Subroutine to detect a win 
Same as subroutine 1510 except for the 
machine rather than human player. 
M1=number of groups, C(l)=number of cells 
in group I, M(l) cells in group I for J=1 to C(l) 
Find which cells are adjacent to the cells in 
row I column J, store these in A(l) 
In each direction find the longest connected 
group, and which cells are at each end. 



Sample Run 


THE GAHE OF HEX. 


:i:TRl)CTlOHS? YES 


ON A I0ARJ OF HEXAGONS YOU ARE X AND 


THE COHPUTER IS 0. THE OBJECT OF THE 


GAME IS TO OCCUPY A CONNECTED STRING 


OF HEXAGONS FROH ANY ONE SUE TO THE 


OPPOSITE SIDE. MOVES ARE INPUT IY 


SPECIFYING A LETTER FOLLONEB IY A 


NUNIER WITH NOTHING IN BETWEEN. E.G.. 


A4 OR C2. 


WHAT SIZE BOAR} 3 - it' i 
A 


C_/ \_/ \_ 


J_/ \_/ \_/ v_ 


I ' \ / \ / \ / \ 


F ' \ / \ .' \ / \ / \ 


/\/\/\/\/\/\ 


1 v_ / \_/ \_/ \_/ \_/ \_/ 


2 \_/ \_/ \_/ \_/ \_/ 


3 \_/ \_/ \_/ \_/ 


4 \_/ \_/ \_/ 


5 \ / \ / 


I w 



James L Murphy. Dept of Mathematics. California State College. 5500 
State College Parkway. San Bernardino. CA 92407. 



140 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 













YOU* ROUE - LETTER II6IT? C3 


YOUR HOVE - LETTER 1I6IT? E4 YOUR MOVE - LETTER BIGIT? B2 


iw 




COMPUTER MOVES 1 5 
ft 


COMPUTER HOUES C 4 COMPUTER MOVES F 4 
A A 














C_/ \_t \_ 


C_/ \_/ X\_ C_/ \_f X\_ 








J_/ \_/ \_/ \_ 


B_/ \_/ \_/ \_ B_/ \_/ X\_/ \_ 








E / \ / \ / \ / \ 


E/\/\/\/\ E i \ / \ / \ / \ 








F_/ \_/ \_/ X\_/ \ — / v_ 


F_/ \_/ \_/ X\_.' J}\_/ \_ F_/ y_' \_i X\_/ 0\_/ 0^_ 








f \ / \ / \ / \ .' \ ■ \ 


1 \ i \ .• \ .< §\ t \ ! \ t \ / \ / \ / §\ / v /~"\ 








1 V__/ \_-' \_/ \_/ \_/ \_- 


1 \_/ \_/ \_/ \_/ \_f \_/ 1 \_/ \_/ \_/ t\__/ \_/ \_/ 








2\/\/\/Ov/\/ 


2 \_/ \_/ X\_/ 0\_/ v_/ 2 \_ / \_/ f,\_/ 0\_/ \_f 








3 \_/ \_/ \_f \_/ 


3 \_/ \_/ \_/ \_/ 3 \_/ 0\_/ \_t \_f 








4 \_/ \_/ \_/ 


4 \_' \_/ ^_/ 4 \_/ \_.' \_/ 








5 \ / \ / 


5 \_/ \_/ 5 \_/ \_/ 








6 s ■• 


6 \ / 6 \ / 








YOUR HOVE - LETTER BIGIT? ft2 


YOUR HOVE - LETTER BIGIT? 114 YOUR MOVE - LETTER 1IGIT? F4 








COMPUTER MOVES 1 4 


COMPUTER MOVES A 5 0CCUPIE1 








A 


A YOUR MOVE - LETTER BIGIT' F5 








1 / \ 


1 / \ Y U H I III! 








C_/ \_/ X\_ 


C_/ w X\_ A _ 








0_'' v -_-' v_/ s -_ 


B_/ \_/ \_/ \_ B_/' \_ 








E / \ / \ / v / \ 


E_/ \_/ \_/ \_/ \_ C_/ \_/ X\_ 








F_/ v_/ \_/ X\_/ 0\_' _ 


F_/ \_/ \_/ X\_-' 0\_/ 0^_ B_' V_/ X\_/ \_ 








/ \ / \ / \ / \ / \ / \ 


/ \_/ \_/ \_/ 0^_/ \ mm t \ £_/■ \_/ \_/ \_f \_ 








1 v _' s _' x _-' s _ / — — 


1 ^_ / ^_ / v >_ / Xv_/ \_f \_/ F_/ v_/ \_/ Xv_/ 0^_/ 0^_ 








2 \ / \ / \ / O 1 * I v l 


2 \_/ \_/ X\_' 0^_/ \_/ ' s _ / \_ / ^_/ Ov_/ \_/ \ 








3 v _ y s _-' N _' ^—Z 


3 *_' ^_ / v _/ \_' 1 K _'' s _ / ^—Z Xv_/ v_/ \_/ 








4 \_/ \_/ \_/ 


4 \_' ">_•' v_/ 2 v_/ \_/ Xv_/ 0\_/ \_/ 








5 \ .■' \ ,• 


5 \_/ \_/ 3 v_/ 0^_/ v_/ \_/ 








6 \_/ 


6 \_/ 4 \_/ X\_/ \_f 

I \ t \ / 

6 \_/ 






^ 














ltl BIN H !l>iF(2l> 


460 P=N«(!-1)M 






116 BIN «i<20«40>,Hi<2«.40)jCl<2D)»Pl<20) 


476 PRINT' '5M<F)i 






12* Dlfl lt<12i)»l»«)iV<14) 
13* HAT READ V 


p mnram . , 0#! „ 481 IF T»l THEN 566 
Program Listing 4J| m „ H$i 






141 BATft 2«3«l<560*6f26*0*6f280<10*& 


516 NEXT TIPRINT E6 






156 BftTft 3(i6.10».566«266i500.460«56 


516 NEXT K 






166 R«NBOH:*'THE SANE OF HEX.' 


526 FOR K*i TO N 






171 INPUT'lNSTRUCTIONS'iftl 


536 K1=3:IF K>9 THEM KIM 






186 IF A$='NO' THEN 296 


546 PRINT TAJ<3*K-»!l)«Xi 






196 IF ftt='YES' THEN 216 


556 FOR T«l TO NU-K 






266 PRINT'YES OR NO BO YOU WANT N:GOTO 176 


566 PRINT H$J 






216 I'OM R BORRI OF HEXAGONS YOU ARE X Ml' 


576 I=NH-T:J=T*K 






226 t'THE COMPUTER IS 0. THE OBJECT OF THE' 


586 P=N*<1-1) ♦ i 






236 S'GAME IS TO OCCUPY ft CONNECTEB STRING' 


596 IF T= Ntl-K THEN 616 






246 t'OF HEXAGONS FROM ANY ONE S1BE TO THE' 


666 print • ';b«p>; 






256 ^'OPPOSITE SHE. HOMES ARE INPUT BY' 


616 NEXT T 






266 ^'SPECIFYING ft LETTER FOLLOWED BY A» 


626 PRINT 






276 ('NUMBER NITH NOTHING IN BETWEEN. E.G.. 1 


636 NEXT K 






286 i»R4 OR C2.':S:t 


646 IF «>8 THEN 2656 






296 MAT C=ZER:HAT P=ZER 


656 IF Z=N»« THEN 2646 






366 M.H1>H1=0 


655 REM ««»«« TftKE IN USER'S MOVE CHECK IT ANB EXECUTE IT »«* 






316 BI<P>=' ' FOR P=l TO 121 


661 INPUT "YOUR MOVE - LETTER BI6IT';A* 






326 H»='\ /' 


676 A»=CVTI»<A».-1) 






336 Ll^ftlCBEFGHIJKLMN" 


686 J=VRL<R1GHT<A*<2>> 






346 INPUT'MHAT SIZE BOARD 3 - It'll 


696 »<=LEFT(fl$.l) 






351 N=INT<N):!F N<3 OR N>11 THEN 348 


7*6 I=INSTR(1»L*.R6) 






366 IF RIK1X.5 THEN 866 


716 IF Kl OR J<1 OR I>N OR J>N THEN 666 






365 REM «*«««*««««PR1NT BOARB*«»**«*««**««««*«****«»**<«» 721 P=N*(I-i) *1 






371 X=3*N-3 


736 IF B*<P)<>' ' THEN PRINT 'OCCUPIEB'lGOTO 66* 






386 PRINT TAB(X*2>i'A _' 


74* B«P)-'X' 






396 B»=" /":E6='\ ' 


75* Z9=0 






466 FOR K=l TO N 


76* GOSUB 1516 






416 X=3*<«-K> 


77* GOSUB 1790 






426 l«»l:IF K=N THEN E*="\':PRINT TA$<X*3>! 


VMGOTO 446 786 Z-Z+l 






431 PRINT T«1<X)»I11U*»6>1»1)IMI 


796 IF H > 6 THEN PRINT "YOU MI l!!!':GOTO 376 






446 FOR T=K TO 1 STEP -1 


795 REM »»•«» COMPUTER CALCULATES ITS MOVE ••«•«••♦••«••♦••« 






456 J=K*1-T: 1=1-1 


366 P2=N»N-Z:lF P2=6 THEN 376 






466 P=«»<I-1>+J 


316 IF Z>0 THEN 846 






476 PRINT' * J >* < P > 5 


826 I*INT<<N-2)«RNB<1H2>:MNT(<N-2>«RNB<1>*2> 






486 IF T=i THEN 566 


836 P=N«<I-1)*J:G0T0 142* 






496 PRINT Ht: 


346 H8-H8*6:F0R 1=1 TO Hi: IF P(I)>H8 THEN H8=P(I) 























851 NEXT I:FOR 1=1 TO Hi: IF C(I)>H8 THEN H8*CU> 


1580 «3=P<H2) 










860 NEXT I:H9=H1:H9=N1 


1590 FOR 02=1 TO H3 










871 Ci<I)«C<I) FOR I'l TO HI 


1600 IF H(H2,(t2)OC THEN 1730 










881 Pi< I >=P< I ) FOR 1=1 TO HI 


1610 IF 1>0 THEN 1640 










8)1 Hl(IW)=H(IiJ) FOR I'l TO HI FOR J=l TO H8 


1620 M:P!H2>=ft3*l:H<H2.ft3*l)=P 










908 HKI.J)-H<I,J) FOR 1=1 TO HI FOR J=l TO H8 


1630 H3=H2:H2=Hl:A2=A3:G0T0 1730 










911 Z9=0:GOSU1 2421: 11*61 : 12-Q2: 13-03: B4*G4: 15«14 


1640 IF H2=H3 THEN ft2=ft3:H2=Hl:G0T0 1730 










921 Z9«i:G0SUB 2420 , ,^ m»^»» 


1650 B=D*i:Pl=P<H3> 










931 S9«l!O=0:FOR P«i TO N*N 




1660 H(H3.Pl*fl4)=H<H2ift4) FOR ft4=l TO A3 










941 IF 10<PX>' • THEN 1400 




1670 P<H3)=P1*A3:IF H2=H1 THEN 1710 










9S0 S>0 


3>l^^>%5 


1680 H(H2.R4)=H<H1.04) FOR A4=i TO P(H1) 










960 I«INT((P-l)/N)»l:J«P-N«l-l) 


bj^urvyjc 


1690 P<H2)=P<Hi> 










971 GOSU1 2220 


mm 


1700 IF H3=H1 THEN H3=H2 










980 FOR K»l TO A:T*-Bt<R(K>) 


1710 P(H1)=0:H1=H1-1 










990 IF T««'X' THEN S=S*U<1 ) : GOTO 1020 


1720 ft2=H3:H2=Hl 










1000 IF Tli'O 1 THEN S»S*U C 2) :GOTO 1020 


:y/AVv: 


1730 NEXT A2 










1010 S>S+V<3) 


%>>vccc 


1740 H2=H2tl:IF H2<=H1 THEN 1580 










1020 NEXT X 


~?yySs>^ 


1750 NEXT Al 










1030 60SU1 1550: IF I>1 THEN S=S+D«0<6> 




1760 IF 1>0 THEM 1780 










1040 GOSUB 1980: IF 1>1 THEN S=S»D*0<7) 


*^^^^*^^^^ 


1770 Hl=Hltl:P<Hl)=l:H(HM)=P 










1050 Z9=0:GOSUI 1790MF H>0 THEN S=S*0<4> 


1700 RETURN 










1080 29>l:00SUI 1790! IF N>0 THEN S«StO<5) 


1785 REH ***** CHECK FOR HIN Z9=0 FOR HUHAN OR 1 FOR COHPUTER 


*»» 








1070 FOR I«-l TO 1 STEP 2 


17)0 H5=N«l:M6=N*N-N 










1080 K«I*D:IF K<1 OR ON THEN 1130 


1800 Tl=Hl:IF Z9=l THEN T1=H1 










1090 L>M:IF L<1 OR L>N THEN 1130 


1810 FOR A=l TO Tl 










1100 P2«N«K-i)*L:T0»lt<P2):IF T*«' 'THEN 1130 


1820 Hl*H2)H3tH4=0 










1110 01=8: IF Tt>'X' THEN 01=9 


1830 T2=P(A):IF Z9=l THEN T2=C<ft) 










1120 IF H<PMi>=' ' RM1 lt(P2-l*N)s> ' THEN $=S*0<0i) 


1840 FOR 1=1 TO T2 










1130 NEXT 1 


1850 T=H(A,1):IF 29=1 THEN T=H<A.l) 










1140 FOR l*-2 TO 2: IF 1=0 THEN 1240 


1860 IF T<N5 THEN Hi=i 










1150 K=I*l:IF K<1 OR K>N THEN 1240 


1870 IF T>N6 THEN N2=l 










1168 11=SGN<D):IF 1=11 THEN 11=2*11 


1880 T=T-N«INT<(T-1)/N) 










1170 L=J*Di:IF L<1 OR L>N THEN 1240 


1890 IF T=l THEN N3=l 










1180 P2=N«<K-1)*L:T*=1NP2):IF T*=» » THEN 1240 


1900 IF T=N THEN N4=l 










1190 01=10: IF T»='X' THEN 01=11 


1910 NEXT l:H=Hl*H2«U3*H4 










1200 IF ABS<D)=1 THEN 1230 


1920 IF N=0 THEN 1940 










1210 IF B*(P*11*N)=' ' AN1 1«P*11«N*11>*» » THEN S=S+0<01) 


1930 A=T1 










1220 GOTO 1240 


1940 NEXT ft: RETURN 










1230 IF lt(P+l)=» ' AN1 M<P+N«1+1)=' ' THEN S=S*0(Oi> 


1945 REH *«*«. UP1ATE CONNECTEB GROUPS FOR COHPUTER ********* 










1240 NEXT I 


1950 IF H1>0 THEN 1970 










1250 85*I:8W:1F 15=1 THEN G5=J:G6=I 


1960 Hl=l:Ha.l)=P:C(l)=P:C(i)=l:RETURN 










12*0 IF ABS(B2-G6X=Bi-65 THEN S=S»0<12>»(13-11>*2 


1970 GOSU1 2220 










1270 IF A1S<14-G6X=G5-13 THEN S=S*0U2)»<13-11> , 2 


1980 8=0:FOR «1=1 TO ft 










1280 G5=I:G6=J:IF 14=1 THEN G5=J:G6=I 


1990 C=ft(ftl) 










1290 IF ABS<G2-G6X=Gl-65 THEN $=S*0<13>«(G3-G1> A 2 


2000 H2=l 










1300 IF A1S<G4-66X=G5-G3 THEN S=S*0<13)«<G3-G1)*2 


2010 A3=C(H2) 










1310 H1=H9:H1=H9 


2020 FOR A2=l TO A3 










1320 CU)=C1U) FOR 1= 1 TO HI 


2030 IF H(H2iA2X> C THEN 2160 










1330 P<I)=PKI) FOR 1= 1 TO HI 


2040 IF 1)0 THEN 2070 










1340 N(IW>»M<IW) FOR 1= 1 TO HI FOR J=i TO H8 


2050 M:C<H2>=A3*l:H<H2»A3«l)=P 










1350 H(I»J)=HKI.J) FOR 1= 1 TO HI FOR J=l TO H8 


2060 H3=H2:H2=Hl:A2=A3:G0 TO 2160 










1360 IF S>0 THEN S9=l:G0T0 1390 


2070 IF H2=H3 THEN A2=A3:H2=H1:G0T0 2160 










1370 IF S<0 THEN Mil 


2000 B=D*l:Pi=C<H3> 










1380 S9=S9*i:IF RNl(i)>l/S9 THEN 1400 


2090 H<H3,P1*A4)=H(H2,A4> FOR A4=l TO A3 










1390 0=S:P5=P 


2100 C<H3)=P1*A3 










1400 NEXT P 


2110 IF N2=H1 THEN 2150 










1410 P=P5 


2120 H<H2»A4>=H<H1,A4) FOR A4=l TO C<H1) 










1420 lt<P>='0' 


2130 C<H2)=C<H1) 










1430 Z=Z»i 

1440 I=INT(<P-l)/N)tl:J=P-N*(I-D 

1450 PRINT'COHPUTER HOMES 'ilUKLO.MXJ 


2140 IF N3=H1 THEN H3=H2 

9^i t/U4 \-<l* M4-IH.4 ■ ^» mi 










2160 NEXT 02 [ ■ ■ ■ F\Jm. ■ 










1460 GOSUB 1950 


2170 H2=H2ti:IF H2<=ftl THEN 2010 k m m 9m ^0^, % 










1470 Z9=l 


2180 NEXT Al 1 ■ Ppf ■ ■ ^V 










1400 GOSUB 1790 


2190 1F1>0 THEN 2210 f |Ef M M M M i 










1490 IF y>8 THEN PRINT'C H P 1) T E R WIN S.":GOT0 370 


2200 Hi=HM:C<Hi)=l:H(Hl,l)=P L 1 












1500 GO TO 370 


2210 RETURN 1 1 












1505 REH ««**« UPJftTE CONNECTED GROUPS FOR PERSON «»«*»»»«*» 


2220 REH FIN! ADJACENT CELLS f A 












1510 MNd-1) + i 


2230 A=0:HAT A = ZER i 1 












1520 IF HDO THEN 1540 


2240 11=1-1 1 J 












1530 Hl=i:H(M)=P:P(l)=i:R£TURN 


2250 IF IK1 THEN 2290 f A 












1540 GOSUB 2220 


2260 J 1 = J - 1 : IF J1<1 THEN 2280 [ M ■ ■ ■ ■ I 










1550 B=0:FOR fti=l TO ft 


2270 GOSUB 2400 % 1 J| M m M 










1560 C=A<fti> 


2280 Jl=J:GOSUB 2400 f M W\W JoV M 








1570 H2=l 


2290 11=1: J1=J-1 II |Y| ■ 
















2311 IF JK1 THEN 2321 

2311 60SU1 2411 

2321 IW«l:If Jl>« THEN 2341 

2331 60SU1 2411 

2341 UM»l:Jl=J 

2351 IF IDN THEN 2391 

23(1 60SU1 2411 

2371 Jl«J*l:!F 4l)» THEN 2391 

2311 G0SU1 2411 

2391 RETURN 

2411 fl=fl*l:Pl=N»(U-i)+Jl 

2411 R<R)=Pi:RETORN 

2415 REN ***** FIN1 LONGEST CONNECTEI GROUP RN1 IN NH1CH IIRECTION *** 

2421 I3M:H2=H1:IF Z9=i THEN H2-N1 

2431 FOR 1=1 TO H2:61.G3=N*i:G2.G4=l 

2441 C1=P<I):IF Z9=l THEN C1=C<1) 

2451 FOR i'i TO CI 

24(1 P=H(I.J):IF 29*1 THEN P=H(I.J> 

24?» U = INT(<P-1)/'N)+1:J1»P-N«<!1-1) 

2411 IF IKG1 THEN S1=I1:G5=P 

2491 IF 11)62 THEN G2=U:G6=P 

2511 IF JKG3 THEN G3=J1:G?=P 

2514 IF J1>G4 THEN 64=J1:G8=P 

2521 NEXT i 

2531 l-62-6l:Il<64-63 

2541 12=1: IF Kll THEN B=Di : G5=G7: Gf =G8: J2=l 

2551 IF 1(13 THEN 2571 

25(1 B3=D: 14=12: 15=65:16=66 

2571 NEXT I 

2511 61=INT(<D5-l)/NHi:62*15-N«<61-l) 

2591 G3MNT<<16-l)/NHi:64=l(-N«<G3-l) 

2(11 IF 14=( THEN RETURN 

2(14 T=Gl:Gl=62:62=T 

2(21 T=G3:G3=64:64=T 

2(31 RETURN 

2(41 PRINT'T IE G ft H E. 1 

2(5* ENI 




** APPLE II USERS ** 
[[ CP/M USERS ]] 

JOIN OUR "BESB#T PROGRAM" OF THE MONTH CLUB 

AND GET A CHANCE TO WIN $100.00 (EACH FOR APPLE & 

CPM) EVERY OTHER MONTH 

+ 

A CHANCE TO SEE YOUR NAME IN THIS COLUMN. 

"BEST PROGRAM" SUBMITTED IN THE 
MONTH OF [MONTH NAME) 
BY 
APPLE II "YOUR NAME / CITY / STATE " TITLED 

TITLE 



CP/M 



'YOUR NAME / CITY / STATE 
TITLE 



TITLED 



RULES: 1. $100.00 PRIZE EACH (1 FOR APPLE AND 1 FOR 
CP/M) TO THE PERSON WHO SUBMITS THE 
BEST ORIGINAL PROGRAM. 
2 EVERYONE WHO SUBMITS A PROGRAM 
RECEIVES HIS/HER DISK/TAPE BACK WITH 10 
(FOR DISK) OR 5 (OR LESS) FOR TAPE USERS. 

3. ALL PROGRAMS MUST BE SUBMITTED ON 
DISK OR TAPE AND BE WELL COMMENTED 
AND EXECUTABLE. 

THE PROGRAM MUST INCLUDE SOURCE AS 
WELL AS INT/COM ( CP/M ). 

4. INCLUDE YOUR NAME / ADDRESS / PHONE 
NUMBER. 

5. SEND A SELF ADDRESSED STAMPED ENVELOPE 
IF YOU WISH TO RECEIVE YOUR DISK/TAPE 
BACK. 

6. CUT OFF DATE IS THE LAST DAY OF EVERY 
EVEN NUMBERED MONTH. 

WE CARRY A COMPLETE LINE OF PRODUCTS AND CAN 
OFFER YOU THE BEST PRICES ON ALL APPLE II PRODUCTS 
AS WELL AS S-100 BUS, FLOPPIES AND PERIPHERALS. 
THE COMPUTER STOP 
16919 HAWTHORNE BLVD. 
LAWNDALE, CA 90260 213 371-4010 

11:30 A.M. TO 7:30 P.M. 



Now, a book 

for the practicing 

professional... 




"This is the best handbook of data 
communications system technology 
that this reviewer lias yet 
encountered."— Arvid G. Larson in 
ACM Computin g Reviews 
February 1978 

Digital Press announces the 
publication of TECHNICAL 
ASPECTS OF DATA COMMUNI- 
CATION by John McNamara. 

Written for the practicing pro- 
fessional, TECHNICAL ASPECTS 
OF DATA COMMUNICATION 
details the nuts-and-bolts prob- 
lems and solutions in configuring 
communications systems. It 
features: • comparison of protocols 
(DDCMP, BISYNC, SDLC) • exten- 
sive explanation of interface stand- 
ards (CCrTT/V.24, RS232C, RS422, 
RS423) • six comprehensive 
appendices (how far/how fast?, 
modem options, codes, UART, 
format and speed table for asyn- 
chronous communication, chan- 
nel conditioning) • 20 milliampere 
loop • telephone switching 
systems • error detection 

• 382 pages • 125 figures • 70 
pages of tables • index • hardcover 



l)i>;il.]IPress 
1-Jui.it lonal Services 
I ii^it.il l.quipmentCorp. 
Dtpt CC Crmby Drive. Bedford. MA 01730 
I would like to order copies of 

TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF DATA 
COMMUNICATION at $19.95 per copy. 
O Check enclosed □ Money Order enclosed 



Name 



Address 



City 



State 



Zip 



Prices apply in U.S. only. 



CIRCLE 162 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 159 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The Systems Approach: 

How to evaluate, design, and implement a software application 



by John R. Lees 

Have you ever thought up an applica- 
tion, you know, "Gee, I wish I had a 
program to dindle my framistan," and 
started to write it, maybe get a little 
code running, but bog down 
somewhere and never carry through? If 
so, it's quite possible that you were 
suffering from a lack of systems 
approach. Perhaps the single most 
important step in completing a 
software project, and the one most 
often neglected by the big and little 
programmer alike, the systems ap- 
proach consists of thinking things 
through in advance. 

Sure, that sounds simple and ob- 
vious ("I thought things through, I want 
a program to dindle my framistan "). 
However, it isn't simple and obvious. 
Large "real world" programming proj- 
ects spend a significant portion of 
their time and budgets in coming up 
with a system design. Of course for 



your own personal project you're not 
going to be worried about things like 
how many programmers you can 
effectively use during each phase of 
the project, and whether you need a 
project librarian, but there are a 
number of techniques that have been 
developed that will be of benefit to you. 

I. Iterative procedure of refinement 
and repetition. The final result is, 
hopefully, a project which will work. 

II. Hardest thing to do is to get a 
good overall picture of what you want 
before you have it. 

A. Think it through; try to imagine 
using your completed application. 
Try to make a list of everything you 
want to be able to do and how you 
want to do it. 

B. If others are going to use the 
application, get their input. Good 
idea to talk it over with someone else, 
anyway. 



III. If the project is large, break it up 
into parts which can be coded and 
tested separately. 

IV. Be realistic in evaluating storage, 
time, interface requirements. 
Remember you have a small system 
and may have to make sacrifices in 
your design to get it implemented. 

IV. Plan files, storage, subroutines, 
etc. 

V. Once you get a design, STICK 
WITH IT! Do not give in to the tempta- 
tion to change things in midstream. 
That is the single most prevalent 
reason for projects never being com- 
pleted.* 

VI. Figure out how to test it before 
using it. ■ 

"A recent Rand Corp. study (read thorough and 
costly) indicates that the ratio of the actual time 
to complete a well-planned project compared to 
the estimated time is 3 to 1. 








'CREATIVE COMPUTING 




SOFTWARE 

TRS-80, North Star C/P M TM 

HUNDREDS SOLD. EACH SYSTEM COMPLETE ON DISKETTE 
READY TO RUN. WORD PROCESSING, NORTH STAR TUTO- 
RIAL 1, NORTH STAR TUTORIAL II (TEACHES NORTH STAR 
BASIC), ACCOUNTS PAYABLE, ACCOUNTS RLCLIVABLE, 
PAYROLL, GENERAL LEDGER, MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL, 
BILLING, SALES WITH SALES ANALYSIS AND GROSS PRO 
FIT, INVENTORY, HISTOGRAM GENERATOR, COMPUTER 
CHESS, MAILING LABELS. $35.00 each. 

SOFTWARE LOCATER (LOCATE, INDEX FREE SOFTWARE), 
CHtCKBOOK BALANCING, BOWLING-GOLF HANDICAPPER, 
COIN COLLECTION INVENTORY, IMPORTANT DOCUMENT 
LOCATER, BUDGET PLANNER, GAME DISK. $25.00 each. 

IQ TESTER, COMPUTER MEMORY DIAGNOSTIC PERSONAL 
FINANCE, BUSINESS FINANCE, BIORHYTHM GENERATOR, 
DIET PLANNER, CRYTOGRAPHIC ENCODER, MATH TUTOR, 
A SORT UTILITY. $15.00 each. 

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED, SINGLE DRIVE, 8K FREE MEMORY, 
I'RINTER OPTIONAL. 

TRS-80 LEVEL 1 A II (ON CASSETTE) STOCK MARKET ANALYSIS, 
GRAPHICS. TREND LINE ANALYSIS, BUSINESS APPLICATIONS. »15.00. 

BLANK DISKETTES *3.80 (UNDER TEN ORDERED, ADD J2.00 FOR 
SHIPPING; OVER TEN SHIPPED POSTPAID). 

CPM COMPATIBLE BASIC PROGRAM LISTINGS ALSO AVAILABLE. 

ADDITIONAL PROGRAMS NOT LISTED. 








1 SOFTWARE I 

DEPT. CC, P.O. BOX 2528 
' ORANGE, CA 92669 




<^ 


AJA 













CIRCLE 157 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



\&iy&sxx\ef'V&toAffmi punk vvav\eN 



i GSTBXCKIO 




SOMNmei97S 



gNP OF TRANSMISSION! 



40 Programming Ideas 

by J. Cletheroe, Sandhurst School, England 



Many of these ideas are not original, but they are 
gathered together here for convenience. They are presented 
in random order. [Condensed from a longer list which 
appeared in Computer Education. ] 

1. Evaluate 'pi'. 

2. Provide an information retrieval system (for example 
information about characters in a book). 

3. Provide an 'array arithmetic' package. Numbers are 
held with each digit in a separate cell of an array, and 
these numbers can be added, subtracted, etc. 




so many decimal places or 



numerical 



6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 



4. Round numbers (to 
significant figures). 

5. Compute the intersection and union of two 
sets. 

Test a number for being prime; print a list of prime 
numbers. 

Find the HCF and/or LCM of two numbers. 
Convert numbers from any base to base ten/base ten to 
any base/any base to any base. 
Find the first few Perfect Numbers. 

10. Print the Fibonacci Sequence. 

11. Print the Fibonacci Sequence in a Modular Arithmetic 
— you get a set of 'rings'. 

12. Work out square roots without using the square root 
function. 

13. Simulate the action of the Absolute Value function. 

14. Divide without using the / facility. 

15. Print multiplication and division tables; repeat in a 
modular arithmetic. 

Sort a two element/three element/n element set of 
numbers into order. 
Print Pascal's Triangle. 

Print Random Sentences, for example in the format 
(article) (noun) (verb) (article) (noun). 

19. Solve problems like CROSS + ROADS = DANGER. 



16. 

17. 
18. 



20. Convert from Arabic to Roman Numerals and 
vice-versa. 

21. Matrix inversion. 

22. Produce abstract (random) 'art'. 

23. Game playing by heuristic (learning) methods. 

24. Print squares and other shapes out of asterisks. 

25. Print large letters out of asterisks (for posters etc.). 

26. Simulate the action of the random number generator. 

27. Print powers of 2 until the numbers have more than 
100 digits. 

28. Work out the best straight line through a set of points 
on a graph. 

29. Output numbers in words (e.g. 512 gives FIVE 
HUNDRED AND TWELVE). 

30. Text Analysis (frequency of letters, etc.). 

31. Play the game of guessing a letter (is it a vowel?, has it 
any straight lines?, etc.). 

32. Produce a plot of prime numbers (* for a prime, space 
for a non-prime). The user should select the number of 
elements per line of the plot. Are there any patterns? 

33. Produce a table of n and the number of primes below n 
(call this m). Does m tend towards a function of n as n 
becomes large? 

34. Simulate the growth of a colony of Amoebae (doubling 
in number every unit time, but allow for deaths due to 
the food supply running out and pollution building 
up). Can you achieve a stable state? 

35. Produce a list of Primes using the 'Sieve of 
Eratosthenes' — strike out multiples of 2, find the next 
non-zero entry (which is the next prime), strike out 
multiples of this number, and so on. 

36. Statistical work to test the randomness of the random 
number generator. For example, produce a table of the 
frequencies of ascending and descending runs of length 




37. Print numbers with leading zeroes, to give 

1 

15 

3 

2357 

rather than 

1 

15 
3 

2357 
(which is what normally happens). 

38. Scan a set of numbers and print the highest and the 
lowest. 

39. Read in three numbers which are the lengths of the 
three sides of a triangle. Print (as appropriate) 
"ACUTE", "RIGHT ANGLED", "OBTUSE" or "NO 
TRIANGLE FORMED". 

40. Store lists of variable length. ■ 



146 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




HIONS FOR LIVING 




m^^ 












k 'k- 




wamMS&Qv 






■^>*. 








— _ — 






J « <9 


IT 


s:*««^ 







**/ ypr 


.^JBl 


>--//. ^?r— 


Jt Mr&k' 







1/ f'/ 



\** 







Back Issues of 




July 1977 

Sol: The Inside Story; Report from DREADCO; Home Computers: Here Today, Everywhere 
Tomorrow; A Chip Is Born; The Care and Feeding of Your Home Computer 

_ u August 1977 

The Kit and I, Part I, by someone who's never soldered before; Tooling Up, tips for the do-it-yourself 
hardware beginner; Binary Clocks; APLomania, for home or small business? 

_ AT ^ September 1977 

PLATO makes Learning Mickey Mouse; How Computers Work; Xeroxes and Other Hard Copy 
Off Your CRT; The Kit and I, Part II; Charged Couples. howCCDs work and how they're made: 
Personally Yours From IBM, is the 5100 a home computer? 

October 1977 

Putting Two & Two Together, binary arithmetic Explained for the beginner; Microprocessor Aid for 
the Deaf-Blind; The kilobyte Card: Memory for Pennies; Building a Basic Music Board 

November 1977 

Project Prometheus: Going Solar With Your Micro; The Kit and I. Part III; What is a Microcomputer 
System, Solomon and Veit tell how to put together a personal computer system; The Wordslinger: 
2200 Characters Per Second 

December 1977 

Computer Country: An Electronic Jungle Gym for kids; the gkit and I, Part IV: Testing, Testing, 
Copycat Computer, a file copy program for your personal program exchange; A Beginner's Guide 
To Peripherals; Artificial Intelligence? 

_ , „ January 1978 

Synthetic Skin for Your Robot and How To Make It; The Code That Can't Be Cracked; TLC: The 
Visual Programming Language, the easy symbolless way to chart programs; First Timer's Guide to 
Circuit Board Etching 

_ . . „ , „ February 1978 

The Mailing List Program; Up and Running at the Elections, micros give quicker results: 
Flowgrams— A New Programming Tool; Assemblers, the closest thing to a universal microcom- 
puter language? 

March-April 1978 

Introduction to real time concepts; Felsenstein: An Absolute-Time Clock; Dreyfus: Things 
Computers SritfCan't Do; Introduction to Interpreters; Othello Game; Weizenbaum: Incomprehen- 
sible Programs; The Quasar Robot Revealed; Chesson: Cryptanalysis; Review of the PET. 



The 

computer 
magazine 
for the curious 

100 Pages Per Issue! 
Regular Columns by: 

- Lee Felsenstein 
Theodor Nelson 
Joseph Weizenbaum 

- BillEtra 

- Frederick Chesson 
Eben Ostby 

- A. I. Karshmer 
Andrew Singer 



Get your back copies 
while they last!! 

(We are not planning a Best of ROM 
book.) 



Please rush me the following back issues ol ROM: 
issue (month) 



( ) $ 2.25 each postpaid 

( ) 5.00 for 3 issues postpaid 

( ) 14.00 for all 9 issues postpaid 

( ) Cash, check, mo. enclosed 



Name 

Address 
City 



Send to: Creative Computing, P.O. Box 789 M, Mornstown. NJ 07960 



State . 



. Zip 



In a hurry? 

Call your Visa or Master/Charge 
order in lo: 

800-631-8112 

(In NJ, call 201 540-0445) 



148 



PASCAL 



by Jim Merritt 



From 
BEGINning 

to 
END 



One of the biggest problems you face in dealing with 
computers is that it's rather hard to communicate 
with a machine. Computers must be told exactly 
what they are to do and how to do it before they can be put 
to work at useful tasks such as balancing your checkbook, 
regulating heat and light in your home, preparing finan- 
cial reports for your office, and so forth. Unfortunately, 
computers do not speak English and probably won't be 
able to do so for many years, if ever. It is possible, though, 
to submit a carefully designed and well-planned set of in- 
structions to your computer which then allows it to trounce 
you at chess, help you with homework, play your latest 
musical composition, water your grass, or whatever else 
you have in mind. 

The set of instructions which tells a computer what to do 
is called a program. The instructions themselves must be 
written using the vocabulary and the rules of grammar of a 
special computer-programming language which your 
computer can understand. As long as you converse with 
your computer in this language, it will be able to make 
sense of what you want to do and can go about obeying 
your wishes. If you fail to form your instructions correctly, 
according to the rules of the language, the computer will 
throw up its hands and either halt entirely, not knowing 
how to proceed, or continue in a way you hadn't planned, 
sometimes with disastrous results. (For instance, consider 
that a small imperfection, or bug, in the program which 
controls our missile-defense systems could conceivably, by 
accident, trigger World War III. Bugs are serious business, 
and the moral of the story is speak gently and carefully to 
your machinel) 

The reason it's so hard to talk to a machine is that the 
computer languages, which machines understand so well, 
bear little resemblance to any natural language that 



SEPT/OCT 1 978 



149 



Illustrated by Cindy Hain 




humans speak (such as English, French, or German). At 
this moment in the history of computers, each machine can 
understand only its own specific machine code. Instructions I 
in machine code are merely numbers. Several numbers I 
may be strung together to form a machine- code program. [ 
As an example, the following short program is written in 
machine code for the 8080, which is commonly found in 
inexpensive home systems. 

62 65 211 2 118 

Assuming that a teletype or video terminal is hooked up 
to "port 2" (which is the second of the 8080's 256 "windows I 
to the outside world") , the above program will send a I 
capital A to the printer or screen and then halt. Because 
you are probably more familiar with decimal (base 10) 
style numbers, I presented the program in this way, hoping I 
it might be easier to read. However, machine-code instruc- f 
tions for the 8080 are usually written in hexadecimal nota- 
tion . "Hex" is a number system based on 1 6 separate digits : 
0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A. B, C, D, E, and F. For instance, 
decimal-10 is represented as hex-A, decimal-16 as hex-10, 
and decimal-256 (or 16 2 ) as hex-100. The hex version of | 
the capital A program is: 

3E 41 DS 02 76 

But even this cryptic form is not good enough for the 
machine itself! Computers work with numbers in binary 
(base 2) form, using only Is and 0s. The way this program 
would look inside the machine (if you could read electric 
impulses) is still more confusing : 

00111110 01000001 11010011 00000010 01110110 

None of this is particularly inspiring or helpful to the 
poor person, like you or me, who just wants to get an A on 
the screen. Certainly, the businessman trying to get out a 
sales report or a student who needs to edit a term paper will 
not put up with such nonsense. Even professional pro- 
grammers find machine code awkward and boring to use. 
The fact is humans can't easily deal with "meaningless" 
numbers. So, to get around this, a special program was 
written which could translate catchy little names for the 
instructions into their numeric equivalents. Each num- 
bered instruction would, for the programmer's conven- 
ience, be replaced by an abbreviated word reminiscent 
of the function of the particular instruction, called a 
mnemonic. This way, the programmer could write: 



MVl A, 'A ' (move an 'A ' into the waiting area) 
OUT 02 (send what's in the waiting area OUT to 

port 2, the TV screen) 
HLT (halt) 

This translator program (called an assembler) would 
then convert the mnemonics back into number form, 
which is the only form the computer itself can use and 
understand. The use of assemblers makes it possible for 
programmers to use a "language," that is, an assembly 
language, in which the instructions are (somewhat) 



150 CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Computers must be told exactly what to do 
and how to do it before they can be put to 
work at useful tasks. 



assembler, because their tasks are more involved than 
simply changing mnemonics to numbers. HLL-to-machine- 
code translators are known as compilers. The compiler 
accepts your HLL program and then writes that same pro- 
gram in the machine code your computer understands. 

By writing the same translator program in several ma- 
chine languages, the same HLL can be used with different 
computers, even if their respective machine languages are 
totally dissimilar. Thus, a HLL can act as a standard lan- 
guage among people who possess the appropriate 
translators. 

Several HLLs are available for the person owning a 
small computer. These include FORTRAN, BASIC, and, 
the most recent, PASCAL. FORTRAN and BASIC are 
just two computer languages which were developed years 
ago and, at the time, represented great strides ahead in 
helping people talk to their computers. In both, an 
attempt was made to use instructions similar to English 
words, so that computer programs could be more easily 
written, understood, and corrected. However, as the first 

true HLL. FOR- 
TRAN, while far 
easier to use than 
machine or assem- 
bler code, has 
always been a rather 
difficult language with which to write programs. The inven- 
tors of FORTRAN did a fine job for their day, but could not 
possibly have had enough experience in designing HLLs for 
easy use by people. 

A few years later, computer scientists at Dartmouth 
College, taking the knowledge gained from experiences of 
people working with FORTRAN, created what they felt 
was an easily learned, easily used language adequate for 
beginners and suitable as a vehicle to teach elementary 
programming concepts: BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose 
Symbolic Instruction Code) . At the time BASIC was first 
formulated, there were no small computers such as are 
found in businesses and homes today, so the language 
nestled in the large multi-user computers of colleges and 
universities, gaining a reputation as a pleasant, though 
limited, "teaching language." 

Once today's microcomputers began proliferating, a vast 
need arose for a HLL which could be quickly learned and 
applied in the creation of games and other home and busi- 
ness programs. BASIC seemed to satisfy the requirements 
and soon became the de facto standard HLL for the new 
small-computer industry. Unfortunately, as an admittedly 

limited beginner's 

A well-planned set of instructions allows 
your computer to trounce you at chess or 
water your grass. 

the microcomputer users began to demand of it. For vari- 
ous reasons, it is hard to write a large program in BASIC 
without some confusion. To circumvent this difficulty, 
microcomputer manufacturers developed improvements 
and extensions of BASIC which helped computerists get 
their jobs done. But these improvements only added to the 
confusion, as disagreements between manufacturers over 
what were the best and most useful extensions led to several 



meaningful, but still provide the computer with its instruc- 
tions in proper numeric form. 

Machine code and assembly language have never 
been very popular among programmers. They 
are especially hard to teach and learn, partially 
because humans tend to think in terms of the problem at 
hand, while machine and assembly languages allow expres- 
sion of a problem or its method of solution only on a very 
rudimentary basis, closely tied to the computer's own 
limited design and, in any case, far removed from the ter- 
minology of the problem. In the case of our capital A pro- 
gram, what the programmer really wants to do, perhaps, is 
tell the computer 

WRITE ('A*) 

and forget about unrelated things like "waiting areas," 
"output ports," and so on. 

The word WRITE means something to a person. You 
might just as easily instruct your secretary or student to 
"write a capital A." 
Such a command 
neatly expresses what 
you want to do. 
Most people in pro- 
gramming feel that 
computers should be made to understand such instructions. 

More importantly, every different computer has its own 
unique machine code (and hence a unique assembly code, 
too) , so a person who wants to instruct computers at the 
machine level must, in effect, learn a new language for 
each separate computer he or she encounters. The pro- 
gram written for the 8080 computer will not work in the 
6800 machine. In order to transfer a machine-code pro- 
gram from one computer to another, the programmer 
must painstakingly rewrite the entire thing in the other's 
machine code or assembly language. Many people feel that 
this is a waste of valuable programmer time and effort and 
have, throughout the years, demanded a "standard lan- 
guage" which many, if not all, computers would under- 
stand. For good technical reasons, it is not feasible to 
enforce a standard machine code. The search for a stan- 
dard language must proceed in another direction. 

In the ever-continuing push to help machines better 
understand instructions which a person feels comfortable 
in giving and to find a standard programming language, 
high-level languages (HLLs) were born. Machine and 
assembly code are called low-level languages, because the 
programmer must 
formulate and at- 
tack the problem 
on the computer's 
terms. High-level 
languages, on the 

other hand, allow you to express the problem or task in ways 
closer to those you might use to instruct another person. 

But no computer can understand high-level instructions 
by itself. Remember, computers really understand only 
machine code. However, we can write programs which 
translate the HLL instructions into machine code for us, 
just as the assembler translated assembly language. These 
high-level translator programs have a different name than 



tool and sixteen 
years old to boot, 
BASIC was not well 
suited for the com- 
plex, involved tasks 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



151 



different and largely incompatible versions of BASIC, most 
of which survive into the present day. At this point, BASIC 
is not the convenient standard it might have been — there is 
too much difficulty encountered in moving a program 
written for one version of the language to a machine which 
uses another version ; the same type of problem encountered 
when using machine code! Also, as enthusiasts added extra 
features to the several versions of the language, they con- 
veniently forgot that, as a beginner's language, BASIC was 
intended for small, instructive programs given out as pro- 
gramming assignments or examples in computer classes. It 
was not intended as a tool for the development of large- 
scale home and business programs and has more than once 
vexed programmers who dared to use it for such purposes. 
The built-in limitations of the language and the relative 
inexperience of its designers, when compared with that of 
the language specialist of today, have marked BASIC in 
the same way as FORTRAN: a nice, serviceable, but out- 
moded antique in today's world of computers and pro- 
gramming languages. 



As we have recognized the inappropriateness of BASIC, 
/% FORTRAN, and other early languages to today's 
■A. .m. computing needs, the search has started again for a 
new standard HLL: one which is easy to learn, easy to 
apply to both small and large programs, and one which 
allows the programmer to work very much in the 
abstract — that is, to write computer instructions which 
closely resemble human instructions and which are tailored 
to the specific problem at hand, rather than to a certain 
computer's needs, construction, and limited capabilities. 
In the sea of languages available today, one has emerged 
which seems to satisfy all these needs and more, providing 
an elegant, easy way for you to talk sense to your computer. 
That language is PASCAL. 

As a relatively new language, PASCAL benefits from 
decades of experience in designing, testing, and improving 
computer languages. It's creator, Professor Niklaus Wirth 
of Zurich, drew from previous languages successful and 
useful features and instructions to emulate, as well as de- 
sign failures to avoid. At all times during the development 
of PASCAL, the intention was to produce a tool for pro- 
grammers which would help, not hinder, the writing of 
clear, concise, correct computer programs and would 
especially facilitate the task of writing large, complex pro- 
grams, since large projects are understandably harder and 
cause more problems for the programmer than small ones. 

PASCAL is similar to the currently popular BASIC in 
that it, too, was developed as a teaching language — as a 
means through which to impart the principles of good pro- 
gramming to computer-science students — and has since 
been employed by many colleges and universities around 
the world for exactly that purpose. PASCAL is easily 
learned — many of these institutions are successfully 
teaching PASCAL in introductory programming courses to 
students who often have never dealt with computers 
before. Previously, BASIC and FORTRAN were the 
staples of introductory courses, and, while this practice 
persists, the academic popularity of PASCAL is very much 
on the rise. Such a situation promises to increase the 
PASCAL "literacy" rate to the point where it rivals those of 



152 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



BASIC, FORTRAN, and COBOL (a language commonly 
1 used in business programming) . 

The PASCAL Users' Group, headquartered (for the 
Western Hemisphere) at the University of Minnesota in 
Minneapolis 



A bug in the program which controls our 
missile- defense systems could trigger 
World War III. 



now 
boasts over 1600 
members in thirty- 
two countries (in- 
cluding Indonesia and 
Malaysia), accord- 
ing to PUG head Andy Mickel. The membership includes 
academics, professional programmers, and small-computer 
enthusiasts, among others. PASCAL NEWS, published 
quarterly by PUG, is their prime means of communication, 
in which a lucid description of the state of PASCAL de- 
velopment and use worldwide is presented, as well as an 
on-going forum where PUG members discuss, debate, and 
propose orderly improvements and extension of the lan- 
guage to better fit the needs of the computing community. 
There is considerable work being done to make PASCAL 
available to as many computer users as possible, and much 
applications software (programs written to perform 
specific tasks such as playing chess or computing mortgage 
amortization) is being written in PASCAL against the time 
when the language achieves the status of a standard HLL. 
We are rapidly approaching this point, as industry as well 
as education is beginning to embrace the language. In the 
September 1977 issue of PASCAL NEWS, it was reported 
that Texas Instruments and Harris Data Communications 
are two large concerns who now use PASCAL either exten- 
sively or exclusively when writing company programs. Ac- 
cording to Robert Ranson of ADP Technology in St. Louis, 
the U. S. Department of Defense is considering PASCAL, 
or a language so similar to it that translation between the 
two is trivial , as the new standard language for armed-forces 
programming (replacing FORTRAN and COBOL — no 
small achievement!). Finally, while PASCAL has been 
available to large-computer users for several years, recent 
developments at the University of California at San Diego 
and elsewhere have, at long last, brought the language to 
the small computerist as well — specifically, to those who 
work with the 8080 or Z-80 machines. 



A II this seems to point to an imminent future when 
Zj^ PASCAL will be a popular, standard medium used 
A. A. by both professional programmers and home com- 
puterists to talk to their machines. Because the language 
may finally be used with microcomputers. I feel the time is 
ripe to begin a thorough, tutorial discussion of it. If you 
bear with me, you, 
too, can learn to 
program computers 
easily in PASCAL. 
While we will write 
several smaller pro- 
grams during the discussion, we will spend most of our 
time using PASCAL to attack a "real-world" problem. 

You, as a home-computer enthusiast, have heard about 
the many ways a computer may be used to automate various 
mechanical processes around the house such as heating, 
lighting, smoke and intruder detection, and so on. You 



decide to start small, by "computerizing" a door so that it 
may be unlocked only after the appropriate password is 
punched into a small calculator keypad that you will install 
just outside the door. You have the necessary mechanical 

and electronic equip- 
ment — it is physically 
possible for your 
computer to control 
the lock. However, 
you must first write 
a program which tells the computer how to accomplish this 
task. In PASCAL, the required program might possibly 
look like this: 

begin 

lockthedoor ; 
repeat 

]f somebodywantsin 
then begin 

askforkey ; 
if keyisgood 
then begin 

unlockthedoor ; 
waitforpersontoenter ; 
lockthedoor ; 
end 
else write ('bad key — try again') ; 
end ; 
until autolockisturnedoff ; 
end. 



Using BASIC, the closest counterpart to the PASCAL 
instructions is as follows: 



10 


GOSUB 6000 




20 


IF FNl < >1 THEN 100 


30 


GOSUB 7000 




40 


IF FNK< > 1 


THEN 90 


50 


GOSUB 6500 




60 


GOSUB 8000 




70 


GOSUB 6000 




80 


GOTO 100 




90 


PRINT "BAD KEY TRY AGAIN" 


100 IFFNLOl 


THEN 20 


110 END 





The fact is humans can't easily deal with 
meaningless numbers. 



Clearly, the PASCAL program is closer to plain English 
than BASIC, yet, even though PASCAL instructions may 
be easier to understand, you can see right away that pro- 
gramming in PAS- 
CAL is not the same 
as using ordinary 
language. For in- 
stance, what hap- 
pened to the spaces 
in "lockthedoor" and the other instructions? Why couldn't we 
have written "lock the door"? What purpose do the paren- 
theses serve after we say "write"? Why do we use so many 
begins , ends , and semicolons? Let's take a moment to 
answer these questions and so learn a few of the rules of 
PASCAL programming. 



SEPT/CX;T 1978 



153 



Figure 1 
PASCAL Statements 

A single instruction by itself 

Example: write ('This is a single instruction') 
A single instruction between the words begin and end 

Example: begin write ('This is statement type 2') end 

A series of instructions between begin and end , and each, except the last, followed by a semicolon 

Example: begin write ('Even though there are three writes here ') ; 
begin write ('this is still just ') end ; 
write('one statement — a COMPOUND statement.') 
end 



In the world of personal computing, it is 
important that your program be readable. 



When you program in a high-level language, the 
instructions you give to the computer are indi- 
vidually called statements. (For myself, I like to 
use the term instruction, but since the official PASCAL 
User Manual prefers statement, I'll try to use it more often. 
As far as I'm concerned, the two are synonymous, so don't 
be confused!) An instruction or statement tells the compu- 
ter to do something: water the lawn, do the tax form, 
compute the square root of 2, lock a door, and so forth. In 
PASCAL, there are three major forms of statements. (See 
figure 1.) 

In the compound statement shown in figure 1, notice 
that we also put a begin . . end type statement within the 
first begin . . end 
pair. This is accept- 
able in PASCAL. 
Indeed, the inner 
begin . . end could 
have surrounded 
another compound statement, instead of just the single 
"write" we put there. When you put a statement within a 
statement , you are said to be nesting statements. In figure 1 , 
the inner statement is nested within the total compound 
statement. 

Notice that even our door-lock program is nothing more 
than a large compound statement! In fact , since all PASCAL 
programs must be surrounded by begin and end, all are 
large compound statements. 

Exercise : See if you can find all the instances of nesting 
within the door-lock program. 

One last note on nesting may help before we move on. In 
PASCAL, it is generally considered good practice to indent 
a few spaces each time you nest statements. (Use the door- 
lock program as an example.) Indenting is used to improve 
program readability— to help someone else understand 
what you've written. In the real world of personal compu- 
ting, with so many people writing and swapping programs, 
it is important that your program be understandable. In- 



denting helps, so use it. From now on, I will follow tr 
practice for every example, so you can more easily identify | 
nested statements. 

Now, knowing what a compound statement is, you canl 
see why the program is "littered" with begins and ends , and! 
also why we use semicolons so profusely — the "semis" 
separate instructions within compound statements, andl 
begin and end must surround every compound statement! I 
The compound statement is useful because it is treated! 
as a single unit by the computer. When your machine sees I 
a begin , . end pair, it knows to do everything inside first, \ 
before doing anything on the outside. This is the same rea- 
son we use parentheses in arithmetic and algebra! Just as 

there are times when 
you want the result | 
of an entire expres- 
sion to be taken as] 
a whole in math, 
you will often find | 
it necessary for your computer to perform certain jobs first, 
before going on to others. The pair begin , .end is to\ 
PASCAL statements as the parentheses are to math\ 
expressions. 

Q,: Why not use parentheses instead? 
A : As words, begin and end are just easier to read 
and follow — that's all. 

It would be nice if a computer language included suf- 
ficient vocabulary so that there would be commands I 
for all the practical things we'd like our computers to 
handle. "Turn on (and off) the lights" would be one such 
command. "Cook breakfast" would be another. In our I 
case, we want the computer to "lock the door," "ask for 
key," and so on. 

Unfortunately, with so many different things to do — an I 
infinite number of possibilities when you think about it - 
how could one computer language ever include built-in 
commands for them all? And another thing, would every- 
one be satisfied with the command names if they were J 
available? For example, we've said "lock the door," but 



154 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



PASCAL provides an elegant, easy way for 
you to talk sense to your computer. 



somebody else might prefer to say "bolt it" or "secure 
door." Each person is most comfortable using his or her 
own personal vocabulary when giving directions or solving 
a problem. How could one vocabulary in a programming 
language suit or please everyone? 

Language designers (especially those who designed 
PASCAL) feel that the solution to the problems of "univer- 
sal capability" and "universal vocabulary" is to endow a 
language with a powerful, but limited, set of rudimentary 
instructions from 
which you may cre- 
ate and name your 
own custom pro- 
grams, procedures, 
and functions to do 

any computable task. Once built from the basic instructions, 
these commands become "part" of the language and may 
even be used to define other custom commands! (This 
business of creating new custom commands from com- 
bining old ones gives you considerable power — we will 
discuss this in more detail in a future article.) 

We do the same thing when we teach people. If you have 
a door lock which is rather difficult to use, you might show 
a child exactly how to operate it, then say, "That's the pro- 
cedure for locking the door." From that time on, assuming 
the child is a fast learner (and obedient) , you would expect 
that the request to "lock the door, please" would be followed 
unhesitatingly and unerringly, according to your earlier 
instructions. 

A computer is indeed a fast learner and never forgets 
what it has "learned" (unless explicitly told to do so, or an 
accident destroys its memory) . However, as with a child, 
you must painstakingly and very patiently give the compu- 
ter its initial instructions, which will then be followed, 
without fault or delay, forever after, as long as you com- 
mand the machine using the name you have given to the 
procedure. 



While the command to "write" is built-in to the 
PASCAL language, our intruction to "lockthe- 
door" is not. In order for the compiler to under- 
stand what we want when we use the command, we must 
first write a procedure which tells the computer how to lock 
the door. We name the procedure "lockthedoor," and 
from then on in our program, whenever we use that word. 



the computer will know to refer back to our earlier defini- 
tion of the command and carry out the task. 

When we say "lockthedoor" then, we are not telling our 
machine to do something which it naturally "knows" how 
to do. Instead, we are referring by name to the set of basic 
PASCAL instructions we wrote before, which tells exactly 
how to do it in language the compiler can "understand." 
In PASCAL, names are called identifiers. An identifier 
is easy to make up, being simply defined as a sequence of 

characters such that 
the first is a letter, 
and any following 
characters are either 
letters or digits. 
(The capital and 
lower-case letters and the digits 0-9 are collectively known 
as the alphanumeric characters.) This definition of identi- 
fiers rules out using spaces or other punctuation within 
names. 

As it stands now, a space signals the end of an identifier. 
If spaces were allowed in names, they would effectively be 
ignored by the compiler. For instance, suppose you had 
two procedures, named "abc" and "def." If the compiler 
ignored spaces, how could it distinguish between "abc def 
and "abedef '? In the first case, you would have made an 
error, since "abc" and "def are, being two custom com- 
mands, separate instructions (statements) , and they can- 
not be placed together without a semicolon between them. 
In the second case, "abedef is one custom instruction and, 
therefore, a single statement. Which case does the com- 
piler choose? In order to make the right choice (and so 
"second-guess" you) , it would have to have considerable 
intelligence of its own. This could possibly introduce enough 
additional complexity and size in the compiler that it 
would be too massive to operate in small systems and would 
be fit only for the multi -million-dollar "dinosaur" ma- 
chines. In order to get a compiler for a very powerful lan- 
guage which, nevertheless, can fit within a small computer's 
limited facilities, we, as intelligent human beings, must 
agree to put up with having to write "askforkey," instead of 
"ask for key." This way, the spaces we do use in our pro- 
grams act to definitely separate indentifiers from one 
another and also separate indentifiers from keywords. 

Keywords have meanings and uses vital to the PASCAL 
language itself and so cannot be redefined and used by the 
programmer as identifiers. To emphasize their special sig- 



AREA NAME 
D/D Area 

Program Area 



Figure 2 
Roughing It with PASCAL 

AREA CONTENTS 
Program Heading 
(Other objects declared here) 
the program 



EXAMPLES 

program anyname (input, output) 

begin 
end. 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



155 



nificance, keywords are customarily underlined in PASCAL 
programs. (By looking at our door-lock program, then, 
you can see that the words begin , end , repeat , if, else, and 
several others are keywords.) If you try to use~eise~as an 
identifier, for example, the compiler would tell~you that 
you have made an error in your program and refuse to 
translate it to machine code. Just as a compiler could not 
tell the difference between "abc def" and "abcdef," if it 
ignored spaces, it also would be confused by such indentifiers 
as "fifo" and "lifo" (which might show up in a business 
program) , because they contain the keyword if and could 
also be interpreted as "fifo" and "1 if o," respectively. The 
PASCAL rule that a space ends a word resolves that 
ambiguity. 



Samples of legal PASCAL identifiers: 

corn (even though it contains the keyword or) 
CoRn (which is a different identifier than "corn") 
al2Sbc 
thisidentifierisverylongbutstillok 

Samples of illegal identifiers : 

12abc (identifiers may not begin with digits) 

ab:cd (the colon isn't allowed — only alpha- 
numerics) 

record (record is a keyword) 

not ok (spaces aren't allowed — also, since not is a 
keyword, the compiler would assume that 
"ok" is the identifier in this case) 

When the PASCAL compiler sees an identifier like 
"lockthedoor," "askforkey," or even "write" in a program, 
it looks to see if the name has been assigned to any previ- 
ously defined object (such as a procedure or function ) in 
your program. If so, the object is substituted, and if not, 
the compiler says you've made a mistake, since the word is 
"undefined" or "undeclared." Except in very rare circum- 
stances which we won't be discussing, all procedures must 
be written, or declared, before they are used in your pro- 
gram. In general, anything you invent and name in order 
to help you with your program must be declared prior to 
use. As we'll see in future articles, PASCAL allows you to 
"invent" a lot of tools and will treat such fabrications exactly 
as if they were part of the language itself! 

One of the tools which you don't have to invent for your- 
self is the "write" procedure. ("Write," as the name of a 
procedure, is hence 
an identifier, not a 
keyword.) Its pur- 
pose is to allow you to 
send messages or data 
to your terminal. 
It is u>ed a lot, obviously because people want to see the 
results of their computations. Most programs aren't of 
much use unless they can send understandable results to 
their users (in other words, unless they can output infor- 
mation). It stands to reason that most everyone would 
need such a procedure in every program. If you had to 
create the "write" procedure anew for each new program, 
you would probably tire of PASCAL in a very short time. 
Anticipating this, the designers of the language wrote it for 



you. "Write" is said to be predeclared. It exists as a £ 
cedure exactly as if you had declared it yourself. In order 
to use "write" in a program, you simply insert its name at 
any point in the program where you want to see results. 
However, the lone instruction "write" will not tell the com- 
puter to send anything to your terminal. What's to send? 
You must follow the "write" with a list of the messages or 
data you wish to see. This list should be in parentheses, and 
each individual item must be separated from the next by a 
comma. For instance, the instruction 

write('Item 1", 'Item 2*. 'Item 3') 

will send the three separate messages to the terminal, one 
after another. We can also send numbers to your screen or 
printer using "write": 

write(1.27,2S, 100.987) 

In fact, there are a variety of quantities which may be 
printed on your terminal through the "write" procedu re. 
We'll look into the detailed function of "write" in anot 
article. 



sther 



When we say "lockthedoor, " we are not 
telling our machine to do something which 
it naturally "knows" how to do. 



Even though "write" and a number of other objects 
are given to us "free," we must still invent the proce - 
dures which are not otherwise available, such as 
"lockthedoor," and "waitforpersontoenter." In a PASCAL 
program, objects you define are declared (written) in the 
area immediately above the first begin in the program it- 
self. I call this the D/D area (for "declarations and defini- 
tions," naturally) . The program, of course, comprises the 
program area. 

The first line in a PASCAL program (and so the first 
thing in the D/D area) declares the name of the program 
itself and is called the program heading. Here is ours for 
the door-lock program : 

program lockit (input, output) ; 

The program heading consists of the keyword program 
followed by an identifier which then becomes the program 
name. In the parenthetical list (which is optional in some 
systems), we have informed PASCAL that we want our 
program to be capable of both input and output. (In those 
systems which require the parenthetical list, you must ex- 
plicitly state whether you want input only, output only, or 

both.) The program 
heading is termi- 
nated by a semicolon. 
(In the program 
area, as we have seen, 
the "semi" is used 
to separate statements. Similarly, it is used in the D/D area 
to separate definitions and declarations.) 

Now that we have named our program and have begun 
to use both the D/D and the program areas, we can rough 
out a diagram of the basic elements of a PASCAL pro- 
gram (see figure 2) . As we learn more, taking a closer look 
at keywords and custom commands used, we can flesh out 
a diagram like this until it becomes a reasonable guide to 
the correct formation of a PASCAL program . ▼ 






156 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



K&©EM3[5)Q02£fe 

by Daniel Alber 



ACROSS 

I. Machine-oriented languages 

(abbr.) 

5. Popular computer device 
8. Law enforcers (abbr.) 
11. Delay time 

15. My friend in Lyon 

16. Automatic data acquisitions 
(abbr.) 

17. Aristotle's nickname 

18. ANDINC 

19. Mend socks 

20. Semiconductor impurities 

22. A Creat Lake 

23. Destroy data 

25. Letter of the alphabet 

26. Snow vehicles 

27. Puts in data 
30. Unit of storage 

32. Terminal control system (abbr. ) 

35. Commercials 

36. A Cabor 

37. Voice answer back (abbr.) 

40. Landed 

41. Open circuit 

44 Morning moisture 

45 Epoch 

46. Xmas tune 
48. Prongs 

50. Search for data 

51. Crude metal 

52. Type of semiconductor 
junction 

53. rep 

54. All 

56. Withdraws computer power 

57. A computer language 
60. de France 

61 Ms. Farrow 
62. Cattle 

65. Crande 

66. Poetic contraction 
67 Island (abbr.) 

68. Australian bird 

69. Put a storage device in a 
prescribed state 

70. Biblical boats 

71. finger action 

74. mode 

77. Lend an 

78. Output-input signal ratios 

82. Mother 

83. Action of an automatically 
controlled system 

87. Ontario or George 

88. microprogrammer 

processors 

89. Logical operator 

90. Educator's group (abbr.) 

91. Space 
92 Fellow 

93. and no 

94 Lid 

95 Back talk 



DOWN 

1. Created 

2. The tent maker 

3. Italian coins 

4. Punched-hole paper reading 

5. Papa 

6. Marriage vow (2 wds.) 



1 


2 


3 


4 




5 


6 


' 


| 


' 


9 


10 




11 


12 


13 


14 


15 








16 






" 






18 








19 








20 






21 








22 








23 








24 






25 




1 '' 










■ 27 




28 


29 








30 


31 






32 


33 


34 




35 










36 








37 


38 


39 


40 






41 






42 


43 


44 






45 






46 






47 








48 




49 




■so 








■51 






52 












53 








59 


54 


55 




■56 












57 






58 


60 






70 


61 








62 




63 


64 






65 






66 






67 










68 






69 


















71 


72 








73 


74 


75 


76 




■ 




■ 78 




79 


80 


B1 


82 










83 


84 








85 


86 




87 








88 








89 






1 


90 






91 








92 








93 






94 






95 









The solution to this PROMpuzzle will appear in next month's ROM. 



7. 


tape 


8 


Dailey and Cupid 


9. 


Skill 


10 


Family member 


11 


Live 


12 


Ireland 


13 


Dry 


14 


Letter of the alphabet (pi ) 


21 


Beast of burden 


24 


input pin 


2b 


Cole 


28 


Transmit data register (abbr.) 


29 


Compass reading 


30 


Surrendered 


31 


Nights before 


32 


Kindness, for short 


33 


Government agency (abbr.) 


)4 


Waveform enlargements 


37 


One-dimension arrays 


38 


Constellation 


39 


Forbid 


42 


Particle 


43 


Some relays 


47 


pro nobis 


49 


Bird's abode 


50 


Dear 



52 


Some systems 


53 


out 


S4 


Binary digit, for short 


55 


Muhammed 


56 


drive system 


58 


Fib 


59 


Fate 


61 


Muck and 


u\ 


Poetic contraction 


64 


Electromagnetic interference 




(abbr.) 


70 


Avoid 


71 


Took a chair 


72 


Give a paper readout 


73 


Festive occasions 


74 


Metallic core 


75 


Misplace 


7b 


Arabian gulf 


77 


Some instruments 


79 


Scarlett's manse 


80 


Squeezes out 


81 


Oceans 


83 


Fodder 


H4 


One (Fr.) 


85 


New (prefix) 


8b 


digits 



100 



May 1978 ROM 



COMPUTER APPLICATIONS FOR LIVING 



Real Time f 
The Popcorn Perplex 

a? Control 



by Lee Felsenstein 



Robert Benchlcy, the late great humorist, was also the possessor of a 
fabulously messy desk. One day he set about to clean it up, together 
' with his secretary. He came to one paper and absently handed it to 
the secretary, muttering, "Bring this to my attention." 

The secretary responded, "Now, sir?" 

That being the precomputer era, the anecdote makes the point that the 
secretary knew more about being an executive than did Benchley. If we 
were to replace the secretary with a computer, the script would be the 
same, but the point of the anecdote would be that to a computer, the time 
is always "right now." Unless, of course, the computer is given a clock and 
instructions on how to use it. 

A previous article (ROM March-April 1978) discussed an absolute-time 
clock and showed how to build one for a microcomputer. Making use of a 
digital clock circuit, it could show the time of day to the nearest second. 
For lots of processors, however, computers don't care what the time of day 
is, but they must be able to keep track of much shorter time intervals ac- 
curately. These processes require a clock more like a stopwatch, or one that 
sounds a bell every so often. Timers like these used in computers are called 
real-time clocks. (We shall not go into the reality or unreality of time here.) 

A good example of a real-time application would be the making of pop- 
corn. As we all know, popcorn is done when the sound of its pops slows 
down to about one per second. If you wait until there are no more pops, 
the popped corn will probably be burned. Now if, say, you want to make 
some popcorn while you are in the middle of a chess game or some other 
occupation requiring your undivided attention, it would be nice to have 
your computer take control of the decision as to when the corn is done. 



158 



Illustrated by Cindy HI 



■ 





B 





1 



■ 



j 












/ i i 



rsT^afi 




Let us say that you had rigged a 
microphone to listen to the popping 
corn and attached some electronics to 
convert the sound of each pop into a 
momentary closure of a pair of switch 
contacts. By connecting this contact 
closure to one pin of the parallel input 
connector of your computer, you would 
be able to notify the computer of each 
and every pop. So far, so good. 

Now comes the problem. How do 
you notify the computer of the time 
interval occurring between the pops? 
Forget about asking your computer to 
use its judgment; it hasn't got any. 



The computer can issue a com- 
mand to reset the timers to zero 
and start them counting. 

The computer can check to see if 
the time interval has been com- 
pleted and can reset the flag signal 
without interrupting the count. 

With this gimcrack added on, the 
great popcorn perplex becomes trivial. 
The computer sets the timer for 1/10 
second, then checks whenever it can to 
see if the timer has gone off. When it 
has, the computer resets the flag and 



With this gimcrack added on, the great 
popcorn perplex becomes trivial. 



Obviously you have to provide some- 
thing like an electronic stopwatch, 
along with complete instructions for its 
use. The circuit we describe here is a 
repetitive-interval timer over which the 
computer can exercise various forms 
of control : 

The computer can select one of 
five time scales, ranging from 
1/100,000 second (or 10 micro- 
seconds) down to 1/10 second. 



increments a number tucked away in a 
register. It then resumes checking the 
clock, along with checking the input 
from the microphone. 

If the number in the register gets to 
ten without a pop detected, then one 
silent second has gone by. The com- 
puter should then reset the number in 
the register to zero and record the fact 
of the silent second somewhere in its 
memory. If ten seconds go by with a 



total of less than ten pops (which can, 
of course, occur in random short 
bursts) , then the average of one pop 
per second has been achieved, and it's 
time to turn down the heat and notify 
the master. 

No problem is that simple, of course. 
The computer has to decide that the 
corn has been popping for a while 
before it starts looking for the one-per- 
second rate. Otherwise it would ring 
the gong before the corn had started 
up (dumb machine!) . But the real-time 
clock makes this decision just as easy 
for the computer as the silent second. 
If, say, more than ten pops are re- 
corded in one second, then the com- 
puter can reasonably conclude that the 
corn has really started popping. 

You will probably want to know how 
the real-time clock circuit knows how 
much time has passed. The time base 
upon which it is built is an oscillator 
stabilized by a crystal which forces the 
oscillator to run at 18.0000 megahertz 
(million cycles per second) . The crystal 
is ground and tested during manufac- 



Note: The 18 -megahertz crystal may 
be obtained from James Electronics, 
1021 Howard Avenue, San Carlos, 
CA 94070 (415-592-8097). 




The designer in his lair designing 



ture so as to fall within .005 percent of 
the specified frequency. This kind of 
quartz crystal is widely used in electron- 
ics for this purpose, and it is what gives 



because it was the first multiple of 60 
hertz cheaply (about $5) and readily 
available. A divide-by-three counter 
immediately reduces the frequency to 



Successful product design requires that 
faults be converted into "features. " 



the advertising boys the right to say 
"quartz" when talking about an elec- 
tronic wrist watch. 

Electronic counter integrated circuits 
are used to divide the oscillator fre- 
quency down to usable rates. These 
counter circuits are fairly simple de- 
vices which in effect play a game of 
hopscotch to the beat of the signal fed 
to them. They hop through a certain 
number of squares and then hop back 
to the beginning in one big jump. If 
you consider this "hop back" the out- 
put of the circuit, then the counters 
divide the input beat by a fixed number 
to produce the output. The outputs can 
in turn be fed as inputs to another 
counter, creating a "chain" of dividers 
which can rapidly knock a high input 
frequency down to a low one — with 
I lots of convenient in-between steps. 

We used the 18-megahertz crystal 



6 megahertz. This frequency is then 
fed to a chain of five 7490 counters, 
each of which divides by ten. Thus they 
produce 600-kilohertz, 60-kilohertz, 
6-kilohertz, 600 -hertz, and 60 -hertz 
frequencies. (Sixty hertz was chosen 
as the output so that it could be 
fed to run an absolute-time clock at 
some time in the future.) A selector 
circuit (74151) chooses one of these 
frequencies (on command from the 
computer) and passes it on to a divide- 
by-six counter. This step, then, can 
produce a 100-kilohertz, 10-kilohertz, 
1-kilohertz, 100-hertz, or 10-hertz sig- 
nals. Another way of looking at these 
numbers is to say that the circuit 
produces an "event" every ten micro- 
seconds, hundred microseconds, milli- 
second, ten milliseconds, or hundred 
milliseconds, as selected by the 
computer. 



When the event occurs, the 7474 
latch circuit notifies the computer by 
sending a signal on the flag bit (one of 
the bits of the parallel input port, here 
shown as bit 7). As soon as the com- 
puter takes cognizance of this fact, it 
can reset the flag bit by setting the re- 
set bit (bit 3 on the parallel output 
port) . The whole thing can be stopped 
or started by the start bit, another out- 
put bit (bit 4) which resets the divider 
chain when the computer says so. 

It was originally intended that the 
real-time clock be usable to provide a 
60-hertz time-base signal to the 
absolute-time clock in case the power 
line was not dependable. Halfway 
through the project, it became obvious 
that the use of the start bit would inter- 
rupt the 60-hertz count, and that this 
dual usage would be impossible. 

Successful product design requires 
that faults be converted into "features, " 
and the present case was no exception. 
Basing the divider chain on multiples 
of 60 hertz meant that 60 hertz such as 
could be obtained from the AC power 
line could be used to replace the 6- 
megahertz signal from the divide- by- 
three counter. Using this signal slows 
the clock down by a factor of 100,000, 
permitting delays of as long as 2.777 




The designer in his lair redesigning 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



161 




18 MH2 



oscillator -^ 

D/VIDE-Sy-ZO'S,-, 



PiSC 



+5v« 



IO 



*sv« 



DIVIDE 
BY 3 

6 MHa 




1— • 



Ai 



CK A 8 C 
74 Ifol 
^ QA $C L 



51 1^ 



1 



+SV 



*5v 



CP| 



7490 



«M0 



<>A 

CPZ 

HO 



EC 



J 



~n 



u 



P^O^ 7-fO<? 



*SV< 



+5V*- 



60O KHZ. 



I/ 

5ELECTOR 



+5V' 



DiViDE-ftY-6 



QC QP u> 



ST 74«fe| 
£p A B C D 

~w 



■D 



;BIT 4 ) 
START 

BIT 

PROM 

COMPUrei 




V 



PIN 7 «> ^ W9 ") 

Pin it tv +svotn 5 f\v<* t "\ iq. 

Pin 8 to ground ~» __,_ _, 
P.N < fe ro «■» veers > 74IS(,74 it/ 

O.IUC DISC CATACITO..S P-K.ONV +SV TO ONO 
AT 6N0 OF SACH ROW OP SOCKETS. 



SCHEMATIC - REAL-TIME. CLOCK -.FeLseNSTe.N 7 8 



162 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



0.1 



PIN 14 0*40*, 7474) 
PIN lfcC74lfel,74i5'») 



} 



50C|?£REl> TO +SV 




M 



,s^ 



^c* 



i-c*** : ell- 



s' 



FLA6 



JT- 



|f>lNS 4, 6,9, '* 
749 O S6CKCT5 



.10 



>*<? 



.s^^ 



<£ *s>* 



*^— - *K*U C °* 






*«*>** 



L. P6LSeM>T€lN '76 



PICTORIAL DIAGRAM - REAL-TIME CLOCK 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



163 







THE MYSTERIOUS COUNTER DECRYPTED 



Imagine a black box, with an input 
and output (electrical connections) . 
The output can be high or low, but not 
in between . When the input is raised to 
a high voltage level, the output stays 
where it is, but when the input is 
dropped from high to low, the output 
changes to its other level. Present a 
continuous stream of changes on the 
input, and the output changes con- 
tinuously, but at half the rate of the 
input. Since all changes on the output 
require a change in a single direction 
on the input, it should be clear that 
this circuit "throws away" the low-to- 
high input transitions. 

Such a circuit is known as a toggle 
circuit, and it is the basis for all elec- 
tronic counters. Connect two such 
circuits, the output of the first one 
feeding the input of the second, and 
assume that they are both set to low 
(or zero) . On the first input high-to- 
low transition, the first circuit sets to 
high, but the second one doesn't 
change. Using Is and Os, we can say 
the two devices are not at 01 (the 
right-hand number represents the 
first device) . On the next input high- 
to-low transition, the first device sets 



back to 0, but the high-to-low transi- 
tion thus generated at the input of 
the second device causes the second 
one to set to 1 . The two toggles there- 
fore sit at 10. Note that this is the bi- 
nary number for 2. One more input 
high-to-low transition sets the first 
toggle to 1, and the circuit presents 
11, or binary 3. The next input tran- 
sition (high-to-low, as always) causes 
the input toggle to switch to 0. This 
switch causes the second toggle to 
switch, and the result is 00. (If the 
input of a third toggle were connected 
to the output of the second toggle, it 
would switch at this time.) 



High-to-Low Second First 

Transition Circuit Circuit 

Zero (initial) 

First 1 

Second 1 

Third 1 1 

Fourth 



By connecting a series of toggles, a 
binary counter which keeps count of 
input transitions can be created. If 



we string four toggles together, the 
count will proceed to sixteen before it 
resets. It's no great trick to add some 
circuitry to reset the toggles to 0000 
when the count reaches ten. Then 
the circuit has a cycle, or modulus, of 
ten, and presents a binary code 
equivalent to the decimal number of 
input transitions. Line up several of 
these counters, and each one can re- 
present a decimal digit in a large 
decimal number. This is much easier 
for people to understand than binary. 
It's called BCD, or Binary Coded 
Decimal. 

The type of counter we have been 
describing, with toggles connected 
one to the other, is known as a ripple 
counter. Since each toggle kicks the 
next one down, there is a slight delay 
between one bit's changes and the 
next bit's change. If enough counters 
are lined up (there are a total of 
twenty toggles in the real-time clock 
divider chain), the last bit may not get 
to change until after the first bit has 
already changed again. This places 
limits on the usefulness of ripple 
counters, although they are widely 
used because of their low cost. ▼ 



164 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



lours (10,000 seconds) and thus 
jroadening its possible applications. 

^real-time clock can be built using 
the by • now - familiar "scored 
.laminate" ROMtechnique (see 
I" Project Prometheus : Going Solar with 
[Your Micro" and "The Absolute-Time 
Idock," in the November 1977 and the 
iMarch- April 1978 issues, respectively) , 
Jin which a base of copper-coated fiber - 
I glass is divided into sections by shallow 
Igrooves made with a hacksaw. In this 
lease a very narrow area (less than 0.300 
[inch in width) is left under the 7490 
■sockets as a signal line carrying the re- 
Iset signal. Pins soldered to this line add 
|to the stability of the sockets. 

Wirewrap sockets (fourteen-pin 
Isockets for 7490, 7404, and 7474, and 
Isixteen-pin sockets for 74151 and 
174161) are used, with most of the pins 
I bent outwards about 0.1 inch down 



pin 2 inward. Cut short pins 4, 8, 9, 
and 13 on the 7490 sockets, pin 5 on 
the 7474 socket, and pin 6 on the 74151 
socket. Bend outwards the tips of pin 2 
on the 7474 socket, pin 5 on one 74161 
socket, pin 3 on the other 74161 socket, 
and pin 7 on the 74151 socket. 



level means less than 0.8 volt, a high 
level means between 2.4 and 5.0 volts) . 
When that happens, the count selected 
by the number present on bits 0, 1, 
and 2 will be fed to the divide-by-six 
circuit. The numbers inside the rect- 
angle symbolizing the 74151 on the 



Forget about asking your computer to use 
its judgment, it hasn't got any. 



Solder the 680-ohm resistors, the 
. 00 1 - microfarad and 1 - picofarad 
disk capacitors, and the crystal to the 
7404 socket before installing that socket 
on the board. Make sure that no short 
circuits exist between the leads of these 
components after the board is finished. 
On the 7490 sockets, prewire pins 1 to 
12 and pins 3,6, and 7 to pin 10 before 
installing them. This will greatly sim- 



Counter circuits play hopscotch to the 
beat of the signal fed them. 



I from the body of the socket. Pins to be 
I soldered to the base copper are bent 
[only at the tips. These are pins 7 and 
1 14 of the 7404 and 7474 sockets, pins 8 
land 16 of the 71515 and 74161 sockets, 
land pins 5 and 10 of the 7490 sockets. 

Bend the tips of these pins outward. 

On the 7490 sockets, bend the tips of 



plify construction. Use any solid wire, 
24 gauge or smaller, to make the inter- 
connections. Don't forget to connect 
the two 5-volt base areas together. 



I 



n operation, the circuit will do 
nothing until the start bit (bit 4) 
is at a low level (in this case a low 



schematic diagram represent the code 
on bits 0, 1, and 2 which will connect 
the various frequencies to the divide- 
by-six. (The code numbered 2, for ex- 
ample, connects the 6-kilohertz signal 
for an output frequency of 1 kilohertz, 
or a period of one millisecond.) Note 
that codes 5,6, and 7 will send no fre- 
quency to the divide-by-six, so the cir- 
cuit will not respond if those codes are 
presented. 

If the reset bit (bit 3) is low, the flag 
will be set when the selected time has 
elapsed. The flag bit (bit 7) will then 
go to a high level, and the circuit will 
go on counting. When the computer 
takes notice of the flag bit, it should set 
the reset bit to a high level and then 
immediately drop it again, thus re- 
setting the flag bit. When doing the 
programming, be careful to maintain 
the same values on the other bits while 
the reset bit is changed. Otherwise, 
time might suddenly stand still! ▼ 



The Absolute-Time Clock Addition For Producing a 60- Hertz Input 
For Your Real-Time Clock 



12 VOLT AC 

powtR 

TRANS roRMe* lO K 



A/vY — 



tSV 



IW9* 



~ 4 : 74LSI4 




r 



REMOVE Pivtpe-QY-3 
^OU^TER AMP ro»/*/£cr 
TO £ MHZ ?0\NT. 



c» 



-*- GO H-£ 



|N9I^ 



SCHEMATIC - 60 HSr 1NPVT 

The schematic shown here takes advantage of an unused section of the 74LS04 in the absolute-time clock (ROM 
March-April 1978) by replacing the 74LS04 with a 74LS14. Note: Do not replace the 7404 on the realtime clock 
with a 74LS14. The oscillator will not work. 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



165 



Each of us has a dream. 

What should computer technology 

do for mankind? 

This is my dream. 

You may note that it seems to be 

coming closer. 

What follows may be thought of 

as a first offical 

public announcement. 



o 



C. Theodor 
O- Nelson 



PROSPECTIVE EXTERN, 



The following specifications are presented for general comment prior to being frozen for implementation . 

The Xanadu Hypertext Network has been designed as a universal publication system to make written material o^ 
all kinds instantly available electronically. 

The principal purposes of this enterprise are to provide a universal system for electronic publication and to assure] 
the rapid availability of writings in general and of our literary and historical heritage. We further intend to assure stan \ 
dardization, and most especially to set a level of performance from which no one may accidentally or purposely retread 

Readers, authors, researchers, browsers, and publishers will all find certain of their needs met. The network 
intended as well to be a powerful environment for private and unguided study of any subject. It is also intended as 
general archival repository, and can function directly as a teleconferencing and electronic mail system. 

CONVENTION 1. TYPES OF DOCUMENTS 

A document consists of any text and/or links that someone wishes to store. 

Thus the Gettysburg Address is a document, "Jabberwocky" is a document, and a set of links between them is 
separate document. 

A document may also consist of changes to another document. Thus the modified Gettysburg Address published it 
MAD by Doodles Weaver may be thought of as two documents: the original, and the changes. 

The integrity of each document is maintained by these separations ; derivative documents are permanently define 
in terms of the originals and the changes. Evolutionary continuity is unambiguous and storage space is saved. 

CONVENTION 2. OWNERSHIP, CONTROL, ROYALTY 

Ancient and public-domain documents have no owner. Otherwise, each document has an owner who controls itj 
and receives royalties for its use. 

The owner determines whether a document is to be private or not. 

The owner does not determine whether a reader may create links to it or modified versions of it. 

The owner receives a royalty based upon use : especially, a royalty rate based upon the length of time his document] 
is on a reader's screen. If it is on a screen for one hour, he receives a full hour's royalty. If it is on the screen for half ar 
hour, or on half the screen for one hour, he receives half the hour's royalty. (Note that "on the screen" may for practical 
purposes be interpreted as in the final buffer area.) 

If a modified document is read, the original owner and the modifier split the royalty in proportion to the size of the 
changes, as determined automatically. 

A uniform royalty for all authors and documents is desirable, since this means there is no pretext for the system'! 
keeping track of who reads what. 

A one-time royalty is to be paid if a paper copy is made. 

CONVENTION 3. LEVELS OF PUBLICATION 

A document may be private or published. A private document may be read and linked-to only by the owner and hi: 
associates. A published document is available to anyone, and may be read and linked-to by anyone. 

The name and author of a published document are listed in various directories, which are themselves publishe 
documents. 

A published document may not be withdrawn from publication. Its owner may publish a modified version, with , 
request not to use the previous version, but the previous version remains published. 

A document at an intermediate level, the open document, is generally available but not listed in directories. 

CONVENTION 4. TYPES OF LINKAGE 

Links are made by individuals as pathways for the reader's exploration ; thus they are parts or modifications of the 
actual text. Links may be created within or between documents. 

Any type of linkage is possible in principle. We are presently concentrating on three of basically literary origin : 

f The jump-link. As symbolized by the asterisk, this generalizes the footnote. 

f The quote-window. This allows one document to quote another, with the reader at once free to 
peruse the document of origin. 



© 1978 Theodor H. Nelson 



166 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



IF THE XANADU HYPERTEXT NETWORK 



H Collateration. This sets parts of two documents in correspondence to one another, permitting rec- 
ognition and close study of the corresponding parts. 

Collateration between successor versions of a document is automatic. 

CONVENTION 5. FUNDING AND ACCESS 

An hourly base rate is charged to all users. 

This includes the cost of fetching all materials, the cost of all editing operations, and the hourly royalty to be 
divided among authors. 

It also includes the placing in archival storage of all that a normal user can type in one hour. 

This archival storage is comparatively slow to retrieve, involving minutes rather than seconds. 

Storage at a more accessible level, or at more than one main station, involves additional storage charges. Thus a 
"publisher" is someone who pays for the rapid accessibility of materials and benefits from their use along with the author. 

SYSTEM INTERNALS 

The external specifications discussed are made possible only by certain technical developments which are for the 
present proprietary and secret. A number of radical discoveries in the field of computer indexing and retrieval render it 
possible to offer these services within seconds on configurations of present-day equipment, even as the number of docu- 
ments and service requests expands to astronomical figures. 

OTHER MATTERS 

The network will not monitor who reads what or who writes what. Movement of text in the network will be under 
the dispersed control of user requests, with no central list of what is currently being read. 

The network is to be a distributed system of storage and local services, with high-speed lines connecting the storage 
centers. Each main station is to have a number of functions: 

f Local service to local user terminals, honoring local requests or passing them on to other main 

stations. 
f Local storage of materials owned by local users and materials having high usage at this locality. 
il Pass-through of requests and materials from other main stations to local users or other main 

stations. 
f Assigned storage: duties of archival and repository storage as assigned within the system. 

The Xanadu Information System consists of the Xanadu Hypertext Network used in conjunction with an official 
Xanadu Information Terminal. This and other trademarks will be available under nominal license fees to vendors offering 
compatible equipment, as precisely defined under specifications to be released at a later time and subject to phased 
change. 

Studies are underway as to the best feasible organization for both system security and general economic incentive. 
Dispersed private-sector financing is foreseen, with probable use of the franchising mechanism. While the profit motive is 
necessarily involved — the profit motives of many firms and individuals must be enlisted — the ultimate goal is plain, 
idealistic, and simple. 

OTHER ISSUES 

A number of thorny issues, and their relation to these designs, remain to be discussed. These include system-level 
encryptions, libel, copyright infringement, "national security," hardening of the archives against war or disaster, and the 
general issue-cluster relating to privacy, withdrawability, and the financing of archival keepage. 

Ted Nelson 
PROJECT XANADU 

Box 128, 
Swarthmore, PA 



Your comments are mated. 

We regret that there is little opportunity to answer correspondence. 
If there is sufficient interest, a convention may be held later this year 
to discuss these matters. If you would come, please so indicate. 



ADU flh 

19081 W^ 

X 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



167 



Note: "Xanadu Information System," 

"Xanadu Hypertext Network, " 

"Xanadu Information Terminal, " 

"Lightning Literature, " 

and the "Eternal- Flaming- X Symbol" 

are trade and service marks 

for products and services 

offered by Theodor H. Nelson. 




TRANSPOSITION 
CIPHERS 



by 
Frederick W. 

Che s son 



Transposition ciphers are historically as old as substitu- 
tion ciphers, if not as well known to those interested in 
cryptography. Although the first recorded use of trans- 
position ciphers is clouded by the mists of antiquity, it ap- 
pears to be substantiated through repetition in the history 
of classical Greece. 

Tradition tells of the Spartan general, Lysander, who 
had achieved a victory over rival Athens in the protracted 
Peloponnesian War. Isolated in distant Sestos, Lysander 
grew increasingly concerned with the lack of communica- 
tions from home, knowing all too well the intriguing of 
those who, jealous of his conquests, would stop at nothing 
to discredit him in the eyes of the ruling class. 

Finally a slave arrived, the only one of four who had set 
out through unfriendly territory. His openly carried mes- 
sage tablet merely commanded Lysander to observe a reli- 
gious ritual to appease the gods. The General considered 
this message, then requested the messanger's ornate cloth 
belt, and retired to his private quarters. There, he detached 
the club-like baton or scytale, which was his badge of office, 
from his own belt and wound the slave's belt helix-wise 
about it. A jumble of letters on the belt, apparently an 
incantation from a local priest to guard the traveler, sud- 
denly resolved themselves into coherent lines of writing. 
After reading an ominous warning of treachery at home, 
Lysander set sail on the fastest galley at his disposal. (If he 
had penned a reply before his departure, he would have 
first wound a blank strip of cloth about his own scytale, 
making sure that the intended recipient would have a 
baton of the same diameter!) 

Much more familiar to us are anagram -like arrange- 
ments of letters or even complete words, written into boxes 
or rectangles according to a predetermined key. The mes- 
sage TEN PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS WILL BE RE- 
MOVED, which contains thirty-six letters, can be written 
into a six-by-six square ( a four-by-four rectangle is also 
feasible) and then taken out by a variety of routes, as 
shown below. 



12 34 5 6 

T E N P R I 

NT E D C I 

R C U I T B 

A R D S W 

1 L L B E R 
E MO V E D 



Route 1 : Straight take-off by descending 

columns. 
Cryptogram: TNROI EETCA LMNEU LROPD 

IDBVR CTSEE IIBWR D. 

Route 2 : Straight take-off by ascending columns. 

Cryptogram: EIORN TMLAC TEOLR UENVB 
DIDPE ESTCR DR WBI I. 

Route 3: Alternating columns. 

Cryptogram : TNROI EMLA C TENEU RLO VB 
DIDPE ESTCR IIBWR D. 

Route 4: Diagonals, from upper left corner. 

Cryptogram: IRIPC BNDTW EEISR TTUDE 
DNCRB ERALV OLOIM E. 

Other geometric take-off routes will suggest themselves, 
including such multiple operations as taking the text out a 
spiral route into a second square or rectangle, and taking 
the text out via vertical or horizontal strips. 

If the rows and columns of the block are keyed, a new I 
element of security is afforded. If the preceding message 
were keyed by a mixed sequence of 4-1-5-3-6-2 for the col- 
umns and 3-1-4-6-2-5 for the rows, first the message would I 
be taken out by one of the keys into another box of the I 
same size and transcribed with the second key. 





4 15 3 6 2 


3 


T E N P R I 


1 


N T E D C I 


4 


R C U I T B 


6 


OARDSW 


2 


I L L B E R 


5 


E MO V E D 


First transposition: 




3 


E I P T N R 


1 


T I D N E C 


4 


C B I RU T 


6 


A WD O R S 


2 


L R B I L E 


5 MD V E O E 


Second transposition: 


TIDNE CLRBI LEEIP TNRCB IRUTM DVEOE 


A WDOR S. 





For more information on these and other letter-transposition 
ciphers, I would recommend the books listed in Further 
Reading. 

Cryptanalysis of transposition cipher systems depends I 
first on identification. A frequency count will disclose 
whether such letters like E, T, A, O, I, and N are present I 
in normally expected quantities. The appearance of Xs or 
Zs among a standard frequency distribution may indicate 
their use as word separators, a fact which may actually as- 
sist in breaking the cryptogram. 

Multiple anagramming, when two or more messages are 
suspected of having been enciphered by the same system, 
is very useful and lends itself to computer techniques, I 
where identical portions of each message are displayed 
or printed out. 



168 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Even for the single message, the technique is similar. 
The display program causes sequentially separated letters 
i be compared for "goodness of fit." For instance, the first 
Ind twelfth letters are paired up with the second and thir- 
teenth, followed by 
Ihe third and four- 
teenth, and so on. 
in interactive pro- 
gram may allow 
keyboard manipula- 
tion to shift various 
lines of text against 
tach other until di- 
rams of high probability begin to show up in relevant 
Lumbers. This is illustrated below in vertical alignments, 
lut may also be done horizontally on the computer display 
Ir printer. 




olrlrle 

g W Vmt 




USa^dtZ^ £cyf*.\<L. (\»M\ McsiAejl,) 



-H 


TH 


T- 


TR 


ER 


EH 


ES 


IS 


IR 


ID 


ND 


NS 


NN 


AN 


AD 


AD 


ED 


EN 


EP 


UP 


UD 


UF 


OF 


OP 


OE 


RE 


RF 


RY 


BY 


BE 


B- 





-Y 



While acceptable digram pairs can be found in all three 
llignments, only column 2 has an overall grouping of high- 
Irequency digrams, starting with TH, the most common 
etter-pair of all. 



Further Reading 

Pratt, Fletcher. Secret and Urgent. Indianapolis, 
1939. Prior to Kahn's Code Breakers, this was one of 
the major popular works on cryptology and still con- 
tains much useful information, including several 
transposition systems. 

Plum, William R. The Military Telegraph in the Civil 
War. Chicago, 1882. (Reprinted recently by Arno 
Press of New York.) A two-volume work detailing 
Civil War telegraphy, including much on crypto- 
graphy and a complete reproduction of the U.S. M.T. 
"Code Number Nine," used from 1862-1868. 

Kahn, David. The Code Breakers. New York: Mac- 
millian Co . , 1 967 . This is probably the most definitive 
modern work on cryptology, covering both historical 
and technical aspects. See (in hardcover edition) 
chapters 9, 10, and 11 for cryptogram uses during 
World War I. 



String manipulation and formatting is very convenient 
for the computer -assisted cryptanalyst to have, allowing 
almost instantaneous display of a message in a variety of 
formats, either sequentially or simultaneously. Programs 

may also be devel- 
oped to check the 
distribution of vow- 
els and consonants 
in each row of a trial 
decipherment. A 
good mix can indi- 
cate that the first 
transposition of a 
two-part system has been determined and the solution is 
at hand. 

Letter trios (trigrams) and complete words can also be 
subjected to transposition. Word transposition has been 
traced as far back as the 1 600s — the Duke of Argyle used 
this system in his abortive uprising against James II in 1685. 
With the arrival of the magnetic telegraph, the word trans- 
position system was used mostly by journalists and others 
who could not carry around bulky code books. 

Anson Stager, superintendent of Western Union's West- 
ern Division in Cleveland, Ohio, developed a version of 
transposition ciphers for Governor Dennison at the out- 
break of the Civil War. Stager's version came to the atten- 
tion of General George B. McClellan, who was then rising 
rapidly in the Union Army after a series of minor, but im- 
pressive, victories. Following the debacle at Bull Run near 
Manassas, Virginia on 21 July 1861, McClellan was ap- 
pointed head of the Federal forces. He brought in Stager 
and his fellow telegraph engineer, Thomas T. Eckert, to 
develop a military-telegraph system. To encipher confi- 
dential messages, Stager and Eckert developed successfully 
more complex editions of the original transposition cipher. 
Routes of twelve columns and over twenty lines eventually 
appeared, together with increasingly comprehensive lists of 
code words covering such useful topics as time, dates, 
rivers, forts, generals, cities, and a whole lexicon of mili- 
tary terminology. 

Even though telegraph lines were tapped and offices 
raided, the Confederates apparently never cracked any of 
the dozen or so code editions then in use. Intercepted tele- 
grams were even reportedly published in Southern news- 
papers with appeals for civilian assistance at cryptanalysis. 
These stories, even if true, actually might have been clever 
"covers," in the event that the Richmond authorities solved 
the active U. S. Military Telegraph cipher. 

Transposition ciphers continued in military service well 
into the twentieth century. In World War II, the Germans 
employed a double-transposition system, termed UBCHI 
by the French, who broke the system and others like it. 
(The cryptographic conflicts of World War I are well de- 
scribed by David Kahn in his book The Code Breakers. ) 

By World War II, cryptography had become quite 
mechanized, with the new technology favoring substitution 
systems. Transposition, however, was still serviceable for 
resistance groups, where pencil-and-paper techniques were 
a must in the shadowy world of the underground. French 
secret agent Jacque Bergier's book Secret Weapons — Secret 
Agents illustrates some of these techniques and includes 
the message that helped form the answer "No!" to Hitler's 
vengeful question: "Is Paris burning?" 



5EPT/OCT 1978 



169 



Post-World War II cryptography relied on substitution 
systems, since the mechanical and electro-mechanical ci- 
pher machines of that era were oriented towards "linear 
processing" rather than the "batch-processing" concept 
associated with transposition. Modern computer techniques 
have followed this tradition, although they are, ironically, 
suited to batch processing as well. Today, pseudorandom 
techniques used for transposition ciphers can generate keys 
appropriate to any message length — the longer the message, 
the greater the security. (In contrast to the substitution 
ciphers, where brevity conceals the encoding technique.) 
For example, the following message is counted and a key 
stream appropriate to its length is generated accordingly: 

DATA TRANSMISSION WILL RECOMMENCE 
AT TWENTYTHREE THIRTY HOURS X 



Key: 09-28-55-41-10-25-40-02-07-18-35-47-16-34-52- 
23-04-46-05-29 

The message letters are then taken out according to thij 
key and sent in the usual five-letter groups: 

SNXRM MTAAI ERNWUCAITC. . . . 

At the reception point, a count of the message letters oi 
some message indicator causes the receiving terminal pro] 
cessor to look up or reconstruct the key and reassemble tha 
message. 

This technique would make an interesting and possibl^J 
useful project for the home computerist to program, l\ 
would also help keep the ancient art of transposition 
phers alive and healthy. 



This month's cryptogram: 

For a challenge, we present 

an original U. S. 

Military Telegraph 

enciphered telegram, 

sent from 

Warrenton, Virginia 

on 22 July 1862 

by an operator 

named R. R. McCaine 

from Seymour, Indiana. 

The text 

of the telegram 

involves a "personnel 

problem" in 

the U.S.M.T. 

To accomplish 

what Confederate 

cryptanalysts 

were apparently 

unable to do, 

write the message 

in strips 

reading both up 

and down 

and slide the strips 

against each other 

until coherent 

word pairs 

begin to emerge. 

Hint: 

There are more 
than five lines 
and five columns 
in the transposition, 
with null words 
used at the end 
of each column. 
The last word 
of the message 
is RESIGNATION. 
BREMEN is the key. 
Solution on page 124. 



Initeb States Piliiarg Ctlegrnp^. 



/<#&. 



<3% 










*&:■ 




170 



CREATIVE COMPUTING! 




THEOREM PROVING 

by 
Bryant 

W. York 

Edited by 

A.I. 
Karshmer 



After several columns dealing with the high-level aspects 
pf computer vision and robotics, we now turn to one of the 
tost fundamental issues in all of Artificial Intelligence- 
theorem proving. All A I systems that attempt to understand 
the natural world rely on some form of mechanical theorem 
rovers. For example, the vision system discussed in the 
\anuaryl978 column was designed to include a mechanical 
theorem prover to aid in understanding the natural world 
through its data base. 

This month's column, by Bryant W. York of the University 
pf Massachusetts, lays the basic groundwork for under- 
standing symbolic logic and mechanical theorem proving. 
The author presents the subject in more formal terms than 
ue have used in the past because this is the most straight- 
forward method of presenting the material. The article 
resents a basic introduction of logic and a treatment of 
ropositional calculus. The subject of first-order predicate 
calculus will be presented in a future column. 

All men are mortals. 

Socrates is a man. 

Therefore, Socrates is a mortal. 

Almost everyone has seen a syllogism like the one above 
kt some time in his life. It is merely a means of inferring a 
liew fact from facts 
vhich are given, 
ind it plays an im- 

irtant role in the 
fcarly development 
pf our "logical rea- 

aning." The syllogism is an example of a "totally syntactic" 

neans of deducing a new fact from certain known facts. By 
totally syntactic I mean that only the "form" of the given facts 
important in order to make the deduction, not the 

leaning or interpretation of the facts. For example, after 
sing a few syllogisms most people arrive at the following 
teneral rule of inference : 



nature of our rules of inference which led researchers to 
believe that logical reasoning could be mechanized — 
specified in an algorithm for use in computers. Such research 
falls into that branch of AI referred to as "mechanical 
theorem proving." 

Mechanical theorem proving is an area of AI which re- 
quires a certain amount of mathematical sophistication for 
complete understanding; however, my goal in this article 
is to present some of the key ideas without putting severe 
mathematical demands upon the reader. For this reason, I 
have limited my discussion to "propositional logic" and 
what "theorem proving" means within that logic. 

There are several different types of logic, or forms of re- 
presenting facts and their reasonings. The simplest type of 
logic is "propositional logic" (sometimes referred to as 
propositional calculus) . The basic element of propositional 
logic is the "proposition" which is merely a declarative 
sentence. Propositions have the property that they may be 
either true or false, but not both. An example of a true 
proposition is the statement "Snow is white." 





Table 1 




Logic Connectives 


~G 


not G 


G A H 


GandH 


G V H 


GorH 


G-» H 


G implies H 


G«-*H 


(G implies H) and (H implies G) 



Theorem provers could easily be done on a 
hobbyist computer and used for such things 
as playing the Wff 'n' Proof games. 



All X are Y 
Z is an X 
Therefore, Z is a Y 

lis rule is totally syntactic in the sense that it is independ- 
ent of the meanings of X, Y, and Z. And it is this syntactic 



Propositions may be combined with other propositions 
through the use of logical connectives to form wffs. (A wff is 
an abbreviation for "well-formed formula.") At this point, 
you may think of a wff as merely a compound statement such 
as "Snow is white and grass is green ." In this particular state- 
ment, the wff consists of two separate propositions joined by 
the binary logical connective and. And is called a binary con - 
nective because it joins two propositions. Another way in 
which to form a wff is to negate a proposition— given the 

proposition "Snow 
is white," its nega- 
tion is the wff "Snow 
is not white." Nega- 
tion is called a unary 
connective, because 
it acts on a single proposition. In propositional logic 
there are sixteen binary connectives and only one unary 
connective. 

Propositional logic very precisely defines how wffs are 
formed and evaluated in terms of truth and falsehood . These 
rules can be specified more compactly if we introduce some 
shorthand terms for representing propositions and connec- 
tives. Since propositions are atomic elements in proposi- 
tional logic (we are not concerned here with their internal 
structure) , they may be represented by single symbols such 
as F, G, H, and so on. Since we are concerned only with 
their truth or falsity, we may associate a T or F with each 
proposition. The standard symbols for the basic logical 
connectives are shown in table 1 . 



5EPT/OCT 1978 



171 



A Great 

Microcomputer 

At A Fabulous 

Price 

From Computer 

Enterprises: 

The VDP-40 

Video Data Processor 




Credit Card 

Price: 

$4207.00 



Cash 

Discount 

Price: 

$4046.00 



Designed for die offk e or tor the home, the imsai video Dan Proe eswr, Ihe 
VDP-40, places .1 microcomputer well within ihe budget of the average 
sm.ill businessman or systems developer. The VDP-40 may be used t<> com- 
puterize ihe accounting and inventory iunctions <>i ,i sm.ill business. The 

VI >l' 4(i cm communicate to additional VDP-4(K or other hoho/hs, based 
Computers, and can ad as .i terminal in a data communications network 
The VDP-40 is a lulls integrates:! system, featuring an 8085 mic roproe essor, 
T2K RAM memory two .'.-inch floppy disks, <) nu h CRT, heavy duly 

power supply, professional keyboard, terminated/regulated motherboard, 
and serial and parallel I/O |K>rts in a handsome cabinet 
The IMSAI VDP-40 comes tully assembled and tested Built-in serial and 
parallel I ( > imrts provide the means to conned, via appropriate cabling, 
peripheral devices including line printers, modems and auxiliary terminals 
Built-in expansion < apabilily allows the user to mc rease Ihe RAM, I/O ports 
and number oi disk drive's 
SYSTEMS FEATURES. 

• Fully Integrated Computing System in a single Cabinet 

• High Speed 80HS Proc essor 

• 80 \ 24 Video Display 

• 5'/4-inch Twtn Floppy Disk Drives 

• Integ r ated c RT Display 

• Microprocessor-Driven Keyboard With N-Key Rollover 

• terminated Regulated Motherlioard 

• Heavy Duly Power Supply 
•'Printer Modem Port Included 

• l.'rs RAM Memory Inc luded 

• 2K ROM Monitor Included 

• Disk Expansion C apahihty in I \c ess ot 4 5 Megabytes of On-Line Storage 
System Expanstonl l\tra slots in our S-100 bus motherboard and our new 
ixivver supply allow almost unlimited expansion. 

Need more disk expansion-' A controller option of the VDP-40 allow s expan- 
sion to greater than 4 5 M Bytes 

Add a line printer, an IBM compatible U|>e ilnve. a modem: all are available, 
with the interlaces and software to make it work lor you. 



NO RISK GUARANTEE 

( an ellation With No Obligation II WE Don t Deliver In 1(1 

Days 

lull Satistaetion Or You Stay Return Product 

Plus All Manufacturers factory Guaran t ee s 



Shipping dw el l $10 per C PI on larger units. SI Ml per kit $2 00 mm 
per order 

Urlitnv is si.Kk 10 10 days on mosr uerm Shipment is immediate tor 
pavmeni hv cashier's check, money order or charge card Alio* I weeks 
to. personal checks to dear S Y Siaie residents add approp vales tax 
A- ailahilnv. prices and specs mav change without nonce 



computer 

enteipri/e/ 



Operating Hours 

M-W 10-5EST 

Th F10-9EST 

Closed Sat cfcSun 



P.O. Box 71 



Fayetteville. NY. 13066 
Phone (315) 637-6208 Today! 

CIRCLE 103 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



In prepositional logic, a wff is recursively defined by 
simple set of rules. 

(1) A proposition is a wff. 

(2) The negation of a wff is a wff. 

(3) If F, G are wffs, then FA G, FVG, F-»G, and 
F«-i*G are wffs. 

(4) All wffs are generated by application of the 
above rules . 

The rules are defined in terms of the four basic binar 
connectives and the unary connective (the remainir 
twelve binary connectives may be expressed as combination 
of the basic ones) . Each logical connective has a specia 
meaning, defined by its own truth table. The truth table 
for each of the logical connectives may be found in any te 
on symbolic logic. 

Now, in order to show how a simple theorem prov 
based upon propositional logic might be constructed, 
must first give a few definitions and state two important 
theorems which make it possible to perform deductions] 
First, an interpretation of a wff is an assignment of truth 
values (true or false) to the propositions of the wff. For i 
ample, the assignment of such truth values as T to P, F tc 
Q, T to R, and T to S in the wff (PA OJ— »(R A (~S) ) 
particular interpretation of this wff. (Notice that, sine 
there are four propositions (P, Q, R, S) , there are 2 4 = 1( 
interpretations of this wff.) Figure 1 is a truth tabid 
showing the truth value of this wff, containing each of the 



(P 



Figure 1 
Truth Table for 

Wff 
Q) — *> (R A 



S) 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 



T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
T 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 
F 



T 
T 

If 
If 
If 
If 
If 
|f 

IF 

l F 
\l 
l l 

|F 



T [7 

T T 

T F 

T F 

F T 

F T 

F T 

F T 

T T 

T T 

T T 

T T 

F T 

F T 

F T 

F [T 



T 
T 
F 
F 
T 
T 
F 
F 
T 
T 
F 
F 
T 
T 
F 
F 



TfT 
It 
If 
If 
If 
|t 

|F 

|F 
l F 
IT 

l F 

r 

T 



m 
i t i 

IfI 
ItI 

IFI 
|T| 

IFI 
|T| 

ill 
ii 

!! 

I T I 



T 
F 
T 
F 
T 
F 
T 
F 
T 
F 
T 
F 
T 
F 
T 
F 



final truth value 



intermediate evaluations 
evaluated first — — — — 



172 



CREATIVE COMPUTINC 



sixteen possible interpretations. This truth table shows that 
ve can evaluate a wff with all its possible interpretations by 
Evaluating in the proper order each of the subexpressions. 

icpressions within the deepest level of parentheses are 
Evaluated first, and so on. Wff evaluators are very easy to 
ite in recursive programming languages and are only 
Llightly more difficult in languages without recursion. 

True and false may be represented by 1 and 0; "comple- 

lent" (not), "and." and "exclusive or" generally exist as 
Drimitive operations in most digital computers. The four 
jasic binary connectives may thus be written as functions 
jf "and," "complement," and "exclusive or," or you may 

vish to store the truth table for each connective. At any 
[■ate, there are simple algorithms for evaluating a wff, 

iven an assignment of truth values to the proposition in 
the wff. 

Secondly, a wff is validif and only ifit is true under all inter - 
jretations. A wff is inconsistent (or unable to be satisfied) if 
knd only if it is false under all interpretations. For instance, 

ff , G, is a logical consequence of wffs F] , F 2 , . . . F n if and 
Dnly if for any interpretation in which F\ A F 2 A . . . A F n is 
^rue, then G is also true. 

These definitions allow us to state one of the most impor- 
tant theorems of symbolic logic — the deduction theorem: 

Given wffs Fi . F 2 , . . . F n and a wff G. then G 
is a logical consequence of Fj , F 2 , . . .F n if 
and only if the wff ( (F! A F 2 A . . - AF n ) — * G) 
is yalid. 

An alternative formulation of this theorem, which better 
describes the proof procedure actually implemented in 
nost mechanical theorem -proving systems, is: 

Given wffs Fi , F 2 F n and a wff G. then G 

is a logical consequence of Fj , F 2 , . . . F n if 
and only if the wff ((F! A F 2 A ..AF n )A^G) 
is inconsistent. 

This latter theorem underlies the technique of proof by 

I'refutation" — showing that the negation of the wff under 

question is inconsistent with the known facts. Note that the 

logical connective and is associative. This means that the 

ff (Fj A F 2 A F 3 ) is equivalent to the wff ( (Fi A F2 )A F s ) 

vhich in turn is equivalent to (FiA (F 2 A F s )). 

Let's see how this theorem might be used in a simple 
jropositional theorem prover. Consider the following 
example : 

Given the propositions 
P : the gun is fired 
Q: the person dies 



Further Reading 

Chang, Chin-Liang, and Lee, Richard Char-Tung. 
Symbolic Logic and Mechanical Theorem Proving. 
New York: Academic Press, 1973. 

Allen, Layman E. Wff 'N Proof: The Game of Modern 
Logic. New Haven : Autotelic Instructional Materials 
Publishers, 1962. 



Given the wffs (basic facts) 

Fj : if the gun is fired, then the person dies 

(P-*Q) 
F 2 : the person does not die 

Deduce the wff G : 
the gun is not fired 
(~P) 

The proof procedure consists of forming the new wff 

if the gun is fired, then the person dies, and 
the person does not die, and 
the gun is fired 

represented by F, A F 2 A/\/G) or (((P— » QJA/vQJ A P) 
and then showing that this wff is inconsistent — false under 
all possible assignments of truth values to the propositions 
P, Q. Figure 2 shows the truth table for this wff; note that 
~j(~P) is equivalent to P. 











Figure 2 














Truth Table for 
















Wff 








p 


Q 


P*Q 


~Q 


(P-*Q)A~>Q 


(«P-» 


Q)A/-Q)AP) 


T 


T 


T 


F 


F 




F 




T 


F 


F 


T 


F 




F 




F 


T 


T 


F 


F 




F 




F 


F 


T 


T 


T 




F 





Now, let's summarize what is required for a simple pro- 
positional logic theorem prover. First, you need a data 
structure in which to represent proposition symbols, a data 
structure for storing wffs, and a means of evaluating the 
basic logical connectives (either through function calls or 
table lookup). Next, you need a means of generating all 
the possible interpretations for a wff, and you need a wff 
evaluator to evaluate the wff under each interpretation. 
The proof procedure consists of conjoining the negation of 
the wff under question with the conjunction of wffs (basic 
facts) in the data base, evaluating the resulting wff, and 
testing the truth table for inconsistency. Such a theorem 
prover could easily be implemented on a hobbyist compu- 
ter and used for such things as playing the Wff 'n ' Proof 
games. 

If the reader wishes to do larger problems involving 
more sophisticated logical reasoning, he will need not only 
a larger computer but also a more powerful logic. For ex- 
ample, the syllogism at the beginning of this article cannot 
be represented in propositional logic; it requires a logic 
with more powerful atomic symbols. This type of logic is 
called the "First-Order Logic" or the "First-Order Predi- 
cate Calculus." There are many mechanical theorem 
proving systems based on the first -order logic; however, a 
discussion of such systems will be dealt with in a future 
column. 

Hopefully, this article has removed some of the mystique 
surrounding mechanical theorem proving and has intro- 
duced the reader to some of the important basic ideas of 
symbolic logic in a relatively painless way. ▼ 



SEPT/OCT 1978 



173 



GPeative corepafciR 




$8.95 
from Creative Computing Press 




The Colossal ~ 
Computer Cartoon Book 







Computer Rage 

This fun and educational new board game 
is based on a large-scale multiprocessing 
computer system. The object is to move 
your three programs from input to output. 
Moves are determined by the roll of three 
binary dice representing bits in a computer. 
Hazards include priority interrupts, pro- 
gram bugs, decision symbols, power fail- 
ures and restricted input and output 
channels. Notes are included for adapting 
game for school instruction. A perfect in- 
troductory tool to binary math and the 
seemingly-complex computer. [6Z] 



Binary Dice 

Now, the same dice used in Computer 
Rage can be purchased separately. Three 
binary dice (red. green and blue) in a zip- 
lock bag. $1.25 postpaid [3G]. 



Take a break. Sit back and 
and relax with the biggest and best collection 
of computer cartoons ever, hundreds and 
hundreds of cartoons about computers, robots, calculators Al and much more. [6G] 




$4.95 

1 20 pp. so ft bound 

from Creative Computing Press 



BE A COMPUTER LITERATE 




r r ^^^9n^M^wmR0R^w ^** ^y^W^f^W^ 



Be A Computer Literate 

This is the most basic, introductory book on computers ever put 
together for instructional use. Its full-color diagrams, drawings, 
photos and large, explicit type make this book a pleasure to read. 
This chapter titles, themselves, best illustrate its contents— [6H] 





I Introduction 




II What Are Computers 




III Kinds of Computers 




IV What Goes On Inside Computers 




V Communicating With The Computer 




VI Language Of The Computer 


$3.95 


VII How To Write A Simple Program 


61 pp. softbound 


VIII How Computers Work For Us 


from Creative Computing Press 


Glossary 



M 



•pings 3?oa its best 




Artist and Computer 

Get yourself a copy 
of this book if you enjoy 
feeding your mind a diet of 
'antalizing high-impact information 
San Francisco Review of Books 



$4.95 

121 pp. sollbound 

from Creative Computing Press 

This unique art book covers a multitude of computer 
uses and the very latest techniques in computer-generated 
art. In its pages. 35 artists explain how the computer can be 
programmed either to actualize the artist's concept (such 
as the visualization of fabric before it is woven) or to 
produce finished pieces. Over 160 examples, some in full 
color. [6D] 









fcUI 



The Best of 
BYTE 




$7 7 95 

386 pp. sottbound 

from Creative Computing Press 

This is a blockbuster of a book containing the maionty of 
material from the first 12 issues of Byfe magazine The 146 
pages devoted to hardware are crammed full of how-to 
articles on everything from TV displays to joysticks to 
cassette interfaces and computer kits. But hardware 
without software might as well be a boat anchor, so there 
are 125 pages of software and applications ranging from 
on-line debuggers to games to a complete small business 
accounting system. A section on theory examines the how 
and why behind the circuits and programs, and "opinion" 
looks at where this explosive new hobby is heading (6F] 



Basic Computer Games: 
Microcomputer Edition 



New revised edition of our most popular 
book. 101 BASIC Computer Games. All you 
need is a basic-speaking computer. 



$7.50 

185 pp. sottbound 

from Creative Computing Press 




Here are 102 classic computer games, 
every one in standard microcomputer BASIC 
Every one is complete with large legible 
listing, sample run and descriptive notes 

All the classics are here: Super Star Trek 
(one of the most challenging versions 
anywhere). Football (two versions). Black- 
jack. Lunar Lander (three versions). Tic Tac 
Toe. Nim, Life and Horserace— to name a few. 

Guessing games, matrix games, word 
games, plotting games, card games, 
educational games— they're all here And. 
they'll all run on your Altair. Imsai. Radio 
Shack. SWTPC. Xitan. OSI. Poly. Sol. PDP-1 1 
or other micro or mini with extended BASIC. 

The delightful cartoons on every page, 
coupled with highly legible listings, make this 
revision of 707 BASIC Computer Games a 
real must, even if you own the original [6C] 



Volume 1 




$8 95 

328 pp sottbound 

from Creative Computing Press 



The first two years of Creative Computing 
magazine have been edited into two big 
blockbuster books. American Vocational 
Journal said of Volume 1. "This book is the 
'Whole Earth Catalog' of computers." [6A] 
Volume 2 continues in the same tradition. 
"Non-technical in approach, its pages are 
filled with information, articles, games and 
activities. Fun layout."— American Libraries. 
[6B] 

To order call toll-free 

800-631-8112 

(in NJ call 201-540-0445) 
fill in the inserted order card or write to: 

creative computing 

Attn: Marie. P.O. Box 789-M, Morristown. NJ 07960 



Volume 2 




$8 95 

336 pp sottbound 

from Creative Computing Press 



"All book orders must be prepaid. Include $1 for shipping. USA: $2. foreign. 










Index to Advertisers 



COMING NEXT ISSUE 

• Backgammon Warfare. Read what 
happens when you pit one electronic 
backgammon set against another. The 
sparks start flying! 

• An Experiment in Strategic Thinking. Can 
a computer programmed in LOGO teach 
a human to play Nim? Or vice versa? 

• Electronic and Video Games. Our annual 
roundup of the newest entries and how 
they stack up against the old standbys. In 
time for your holiday shopping. 

• Editors Choice Sound System. Are you 
playing a new music synthesizer through 
an old hi-fi system? Here are some tips for 
upgrading your system to reproduce 
those weird digital waveforms. 

• Mailing List Systems. Business, school, or 
individual — almost everyone can use one 
of these mailing list systems. 

• Software Profiles. Significant amounts of 
applications are beginning to hit the 
market. Some is very good, some so-so. 
and some we found "not acceptable." 



VPUTING 




"We don't have your system designed yet. 
but I brought along what we have. " 



Reader 






Service No. Advertiser Page No 


157 


AJA Software 


144 


170 


Apparat. Inc. 




126 


AVR Electronics 


133 


175 


Byte Shop 3 of San Jose 


83 


135 


Byte Shop of Santa Barbara 


42 


143 


CASI 


15 


152 


Component Sales 


59 


134 


Computalker Consultants 


65 


174 


Computer Components 


55 


116 


Computer Data Systems 


2 


103 


Computer Enterprises 


172 


151 


Computer Factory 




138 


Computer Information Exchange 




149 


Computer Lab of New Jersey 


IIS 


112 


Computer Mart of California 
(Computer Products of America) 


30 


136 


Computer Mart of New York 


95 


112 


Computer Products of America 
(Computer Mart of Ca ) 


95 


159 


Computer Stop 




124 


Computer Store of Santa Monica 




154 


Computers Etc 




179 


Computers Plus. Inc. 




183 


Computrex Computer Services Ltd. 


50 


106 


Continental Specialties Corp 




132 


Corson Computer Corp . Inc 


46 


144 


Creative Computing 32.98.99.148 174, 


115 


Cromemco 


1 


162 


Digital Press 




167 


Digital Research 




168 


DynaByte 


6.7 


172 


E & L Instruments 


cm 


120 


Electronic Control Technology 


119 




Electronic Systems 


73 


153 


Enteiek 




171 


Futurist 


107 


140 


Galileo 


101 


113 


Hayden Book Company, Inc 




102 


Heath Company 




114 


Interfab Corp 


110 




International Microcomputer Exposition 


120 


108 


Jade Computer Products 




137 


Marketline Systems Inc 




129 


Micro Logistics 




185 


Microtronix 


118 


181 


Midwest Scientific Instruments 




128 


MiniTerm Associates Inc 




156 


M.M & S Software 




160 


Netronics 




182 


New England Electronics 






New York Personal Computing Show 


111 


165 


North Star Computer 




118 


OK Machine & Tool Co. 




173 


Ohio Scientific 


CIV 


117 


Osborne Associates Inc. 


81 


139 


Pacesetting Computers Inc 


63 


180 


Personal Computer Corp 


83 




Personal Computing Show NCC 79 


103 


127 


Personal Software 




125 


Processor Technology 




111 


Program Design. Inc. 






Polymorphic Systems 






Radio Shack 




166 


Rainbow Computing Inc. 




104 


RCA Cosmac VIP 






Real World Simulations 




163 


Small Business Computers 


123 


131 


Softape 


132 


122 


Southwest Technical Products Corp 


CM 


119 


Sunshine Computer Co. 


110 


123 


Sybex Inc 


113 


107 


Tarbell Electronics 




109 


Technico. Inc. 




145 


Telecom 


127 


133 


The Computer Corner 




176 


The Computer Hardware Store. Inc 




177 


The Electronics Place 




105 


The Program Manager 




147 


Total Information Services. Inc 




121 


Trace Electronics 




155 


Trans Net Corporation 




169 


U Asked 4 It Software 




110 


Vector Electronic Co . Inc 




178 


Virginia Home Computer Center 




141 


Windjammer Cruises Inc. 




150 


Zeta Systems Ltd 





^m 



176 




pi/v/n mo ■ tApiies L/aeiiiuei i i, i»/o 



reader 

service 

card 



Iget information about manufacturers you're 
|rested in simply circle the numbers on the card 
correspond to the number of a product or 
luce you want information about Fill in your 
ne and address, check the boxes that give us 
ke helpful information about you. detach the 
. stamp and mat! 




reader 

service 

card 



information about manufacturers you're 
ested m simply circle the numbers on the card 
correspond to the number of a product or 
nee you want information about Fill in your 
i and address, check the boxes that give us 
helpful information about you. detach the 
. stamp and mail 





State 



Please circle each number for whicn you *>sn information 



101 


10? 


103 


104 


101 


176 


177 


178 


179 


180 


106 


107 


lOfl 


109 


110 


181 


182 


183 


184 


181 


111 


11? 


113 


114 


111 


186 


18/ 


188 


189 


190 


11R 


117 


118 


119 


120 


191 


192 


193 


194 


191 


121 


122 


123 


124 


121 


196 


197 


198 


199 


200 


1?fi 


1?7 


1?fl 


i?q 


130 


201 


202 


203 


204 


205 


m 


13? 


133 


134 


131 


206 


20/ 


208 


209 


210 


136 


137 


13R 


139 


140 


211 


212 


213 


214 


211 


141 


14? 


143 


144 


141 


216 


21/ 


218 


219 


220 


146 


147 


148 


149 


150 


??1 


222 


223 


224 


221 


1S1 


lh? 


113 


114 


ill 


226 


227 


228 


229 


230 


1S6 


117 


1SR 


119 


160 


231 


232 


233 


234 


231 


161 


16? 


163 


164 


161 


236 


23/ 


238 


239 


240 


166 


167 


168 


169 


170 


241 


242 


243 


?44 


241 


171 


172 


173 


174 


171 


246 


24/ 


248 


249 


250 



creative computing 

1 In addition to BASIC which computer language would you 
prefer that Creative Computing use tor publication of 
computer programs'' (check one only) 

aOAPL PL/I OBOL 

FORTRAN e C PASCAL h Q RPG 

ALGOL ASSEMBLER I H SNOBOL 

2 In which types ot programs are you most interested 7 (check 

Simulations complex games Al etc 

Short imaginative games 

Personal applications programs (personal Finance. 

record keeping • 

programs 
Business programs (mailing lists accounts payable 

3 What s the longest program that you will use? (check one 
only) 

■der 50 lines 'der 500 lines 

ler 100 lines -er 500 lines 

der 250 lines 

4 in Future issues would you like to see the pages o< 
Computing devoted to (check one only i 

ore programs ame percentage of 

fewer programs programs 



(Please Print) 



Name 

Title 

Address . 

City 

State 



-Z.p- 



Please circle each number for which you wish information 



101 


10? 


103 


104 


105 


176 


177 


178 


179 


180 


106 


107 


108 


109 


110 


181 


182 


183 


184 


185 


111 


11? 


113 


114 


111 


186 


18/ 


188 


189 


190 


116 


117 


118 


119 


1?0 


191 


19? 


193 


194 


195 


121 


122 


1?3 


1?4 


1?1 


196 


19/ 


198 


199 


200 


126 


1?7 


1?8 


1?9 


130 


201 


?0? 


?03 


204 


205 


1.11 


13? 


133 


134 


131 


206 


20/ 


?08 


209 


210 


136 


137 


138 


139 


140 


211 


?1? 


?13 


214 


211 


141 


14? 


143 


144 


145 


216 


21/ 


?18 


219 


2?0 


146 


147 


148 


149 


150 


??1 


222 


??3 


224 


221 


151 


15? 


153 


154 


155 


226 


227 


228 


229 


230 


156 


157 


15B 


159 


160 


?31 


232 


233 


234 


235 


161 


16? 


163 


164 


165 


?36 


23/ 


238 


239 


240 


166 


167 


168 


169 


170 


241 


242 


243 


244 


245 


171 


17? 


173 


174 


175 


246 


24/ 


248 


249 


250 



creative computing 

t In addition to BASIC, which computer language would you 
prefer that Creative Computing use for publication ot 
computer programs? (check one only) 

APL PL I OBOL 

FORTRAN e D PASCAL RPG 

ALGOL f ASSEMBLER - Li SNOBOL 

2 In which types of programs are you most interested? (check 
all that apply ) 

Simulations, complex games. Al. etc 

Short, imaginative games 

Personal applications programs (personal Finance. 

record keeping, etc ) 

CAI programs 

Business programs (mailing lists, accounts payable. 

etc ) 

What's the longest program that you will use 7 (check one 
only) 

der 500 lines 






. under 50 lines 

I under 100 lines 

under 250 lines 



• O over 500 lines 



In Future issues would you like to see the pages of Creative 
Computing devoted to (check one only ) 

re programs b D same percentage of 

nnk programs programs 



Sept/Oct 1978 • Expires December 11, 1978 



creative computing 

Subscriptions 

D New D Renewal □ Address Change 









Foreign 






Term 


USA 




Surface 




Air 


1 2 issues 


D $ 15 


□ 


$ 23 


U 


$ 39 


24 issues 


D 28 




44 


D 


76 


36 issues 


D 40 


D 


64 


□ 


112 


Lifetime 


D 300 


□ 


400 


D 


600 



Name _ 
Address 

City 

State 

Zip 



I 1 

For a change of address, please attach old label | 
here Without it. we cannot assure uninterrupted ■ 
service 



D Cash, check, or MO Enclosed 
O Please bill me ($1 billing fee will be added) 
Foreign orders must be prepaid 



D Visa/BankAmencard 
Card No 

Exp 



D Master Charge 



Allow 8 Weeks for delivery 





creative computing 

P.O. Box #2976 
Clinton, Iowa 52734 




creative GOiwpatiRg 

P.O. Box #2976 
Clinton, Iowa 5273-4 




creative computing 

P.O. Box 7B9-M 
Mornstown, NJ 07960 



™ ^ ^ ^^^^^ff^^^T^n ^^^7 ^^^T 



Go Bugs 
Between the Covers. 



Between the covers of the 
Bug book® Library, you'll find the 
most comprehensive and au- 
thoritative tutorials and reference 
works in electronics today. 
Written for both hobbyist and pro- 
fessional, 23 detailed, illustrated 
volumes carry you through the 
training ground of basic elec- 
tronics, starting at the most 
elementary level all the way to 
sophisticated techniques with 
linear circuitry and the 8080A 



Microprocessor. Learn funda- 
mental circuit designing by 
implementing computer controls 
of instrumentation. These texts, 
manuals and reference series 
have already become indis- 
pensable to over 200,000 buyers. 

Uncover the world of elec- 
tronics. Send for our free Bug- 
works® catalog with all of the 
Bugbooks described — the first 
and last words in electronics 
today. 




9 




^^iuTTuT 




The 

C2-4P 

The Professional Portal 
by Ohio Scientific 



V > 




Ohio Scientific now offers you the world's 
most powerful portable personal computer 
in both BASIC-in-ROM and mini-floppy 
configurations. 

C2-4P Mod 2 Standard Features: 

Minimally equipped with 8K BASIC-in-ROM, 4K RAM, 
machine cede monitor, video display interface, cassette 
interface and keyboard with upper and lower case 
characters. (Video monitor and cassette recorder optional 
extras.) 

The fastest full feature BASIC in the microcomputer 
industry. 

The C2-4P Mod 2 features the most sophisticated video 
display in personal computing with 32 rows by 64 
columns of upper case, lower case, graphics and gaming 
characters for an effective screen resolution of 256 by 512 
elements. 

The CPU's direct screen access, coupled with its ultra- 
fast BASIC and high resolution, makes the C2-4P capable 
of spectacular video animation directly in BASIC. 

The C2-4P features computer "BUS" architecture. It 
internally utilizes a 4 slot backplane. Two slots are used 
in the base machine leaving 2 slots open for expansion. 



Comes fully assembled and tested. BASIC and 
machine code are always accessible immediately after 
powerup. 

A new high density static RAM board and two econor 
ical minifloppy options give the C2-4P tremendous 
expansion capability without sacrificing portability. 

The C2-4P offers the user mainframe performance in i 
portable package. This performance makes the C2-4P 
suitable for use in home computing, education, scientific 
and industrial research and small business applications.! 

Other small personal computers can satisfy the 
requirements of the computer novice, but no other 
personal portable can match the C2-4P in professional 
and computer enthusiast applications. 

Yet the C2-4P and its accessories are priced only 
slightly above the mass marketed "beginner" or "home" | 
computers. 

For more information, contact your local Ohio 
Scientific dealer or the factory at (216) 562-3101. 



1333 S. Chillicothe Road • Aurora, Ohio 44202 



CIRCLE 173 ON READER SERVICE CARD